Charley Patton

Charley Patton known as Charlie Patton, was an American Delta blues musician. Considered by many to be the "Father of the Delta Blues", he created an enduring body of American music and inspired most Delta blues musicians; the musicologist Robert Palmer considered him one of the most important American musicians of the twentieth century. Patton spelled his name Charlie, but many sources, including record labels and his gravestone, use the spelling Charley. Patton was born in Hinds County, near the town of Edwards, lived most of his life in Sunflower County, in the Mississippi Delta. Most sources say he was born in April 1891, but the years 1881, 1885 and 1887 have been suggested. Patton's parentage and race are uncertain, his parents were Bill and Annie Patton, but locally he was regarded as having been fathered by former slave Henderson Chatmon, several of whose children became popular Delta musicians, as solo performers and as members of groups such as the Mississippi Sheiks. Biographer John Fahey described Patton as having "light skin and Caucasian features."Patton was considered African-American, but because of his light complexion there has been much speculation about his ancestry over the years.

One theory endorsed by blues musician Howlin' Wolf was that Patton was Cherokee. It is now agreed that Patton was of mixed heritage, with white and Native ancestors; some believe. In "Down the Dirt Road Blues", Patton sang of having gone to "the Nation" and "the Territo'", referring to the Cherokee Nation's portion of the Indian Territory, where a number of Black Indians tried unsuccessfully to claim a place on the tribal rolls and thereby obtain land. In 1897, his family moved 100 miles north to the 10,000-acre Dockery Plantation, a cotton farm and sawmill near Ruleville, Mississippi. There, Patton developed his musical style, influenced by Henry Sloan, who had a new, unusual style of playing music, now considered an early form of the blues. Patton began an association with Willie Brown. Tommy Johnson, Fiddlin' Joe Martin, Robert Johnson, Chester Burnett lived and performed in the area, Patton served as a mentor to these younger performers. Robert Palmer described Patton as a "jack-of all-trades bluesman", who played "deep blues, white hillbilly songs, nineteenth-century ballads, other varieties of black and white country dance music with equal facility".

He performed annually in Chicago. Unlike most blues musicians of his time, who were itinerant performers, Patton played scheduled engagements at plantations and taverns, he gained popularity for his showmanship, sometimes playing with the guitar down on his knees, behind his head, or behind his back. Patton was a small man, about 5 feet 5 inches tall, but his gravelly voice was reputed to have been loud enough to carry 500 yards without amplification. Patton settled in Holly Ridge, with his common-law wife and recording partner, Bertha Lee, in 1933, his relationship with Bertha Lee was a turbulent one. In early 1934, both of them were incarcerated in a Belzoni, Mississippi jailhouse after a harsh fight. W. R. Calaway from Vocalion Records bailed the pair out of jail, escorted them to New York City, for what would be Patton's final recording sessions, they returned to Holly Ridge and Lee saw Patton out in his final days. He died on the Heathman-Dedham plantation, near Indianola, on April 28, 1934, is buried in Holly Ridge.

His death certificate states. The death certificate does not mention Bertha Lee. Patton's death was not reported in the newspapers. A memorial headstone was erected on Patton's grave, paid for by musician John Fogerty through the Mt. Zion Memorial Fund in July 1990; the spelling of Patton's name was dictated by Jim O'Neal, who composed the epitaph. Screamin' and Hollerin' the Blues: The Worlds of Charley Patton, a boxed set collecting Patton's recorded works, was released in 2001, it features recordings by many of his friends and associates. The set won three Grammy Awards in 2003, for Best Historical Album, Best Boxed or Special Limited Edition Package, Best Album Notes. Another collection of Patton recordings, The Definitive Charley Patton, was released by Catfish Records in 2001. Patton's song "Pony Blues" was included by the National Recording Preservation Board in the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress in 2006; the board annually selects recordings that are "culturally or aesthetically significant."

In 2017, Patton’s story was told in the award-winning documentary series American Epic. The film featured unseen film footage of Patton’s contemporaries and radically improved restorations of his 1920s and 1930s recordings. Director Bernard MacMahon observed that "we had a strong feeling that the music of Patton and his peers reflected the local geography, I was struck by the extent to which that belief was shared by people who were l

John Reid (merchant)

John Reid, known to his family and friends as Jack, was a Scottish merchant in Canton in the late eighteenth century, where he was in partnership with John Henry Cox and Daniel Beale. Reid was born in Tain in Ross-shire, Scotland in 1757, the second son of John Reid a Bailie of Tain, his wife Mary Ross. By 1779 he was in Canton acting as the Austrian Emperor's Consul and was in partnership with a man named Bourgoyne of the French Hong, he was the agent for Willem Bolts's Trieste Company. In January 1781 John Henry Cox, son of the well known London clockmaker James Cox who had become bankrupt in Canton in 1774, arrived in Macau to try to retrieve some of his father's bad debts and to sell off his remaining stock, he and Jack Reid went into partnership under the name Reid. The firm acted as agents for India-based shippers who were bringing in raw cotton, cotton piece goods and opium; the partners bought two small ships of their own to trade on their own account. In 1783 the firm was joined by Daniel Beale.

In 1785: “Sensing a good thing, the firm of Cox and Reid bought a small brig of 60 tons, under the command of Captain James Hanna, despatched the little vessel with a small cargo of woollens, iron bars, nails, etc. and a supply of ornaments and baubles to the north-west coast of America, to barter with the ‘Red Indians’ in Canada for furs. The area was supposed to be a preserve of the South Sea Company, of London, but this did not seem to worry Cox and his friends in the least. Five hundred and sixty sea-otter skins were obtained and landed and sold at Canton for over £5,000”. In 1786, trading under the fictitious name of the'Austrian East India Company’, the partners bought in London a 400-ton ship called the Loudoun, fitted her out there and renamed her ‘Imperial Eagle’. With false papers and flying the Austrian flag she sailed on 24 November from Ostend under Captain Charles William Barkley for Nootka Sound, Vancouver Island via Cape Horn. After various adventures she returned to China towards the end of 1787 with 800 furs which were sold in Macao for 30,000 Spanish silver dollars.

