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Charlie Chan

Charlie Chan is a fictional Honolulu police detective created by author Earl Derr Biggers for a series of mystery novels. Biggers loosely based Chan on Hawaiian detective Chang Apana; the benevolent and heroic Chan was conceived of as an alternative to Yellow Peril stereotypes and villains like Fu Manchu. Many stories feature Chan traveling the world beyond Hawaii as he investigates mysteries and solves crimes. Chan first appeared in Biggers' novels and was featured in a number of media. Over four dozen films featuring Charlie Chan were made, beginning in 1926; the character, featured only as a supporting character, was first portrayed by East Asian actors, the films met with little success. In 1931, for the first film centering on Chan, Charlie Chan Carries On, the Fox Film Corporation cast Swedish actor Warner Oland. After Oland's death, American actor Sidney Toler was cast as Chan. After Toler's death, six films were made. Readers and movie-goers of America greeted Chan warmly, seeing him as an attractive character, portrayed as intelligent, heroic and honorable in contrast to the racist depictions of evil or conniving Asians which dominated Hollywood and national media in the early 20th century.

However, in decades critics took a more ambivalent view of the character, finding that despite his good qualities, Chan reinforces condescending Asian stereotypes such as an alleged incapacity to speak idiomatic English and a tradition-bound and subservient nature. Many now find it objectionable that the role was played on screen by Caucasian actors in yellowface. Due in large part to this reappraisal of the character, no Charlie Chan film has been produced since 1981; the character has been featured in several radio programs, two television shows, comics. The character of Charlie Chan was created by Earl Derr Biggers. In 1919, while visiting Hawaii, Biggers planned a detective novel to be called The House Without a Key, he did not begin to write that novel until four years however, when he was inspired to add a Chinese-American police officer to the plot after reading in a newspaper of Chang Apana and Lee Fook, two detectives on the Honolulu police force. Biggers, who disliked the Yellow Peril stereotypes he found when he came to California, explicitly conceived of the character as an alternative: "Sinister and wicked Chinese are old stuff, but an amiable Chinese on the side of law and order has never been used."

It overwhelms me with sadness to admit it... for he is of my own race, as you know. But when I look into his eyes I discover. Why? Because he, though among Caucasians many more years than I, still remains Chinese; as Chinese to-day as in the first moon of his existence. While I – I bear the brand – the label – Americanized.... I traveled with the current.... I was ambitious. I sought success. For what I have won, I paid the price. Am I an American? No. Am I a Chinese? Not in the eyes of Ah Sing; the "amiable Chinese" made his first appearance in The House Without a Key. The character was not central to the novel and was not mentioned by name on the dust jacket of the first edition. In the novel, Chan is described as "very fat indeed, yet he walked with the light dainty step of a woman" and in The Chinese Parrot as being " … an undistinguished figure in his Western clothes. According to critic Sandra Hawley, this description of Chan allows Biggers to portray the character as nonthreatening, the opposite of evil Chinese characters, such as Fu Manchu, while emphasizing Chinese characteristics such as impassivity and stoicism.

Biggers wrote six novels in which Charlie Chan appears: The House Without a Key The Chinese Parrot Behind That Curtain The Black Camel Charlie Chan Carries On Keeper of the Keys The first film featuring Charlie Chan, as a supporting character, was The House Without a Key, a ten-chapter serial produced by Pathé Studios, starring George Kuwa, a Japanese actor, as Chan. A year Universal Pictures followed with The Chinese Parrot, starring Japanese actor, Kamiyama Sojin, as Chan, again as a supporting character. In both productions, Charlie Chan's role was minimized. Contemporary reviews were unfavorable. In 1929, the Fox Film Corporation optioned Charlie Chan properties and produced Behind That Curtain, starring Korean actor E. L. Park. Again, Chan's role was minimal, with Chan appearing only in the last ten minutes of the film. For the first film to center on the character of Chan, Warner Oland, a white actor, was cast in the title role in 1931's Charlie Chan Carries On, it was this film that gained popular success.

