North Manitou Island
North Manitou Island is located in Lake Michigan 12 miles west-northwest of Leland, Michigan. It is nearly eight miles over four miles wide, with 20 miles of shoreline, it has no population. The smaller South Manitou Island lies to its southwest. North Manitou Island is shaped like an upside-down teardrop, with the now-forested body of the'drop' surrounding Lake Manitou, the tail of the drop narrowing into sandy, exposed Dimmick's Point on the island's southeastern extremity; the ferry dock and ranger station are on the island's central eastern shore, directly east of Lake Manitou. The island is in Leelanau County and is part of the Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, although it is over 6 miles offshore. Park passes and camping fees are required; the island can be accessed by a ferry service from Leland. No wheeled vehicles are allowed on the island other than those used by the National Park Service or to cart off a dead deer, or to move trash bags. No campfires are allowed on the island except at public firepits near the ranger station.
There is only one water spigot, one outhouse, in the same area. A legend attributed to the Ojibwe explains the origin of the Manitou Islands and the Sleeping Bear Dunes. Long ago, the bear Mishe Mokwa and her two cubs sought to cross Lake Michigan from the Wisconsin shore to escape a great forest fire; the mother bear made it across, but her twin cubs, although they swam hard behind her, drowned in Lake Michigan. The great spirit covered them with sand to form the two Manitou islands; the mother bear waits forever for her cubs to reach the shore - the Sleeping Bear Dunes. Most archeologists believe early habitation by Native Americans was only temporary due to the island's scarcity of natural resources and the abundance of resources on the mainland. Despite this, there are signs of activity by Native Americans and some of the earliest archeological sites found in Michigan are located there; this includes seven sites on the east side. These sites date back to between 8,000 and 600 BC. Items found include: stone and flint tools, a copper awl and the remains of a canoe.
The initial European settlements were built by wood cutters supplying the fleet of the Great Lakes' wood-burning steamers with cord wood. Nicholas Pickard was the first. There is no record that Mr. Pickard owned any land on North Manitou when he began cutting wood there. While the record is clear that a wood-cutting station was established first on South Manitou, many travelers who have left written accounts did not make it clear which island they visited. Over 150 years it can be difficult, if not impossible, to tell whether some stories of visiting "the Manitous" refer to North or South. Margaret Fuller's well known Summer on the Lakes, in 1843, for example probably recounts a visit to South Manitou. Piers were constructed on the eastern and western sides of the island for the steamers to load wood while traveling up and down Lake Michigan. After the passing of the wood-burning steamers, there were several more woodcutting eras on the island - for sawn boards and raw logs. Among others there was the Smith & Hull operation on the west side, Peter Stormer's east side and north end, a World War II era sawmill, The Lake Michigan Hardwood Company sawmill and raw log cutting.
Smith & Hull operated a standard gauge logging railroad, the "Manitou Limited", running northeast 8 miles out of Crescent using two Shay locomotives from July 12, 1909 until 1915 when the timber ran out. Some island settlers turned to growing apples and cherries. From the late 1940s through the 1960s, the William R. Angell Foundation, which owned most of the island, used the imported deer population as an economic resource, hosting hunters; the Foundation artificially supported an abundant deer population with commercial salt blocks and custom feed manufactured by Kellogg Company. The deer pruned the island's forests, giving an open, park-like feeling to the deepest woods. A 4,000-foot lighted runway, now a field in "The Settlement" on the eastern side of the island, next to the designated camping grounds and firepits, was used to bring in the hunters. A summer colony grew on the east side of the island starting in the late 19th century. A group of successful Chicago businessmen built cottages.