By this time however Jack Reid had gone bankrupt. “Not content with the splendid profits made by the firm of which he was a partner, he had been engaging in some speculations on his own account in Canton selling on extended terms to Chinese merchants goods obtained on credit from his constituents in India or lending money borrowed in India to Chinese merchants in Canton for the sake of the higher rate of interest promised by the Chinese. He overestimated the probity of his Chinese clients and when these debtors absconded he sustained such heavy losses that he had to declare himself insolvent; the Imperial Austrian Company closed its doors and John Reid left China, a victim of his own gullibility and covetousness.” Reid left Canton in February 1787 on the East India Company ship Ganges. The firm of Cox and Beale, with the addition of Jack Reid's younger brother David who left Canton in 1801 became Jardine Matheson. On Jack Reid's return to London he joined his older brother Andrew as a distiller and wine and spirit merchant.

When Andrew Reid invested in and became a partner in Meux's Brewery in 1793, Jack became a partner. In 1795 Jack married Ann Holland, the daughter of a clergyman. Meux's Brewery became Meux Reid, after an acrimonious split with the Meux family in 1808, in 1816 became Reid's Brewery. Jack lived at 48 Bedford Square, next door to his brother Andrew at no 46, owned Kingswood Lodge in Egham, Surrey. At his death on 11/4/1821 he was still the owner of 5 £10,000 shares in Reid's Brewery

Foreign direct investment and the environment

Foreign direct investment and the environment involves international businesses and their interactions and impact on the natural world. These interactions can be observed through the stringency applied to foreign direct investment policy and the responsiveness of capital or labor incentive for investment inflows; the laws and regulations created by a country that focuses on environmental regimes can directly impact the levels of competition involving foreign direct investment they are exposed to. Fiscal and financial incentives stemming from ecological motivators, such as carbon taxation, are methods used based on the desired outcome within a country in order to attract foreign direct investment. External funding sources that come from foreign direct investment, stimulates the increase of innovative ideas surrounding technological advances while it holds the potential to decrease unemployment; when financial and fiscal motives are combined with environmental consciousness, the promotion of green and sustainable innovations increases.

Such environmental consciousness can result in the decrease of industrial pollutants, which contributes to infant mortality and other health issues. Policies created that attract innovative and environmentally conscious technological advancements have been stated as a great way to encourage increase in the abundance of environmentally friendly foreign direct investments; the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development promotes policies that can have positive social and economic impacts. Foreign direct investment does have the potential in initiating negative effects on countries as well. Foreign direct investments allow for the chance of compromise and collaboration between policies of negotiating countries which brings the opportunity for new perspectives on green innovation. However, intensifying regulations around production costs, such as environmental effect, can decrease the attraction of foreign direct investment to that country. Businesses or governments may wish to negotiate with a country with less complicated policies therefore decreasing a country's competitive edge on the international market.

A complete list of foreign direct investment incentives that can be applied in regards to international business can be found in Foreign direct investment. Some researchers find foreign direct investment leads to strict environmental policy. Environmental consciousness has been a pressing topic for discussion and concern in the global community as has been seen in the recent Paris Agreement. For a country to become more attractive to foreign investors, one may consider implementing incentives that reduce cost while enabling environmental initiatives. Incentives are policy or regulation measures that are implemented to serve both as a reason to increase foreign direct investment while maintaining control over the impact investment may have. Fiscal incentives alone, such as taxation laws that aim to reduce the tax burden of a firm, do not contribute to attracting foreign direct investment in research and development. Financial incentives direct monetary contributions from a government to a firm.

Incentives that combine both fiscal and financial aspects, have the capacity to increase interest in investment. Canada is part of the OECD, an amalgamation of countries dedicated to working in unison to increase environmental sustainability. Research shows. One study shows that Canada is not prepared to avoid the effects of environmental issues that come with economic growth as it does not have a high level of per capita GDP to avoid these negative effects at this time. While another study shows that Quebec, a major exporter of hydropower, decreased their green house gas emissions by 35%. Since the 1980s, Canada has developed more lenient foreign direct investment policies in order to attract investment. For example, recent Chinese investment in Canada's oil and gas industry has raised concerns that such investments may increase global emissions. Furthermore, Canada is involved in trade agreements over water with the United States such as NAFTA. Researchers argue trade agreements concerning water is affecting the sustainability of water management.

It is stated that management is changing in Canada. There are many commodities that are produced with water, which may increase the competition for water resources and this may affect water security. Canada has been taking preliminary steps to become more environmentally conscious within their trade agreements and environmental regulation policies. In order to address air pollution and its effects on the environment such as acid rain, Canada has partnered with the United States through Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement. Canada and the United States work together to address acid rain issues. Moreover and waste industries have economic benefits however pollute the environment. Canada is part of multiple groups such as United Nations Commission for Sustainable Development and Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, to ensure waste management is managed. In addition, Canada is part of multiple trade agreements to ensure economic growth as well as protection of the environment.

Canada has made trade agreements that focus on both labor and the environment with countries such as Chile, which focus on promoting environmental transparency and strengthening the effectiveness of domestic environmental laws and regulations. For the past 30 years China has experienced rapid economic growth. Many studies have been dedicated to documenting the impact foreign direct investment has on the environment in China. However, there have been varying conclusions as to whether or no