Oland, a Swedish actor, had played Fu Manchu in an earlier film. Oland, who claimed some Mongolian ancestry, played the character as more gentle and self-effacing than he had been in the books in "a deliberate attempt by the studio to downplay an uppity attitude in a Chinese detective." Oland starred in sixteen Chan films for Fox with Keye Luke, who played Chan's "Number One Son", Lee Chan. Oland's "warmth and gentle humor" helped make films popular. By attracting "major audiences and box-office grosses on a par with A's" they "kept Fox afloat" during the Great Depression. Oland died in 1938, the Chan film, Charlie Chan at the Ringside

Horatio Earle

Horatio Sawyer Earle is known as the "Father of Good Roads" or Horatio "Good Roads" Earle. Earle was born February 1855 on a farm in Mount Holly, Vermont, he married Agnes Lincoln in 1874 and they had a son, Romeo Horatio Earle in 1878. Agnes died from tuberculosis that year. Earle worked a series of jobs until becoming a traveling salesman for farm equipment at age 31, he married Anna Maria Keyes in 1882 and they had a son, George Lewis Earle the following year. On January 5, 1889 the family moved to Detroit and shortly thereafter Earle began selling and developing agricultural implements. 1898: Appointed by Edward N. Hines, Chief Consul of the League of American Wheelmen Michigan Division to chair a Good Roads committee. 1899: Unanimously elected Chief Consul with a platform to eliminate bicycle racing from the League and push the Good Roads Movement. 1900: Elected to the Michigan Senate as an LAW candidate. 1901: Introduces a Michigan Senate Resolution which creates a State Highway Commission and is subsequently elected as chair.

1902: Proposes the Federal Government create an interstate highway system. Founds the American Road Makers. 1903: Appointed Commissioner of Highways by Michigan Governor Aaron T. Bliss. 1905: Introduces State Reward Road legislation, which creates a State Highway Department known as the Michigan Department of Transportation. 1906: Introduces legislation that creates the Wayne County Road Board whose initial members are Cass R. Benton, Henry Ford, Edward N. Hines. 1908: Loses gubernatorial Republican primary. 1909: Creates the World's first mile of concrete road on Woodward Avenue in Detroit. Earle unsuccessfully ran for mayor of Detroit in 1912, he was vice-president of the Detroit Newsboys Association for 25 years and president of the National Exchange Club from 1919 to 1921. In 1920 he lost the Republican primary for Governor, his book "The Autobiography of'by Gum' Earle" was published in 1929. Earle died in 1935. State Highway M-53 in Michigan is called the Earle Memorial HIghway in his honor. "I hear now-a-days, the automobile instigated good roads.

Well, the truth is, the bicycle is the father of the good roads movement in this country." ... the League of American Wheelmen was formed with each state organized as a division. The League was the first organization; the League fought for the privilege of building bicycle-paths along the side of public highways. The League fought for the privilege of carrying bicycles in baggage cars on railroads; the League fought for equal privileges with horse-drawn vehicles. All these battles were won and the bicyclist was accorded equal rights with other users of highways and streets." A plaque honoring Earle's efforts is located in a government building complex in Lansing, directly west from the Capitol along the "mall" that corresponds with Michigan Ave. The plaque is located northwest of the footbridge. HORATIO EARLE -- In 1905, the year the State Highway Department was created, Michigan roads were quagmires of sand and clay that trapped horse-drawn vehicles and early automobiles alike. Bicycle clubs, such as the Leagues of American Wheelmen, led the effort to "reform" roads nationwide.

In Michigan, the first state highway commissioner, Horatio "Good Roads" Earle, a bicyclist himself, vowed to conquer "the Mighty Monarch Mud." A former state senator, Earle served as state highway commissioner until 1909. Known as "the Father of Good Roads," Earle helped open the state to tourism. Monuments were erected in Mackinaw City in his honor. Although appreciative, Earle stated "the monument I prize most is not measured by its height, but its length in miles". Registered state site No. 688, 2005 Erected by Employees and Friends of MDOT in its Centennial Year, 2005 Horatio Sawyer Earle. The Autobiography of "By Gum" Earle. Lansing, Michigan: The State Review Publishing Company. League of American Bicyclists website American Road and Transportation Builders Association website Michigan History Online Photo of Earle Horatio Earle at Find a Grave

Pete Peterson

Douglas Brian "Pete" Peterson is an American politician and diplomat. He served as a United States Air Force pilot during the Vietnam War and spent over six years as a prisoner of the North Vietnamese army after his plane was shot down, he returned to Hanoi when he became the first United States Ambassador to Vietnam in 1997. He was an ambassador until July 2001. Peterson grew up in Milton and attended college at the University of Tampa, he joined the U. S. Air Force and served in the Vietnam War, where his F-4 Phantom II fighter was shot down on September 10, 1966, he spent six years in prison, a period he described as "hours and hours of boredom, spliced with moments of stark terror." He was released on March 4, 1973. After the Vietnam War, Peterson remained in the U. S. Air retired in 1981 as a colonel with 26 years of service. After retirement he established a general contracting firm in Tampa, Florida and a small computer company in Marianna, Florida, he served for 5 years on the faculty of Florida State University in Florida.