The National Park Service occupies the old US Life-Saving Station grounds near where the Leland boat lands campers. At the south end of the island was a lighthouse, built in 1896, automated in 1932, discontinued in 1938 and destroyed in 1942. After the foundation sold most of the island to the United States government, the deer population declined due to the lack of artificial feed; the woods have grown up, many clearings are being obliterated. Now, after decades of regrowth, it is hard to spot any deer at all. All buildings built after the 1950s have been slated for demolition or have been torn down. Though at various times it was the less populated of the Manitou islands and cherry orchards were planted during its settlement period. Now uninhabited except by the rotating National Park ranger and maintenance crews assigned there, the homesteads and most of the buildings of the island's former settlers lie in varying states of ruin. Various buildings are shored up during the summer months. There is a cemetery in the southeast of the island where some of the island’s former inhabitants
William Austin Burt
William Austin Burt was an American inventor, legislator and millwright. He was the inventor and patentee of the first typewriter constructed in America, he is referred to as the "father of the typewriter". Burt invented the first workable solar compass, a solar use surveying instrument, the equatorial sextant, a precision navigational aid to determine with one observation the location of a ship at sea. Burt was born on his father's farm in Petersham, Massachusetts, on June 13, 1792, he was of Scottish and English ancestry, since his ancestors immigrated to America in 1699. He was the fifth of nine children; because of the poor economy the family farm was sold in 1802 and the family moved to Freehold, New York. In 1803 the family moved to the town of New York, he was influenced by his mother's virtues. When Burt was about fourteen his father sent him to the district school for a total of three weeks and began arithmetic studies, he did well at that and at any leisure moments he pursued the studies on his own.
About this time his father gave him a book on navigation, published in 1779. Burt was inspired to someday become a master of a boat, he motivated himself to learn the method of determining latitude. He developed mechanical skills. With this he determined the latitude of his father's house with a pretty good degree of accuracy though he had never seen a nautical instrument before, he was interested in astronomy and studied almanacs and navigation. From about the age of fifteen he determined his calling to be such, he studied mathematics, natural philosophy, astronomy whenever he could borrow books. He was from there on interested in these mathematical subjects his entire life; when Burt was about sixteen, his father sent him to school for six weeks total to learn science and mathematics, which he kept up though his duties at home and on the farm were equal to other boys in his age group. Burt recalled this. Burt's mother Wealthy lost William Austin, at sea, she therefore discouraged him from becoming master of a ship.
Instead of becoming a ship captain Burt bought. He repaired it and surveyed the vicinity of his father's home, near East Aurora, Erie County, New York. Burt enlisted in the United States army in 1812. Burt married Phoebe Cole on July 1813 when he was twenty-one years old; when he lived in Wales Center in Erie County Burt held several public offices: justice of the peace, county surveyor. At the age of twenty-five in 1817 he went on some traveling, he went on his journey on foot. Some parts he went by horseback, his travels took him from his home in Erie County to Pittsburgh, St. Louis. Burt took a northerly route through Illinois and Indiana to Detroit he went by boat to Buffalo; these travels were preparatory to the time. Meanwhile, his career was the trade of a millwright in Michigan; when Burt moved to Michigan, where he lived from 1822 until his death in 1858, he came into the acquaintance of influential prominent men in the area who urged him to settle in the city of Detroit. He preferred the country life for four sons.
When Burt was forty-one years of age he was appointed United States deputy surveyor. At that time in 1833 three sons, John and Austin, were old enough to work as assistant surveyors to learn the trade. In the next eighteen years, his five sons, Alvin, Austin and William became United States deputy surveyors also, he trained scores of other boys in the area of Mount Vernon, in Macomb County, Michigan. Burt trained surveyors in the states of Michigan and Iowa. Burt spent two surveying seasons in Iowa, during 1836–37 and 1842–43. There he ran the course of the fifth principal meridian in Iowa. Burt used his solar compass for the first time in 1836. Alvin, one of his sons, surveyed the boundary line between Iowa and Minnesota with this same instrument, he surveyed Township and Range lines in Wisconsin from 1840 to 1842, where his son Alvin worked a bit later. Wisconsin and Michigan disputed over boundary lines, so to settle the matter Burt was selected to make a re-survey of the interstate boundary.
After the death of one Dr. Douglass Houghton in 1845 Burt took over his geological notes and completed the work in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan; the United States government accepted his work as satisfactory. Burt became prominent, not only in the nation generally, he had an excellent reputation because of his surveying achievements. He was the first United States linear surveyor in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. While surveying, he won acclaim for his accurate work on public land surveys, he worked hard for the building of the Sault Ste. Marie Canal and helped in making the preliminary survey of it. Burt was a Jeffersonian Democrat, but did not participate in national political affairs, he was a member of the Michigan Territorial Legislature, 1826–1827. He served as Mount Vernon's first postmaster from 1832 to 1856, he was a Macomb County Circuit Court judge in 1833, a state legislator in 1853, a deputy U. S. surveyor from 1833 to 1853. Burt was a member of the Masonic fraternity, participating as one of the founders and the first Master of the third Masonic lodge organized in Michigan.
Burt was appointed as Judge of a Michigan Territorial Court, so from on was referred to as "Judge Burt." In 1857, Bu
James Jesse Strang was an American religious leader and monarch. In 1844 he claimed to have been appointed to be the successor of Joseph Smith as leader of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, a faction of the Latter Day Saint movement. Strang testified that he had possession of a letter from Smith naming him as his successor, furthermore reported that he had been ordained to the prophetic office by an angel, his organization is claimed by his followers to be the sole legitimate continuation of the Church of Christ founded by Joseph Smith fourteen years before. A major contender for leadership of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints during the 1844 succession crisis after Smith's murder, Strang urged other prominent LDS leaders like Brigham Young and Sidney Rigdon to remain in their previous offices and to support his appointment by Joseph Smith. Brigham and the members of the Twelve Apostles loyal to him rejected Strang's claims, as did Sidney Rigdon, the highest ranking officer of the church.
This divided the Latter Day Saint movement. During his 12 years tenure as Prophet and Revelator, Strang reigned for six years as the crowned "king" of an ecclesiastical monarchy that he established on Beaver Island in the US state of Michigan. Building an organization that rivaled Young's in Utah, Strang gained nearly 12,000 adherents at a time when Young claimed 50,000. After Strang was killed in 1856 most of his followers rallied under Joseph Smith III and joined the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints; the Strangite church has remained small in comparison to other branches. Similar to Joseph Smith, alleged by church opponent William Marks to have been crowned King in Nauvoo prior to his death, Strang taught that the chief prophetic office embodied an overtly royal attribute, thus its occupant was to be not only the spiritual leader of his people, but their temporal king as well. He offered a sophisticated set of teachings that differed in many significant aspects from any other version of Mormonism, including that preached by Smith.
Like Smith, Strang published translations of two purportedly ancient lost works: the Voree Record, deciphered from three metal plates unearthed in response to a vision. These are accepted as scripture by his followers, but not by any other Latter Day Saint church. Although his long-term doctrinal influence on the Latter Day Saint movement was minimal, several early members of Strang's organization helped to establish the Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, which became the second-largest Mormon sect. While most of Strang's followers disavowed him due to his eventual advocacy of polygamy, a small but devout remnant carries on his teachings and organization today. In addition to his ecclesiastical calling, Strang served one full term and part of a second as a member of the Michigan House of Representatives, assisting in the organization of Manitou County, he was at various times an attorney, temperance lecturer, newspaper editor, Baptist minister, correspondent for the New York Tribune, amateur scientist.
His survey of Beaver Island's natural history was published by the Smithsonian Institution, remaining the definitive work on that subject for nearly a century, while his career in the Michigan legislature was praised by his enemies. While Strang's organization is formally known as the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, the term "Strangite" is added to the title to avoid confusing them with other Latter Day Saint bodies carrying this or similar names; this follows a typical nineteenth-century usage where followers of Brigham Young were referred to as "Brighamites," while those of Sidney Rigdon were called "Rigdonites," followers of Joseph Smith III were called "Josephites", disciples of Strang became "Strangites". James Jesse Strang was born March 1813, in Scipio, Cayuga County, New York, he was the second of three children, his parents had a good reputation in their community. James' mother was tender with him as a consequence of delicate health, yet she required him to render an account of all his actions and words while absent from her.
In a brief autobiography he wrote in 1855, Strang reported that he had attended grade school until age twelve, but that "the terms were short, the teachers inexperienced and ill qualified to teach, my health such as to preclude attentive study or steady attendance." He estimated. But none of this meant that Strang was simple. Although his teachers "not unfrequently turned me off with little or no attention, as though I was too stupid to learn and too dull to feel neglect," Strang recalled that he spent "long weary days... upon the floor, thinking, thinking... my mind wandered over fields that old men shrink from, seeking rest and finding none till darkness gathered thick around and I burst into tears." He studied works by Thomas Paine and the Comte de Volney, whose book Les Ruines exerted a significant influence on the future prophet. As a youth, Strang kept a rather profound personal diary, written in a secret code, not deciphered until over one hundred years after it was authored; this journal contains Strang's musings on a variety of topics, including a sense that he was called to be a significant world leader the likes of Caesar or Napoleon and his regret that by age nineteen, he had not yet become a general or member of the state legislature, which he saw as being essential by that point in his life to his quest to be someone of importance
Big Rock Point Nuclear Power Plant
Big Rock Point was a nuclear power plant near Charlevoix, United States. Big Rock operated from 1962 to 1997, it was operated by Consumers Power, now known as Consumers Energy. Its boiling water reactor was made by General Electric and was capable of producing 67 megawatts of electricity. Bechtel Corporation was the primary contractor. Big Rock was the nation's fifth, it produced cobalt-60 for the medical industry from 1971 to 1982. Ground was broken on July 20, 1960. Construction was completed in 29 months at a cost of $27.7 million. Its license from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission was issued on August 29, 1962; the reactor first went critical on September 27 and the first electricity was generated on December 8, 1962. A promotional video for the plant featured GE spokesman Ronald Reagan. Reactor vessel dimensions: 30 feet tall x 9 feet in diameter Thickness of rector vessel walls: 5½ inches A single 10-ton load of uranium nuclear fuel in Big Rock's reactor could generate the same amount of electricity as 260,000 tons of coal.
The stack that once stood behind the main generator of the plant was used as a navigational landmark to let boaters aboard freighters have a visual landmark to Charlevoix Michigan. Consumers Energy had announced that Big Rock Point's operating license would not be renewed when it expired on May 31, 2000. However, economics proved in January 1997 that it was not feasible to keep Big Rock Point running to the license's expiration date; the reactor was scrammed for the last time on at 10:33 a.m. EDT on August 29, 1997, 35 years to the day after its license had been issued; the last fuel was removed from the core on September 20. Decontamination was completed in 1999; because of its contributions to the nuclear and medical industries, the American Nuclear Society named Big Rock Point a Nuclear Historic Landmark. The 235,000-pound reactor vessel was removed on August 25, 2003 and shipped to Barnwell, South Carolina on October 7, 2003. All of Big Rock Point's 500-acre area has been torn down. Other than eight spent fuel casks, there are no signs that the site was home to a nuclear power plant.
Decommissioning costs totaled $390,000,000. In July 2006, the state of Michigan announced it was considering buying the site, which features a mile of Lake Michigan shoreline, for a possible state park; as part of the sale of Consumers' Palisades Nuclear Plant, the new owner Entergy accepted the responsibility for a basketball court size piece of property at Big Rock containing that plant's eight casks of spent fuel. "NRC: Big Rock Point". Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Retrieved 23 April 2006. "Big Rock Point Decommissioning". Consumers Energy. Retrieved 23 April 2006. "Nation's Longest Operating Nuclear Plant, Consumers Energy's Big Rock Point, Permanently Ceases Operation". Consumers Energy. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 23 April 2006. Tompkins, Betsy. "Big Rock Point: From groundbreaking to greenfield". Nuclear New. American Nuclear Society. Retrieved 26 July 2008. Big Rock Point Restoration Project on Consumers Energy's website
Mackinaw City, Michigan
Mackinaw City is a village in Emmet and Cheboygan counties in the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 806 at the 2010 census. Mackinaw City is at the northern tip of the Michigan's Lower Peninsula along the southern shore of the Straits of Mackinac. Across the straits lies the state's Upper Peninsula; these two land masses are physically connected by the Mackinac Bridge, which runs from Mackinaw City north to St. Ignace. Mackinaw City is the primary base for ferry service to Mackinac Island, located to the northeast in the straits. According to AAA's 2009 TripTik requests, Mackinaw City is the most popular tourist city in the state of Michigan. Local attractions include Fort Michilimackinac, the Mackinac Bridge, the Mackinaw Crossings shopping mall, Mill Creek, the Old Mackinac Point Light, the Historic Village, the McGulpin Point Light, the retired US Coast Guard Icebreaker Mackinaw; the official name of the community is "The Village of Mackinaw City" and as that suggests, it is a village by state law.
Mackinaw City is governed by Public Act No. 3, of 1895, as amended. The downtown district and much of the development lie within Mackinaw Township, Cheboygan County, but the larger portion of the village by area is in Wawatam Township, Emmet County, which borders Mackinaw Township to the west; the predominant historic tribes in this area were three Algonquian peoples, known collectively as the Council of Three Fires: Ojibwe and Potawatomi at the time of French contact in the 17th century. These peoples had long frequented the surrounding region, which they called Michilimackinac, to fish, hunt and worship. Mackinac Island in the straits appeared to have the shape of a turtle; the Native Americans here had a creation myth based on the sacred turtle. The Straits of Mackinac was the center of two routes vital to the fur trade: one to Montreal in the east, by way of Lake Nipissing and the Ottawa River valley; the first European to pass the site of Mackinaw City was Jean Nicolet, sent out from Quebec City by Samuel Champlain in 1633 to explore and map the western Great Lakes, to establish new contacts and trading partnerships with the Indian tribes of the region.
His reports resulted in the French government providing funds to send settlers, missionaries and soldiers to the Great Lakes region. Father Jacques Marquette had established a mission on Mackinac Island in 1671; the construction of Fort de Buade at St. Ignace in 1681 was an attempt by the authorities of New France to establish a military presence at the Straits, but it closed in 1697. Mackinaw City's first European settlement came in 1715, they lost it to the British during the Seven Years' War, the British abandoned the fort in 1783, after the American Revolutionary War resulted in independence of its Thirteen Colonies. The site of the fort in present-day Mackinaw City is a National Historic Landmark and is now preserved as an open-air historical museum; as with the forts at other settlements of the era and region such as Detroit, Michilimackinac was a small post. It housed French civilians inside the fort, allowed them to garden and fish outside the walls, it was a trading post for the fur trade.
At the end of the French and Indian War, the British took possession of the fort, but continued to allow the French civilians to live within the walls, as they had good relations with the Odawa and Ojibwe for the fur trade. As a part of Pontiac's Rebellion and Fox warriors captured the fort on June 2, 1763 in a surprise attack during a game of baggatiway or lacrosse. Europeans, in the form of French and Scots-Irish traders from Detroit and elsewhere, did not return until the following spring, with the understanding that they would trade more with the Native Americans; the British abandoned the vulnerable site on the mainland during the American Revolutionary War. What the British did not take with them, they burned. In 1857, two men by the names of Conkling and Searles platted; the original plan reserved the northern portion as a park, to preserve the area, once Fort Michilimackinac and to accommodate a hoped-for lighthouse. This was not built for nearly a generation. During the second half of the 1800s, the Mackinaw area saw an increase in summer resort tourism.
In 1875, Mackinac National Park became the second National Park in the United States after Yellowstone National Park in the Rocky Mountains. Old Mackinac Point Lighthouse was built in 1892; this lighthouse would replace McGulpin Point Light, built in the 1870s in the far western end of the village limits. The village became a vital port for train ferries crossing the Straits beginning in the 1890s, for ferries for automobiles. In the 1890s, Mackinaw had one newspaper, the Mackinaw Witness, published weekly by Presbyterian missionary Rev. G. W. Wood, Jr. Auto ferries began running in the early 1900s. Camping began in Michilimackinac State Park in 1907; when the Mackinac Bridge was completed
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America and the only one located within the United States. The other four Great Lakes are shared by the U. S. and Canada. It is the second-largest of the Great Lakes by volume and the third-largest by surface area, after Lake Superior and Lake Huron. To the east, its basin is conjoined with that of Lake Huron through the wide Straits of Mackinac, giving it the same surface elevation as its easterly counterpart. Lake Michigan is shared, from west to east, by the U. S. states of Wisconsin, Illinois and Michigan. Ports along its shores include Chicago; the word "Michigan" referred to the lake itself, is believed to come from the Ojibwe word michi-gami meaning "great water". Some of the earliest human inhabitants of the Lake Michigan region were the Hopewell Indians, their culture declined after 800 AD, for the next few hundred years, the region was the home of peoples known as the Late Woodland Indians. In the early 17th century, when western European explorers made their first forays into the region, they encountered descendants of the Late Woodland Indians: the Chippewa.
The French explorer Jean Nicolet is believed to have been the first European to reach Lake Michigan in 1634 or 1638. In the earliest European maps of the region, the name of Lake Illinois has been found in addition to that of "Michigan", named for the Illinois Confederation of tribes. Lake Michigan is joined via the narrow, open-water Straits of Mackinac with Lake Huron, the combined body of water is sometimes called Michigan–Huron; the Straits of Mackinac were an important Native American and fur trade route. Located on the southern side of the Straits is the town of Mackinaw City, the site of Fort Michilimackinac, a reconstructed French fort founded in 1715, on the northern side is St. Ignace, site of a French Catholic mission to the Indians, founded in 1671. In 1673, Jacques Marquette, Louis Joliet and their crew of five Métis voyageurs followed Lake Michigan to Green Bay and up the Fox River, nearly to its headwaters, in their search for the Mississippi River, cf. Fox–Wisconsin Waterway.
The eastern end of the Straits was controlled by Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, a British colonial and early American military base and fur trade center, founded in 1781. With the advent of European exploration into the area in the late 17th century, Lake Michigan became part of a line of waterways leading from the Saint Lawrence River to the Mississippi River and thence to the Gulf of Mexico. French coureurs des bois and voyageurs established small ports and trading communities, such as Green Bay, on the lake during the late 17th and early 18th centuries. In the 19th century, Lake Michigan played a major role in the development of Chicago and the Midwestern United States west of the lake. For example, 90% of the grain shipped from Chicago travelled east over Lake Michigan during the antebellum years, only falling below 50% after the Civil War and the major expansion of railroad shipping; the first person to reach the deep bottom of Lake Michigan was J. Val Klump, a scientist at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee.
Klump reached the bottom via submersible as part of a 1985 research expedition. In 2007, a row of stones paralleling an ancient shoreline was discovered by Mark Holley, professor of underwater archeology at Northwestern Michigan College; this formation lies 40 feet below the surface of the lake. One of the stones is said to have a carving resembling a mastodon. So far the formation has not been authenticated; the warming of Lake Michigan was the subject of a report by Purdue University in 2018. In each decade since 1980, steady increases in average surface temperature have occurred; this is to lead to decreasing native habitat and to adversely affect native species survival. Lake Michigan is the sole Great Lake wholly within the borders of the United States, it lies in the region known as the American Midwest. Lake Michigan has a surface area of 22,404 sq.mi. It is the larger half of Lake Michigan–Huron, the largest body of fresh water in the world by surface area, it is 307 miles long by 118 miles wide with a shoreline 1,640 miles long.
The lake's average depth is 46 fathoms 3 feet. It contains a volume of 1,180 cubic miles of water. Green Bay in the northwest is its largest bay. Grand Traverse Bay in its northeast is another large bay. Lake Michigan's deepest region, which lies in its northern-half, is called Chippewa Basin and is separated from South Chippewa Basin, by a shallower area called the Mid Lake Plateau. Twelve million people live along Lake Michigan's shores in the Chicago and Milwaukee metropolitan areas; the economy of many communities in northern Michigan and Door County, Wisconsin is supported by tourism, with large seasonal populations attracted by Lake Michigan. Seasonal residents have summer homes along the waterfront and return home for the winter; the southern