In 1990, Peterson ran as a Democrat for a seat in the United States House of Representatives in Florida's 2nd congressional district. He defeated James W. Grant, a politician who grew unpopular after switching from the Democratic Party to the Republican Party in the middle of his second term, he declined to run for a fourth term and in 1997 was asked by President Bill Clinton to become the United States's first post-war ambassador to Vietnam. One of his goals was securing an account of those still listed as missing in action from the war and so helping to resolve the Vietnam War POW/MIA issue. On November 17, 2000, he was presented with the Presidential Citizens Medal by President Clinton. Since retiring as ambassador, Peterson founded The Alliance for Safe Children, TASC, which aims to lower preventable injuries to children worldwide, focuses on such issues as drowning in Asia. With his wife he started a company. Peterson is a Senior Advisor for Albright Stonebridge Group, an international strategic consulting firm.

In 1995, his first wife, had died, two weeks after his installation in Hanoi he met Vi Le, Australia's senior trade commissioner, born in Vietnam, whom he married. In 2002, he moved to Australia, so they could be closer to her family. In 2009, Peterson acquired Australian citizenship. United States Congress. "Pete Peterson". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. All POW-MIA InterNetwork Appearances on C-SPAN

Stephen Lodge (screenwriter)

Stephen Lodge was an American author, television screenwriter and actor. He was born in the Long Beach area of United States. Lodge was the co-writer of the Kenny Rogers Western epic, the 1993 CBS TV movie Rio Diablo, co-starring Travis Tritt, Naomi Judd and Stacy Keach, his first major screenwriting credit was for the United Artists feature The Honkers starring James Coburn. Soon afterwards, he was writing and directing the film, One Block Away – this was co-written by Hoke Howell, who acted in it. Another of Lodge's films, Kingdom of the Spiders, starring Star Trek's William Shatner, aired on cable television in the 1990s. Lodge grew up watching "B" Westerns, his ambition from early on was to become an actor when he was older, he was able to visit movie sets as a youth, was in awe of the experience. When he was 10, he was presented with an 8mm movie camera for his birthday; this encouraged him to write and act in his own amateur productions. He started professional acting at 12 years old, by the age of 16 he had appeared at Hollywood's famous Corriganville Western movie ranch.

When his time at college ended, he was employed by Columbia Pictures, among other things, he was an assistant to the associate producer on the 1963 TV series Camp Runamuck. He gained media experience as a costumer for numerous productions, notably the classic 1963 TV series The Fugitive. Lodge lived in Rancho Mirage, near Palm Springs, with his wife Beth and their two dogs. Since moving to the desert he wrote and directed a 90-minute TV special, Bordello. Stephen Lodge general biography at Stephen Lodge on IMDb - acting credits Stephen Lodge on IMDb - miscellaneous credits Profile at Behind-the-scenes production photos Collection of Stephen Lodge


Glanis was a Gaulish god associated with a healing spring at the town of Glanum in the Alpilles mountains of Provence in southern France. There are cisterns at the site of the springs. Near one of them an altar to Glanis and the Glanicae was set up; the Glanicae were a triad of local mother-goddesses associated with the healing springs. The town, where a shrine to Glanis was erected in the 4th century BC, was itself named after the god; when it became a colony of the Roman Empire, the Romans followed their usual practice by absorbing Glanis into their pantheon, in the form of Valetudo. The worship of Glanis/Valetudo ended with the rise of Christianity and the destruction of Glanum in 270 AD. Celtic mythology Green. Miranda. Dictionary of Celtic Myth and Legend. Thames and Hudson Ltd. London. 1997


Daweishan Town is a rural town in Liuyang City, Hunan Province, People's Republic of China. As of the 2015 census, it had an area of 401.7-square-kilometre. It borders Pingjiang County in the north, Paibu Town of Jiangxi in the east, Zhangfang Town in the south, Dahu Town in the west and southwest. According to the Total annals of the Qing Dynasty, the name of Daweishan derives from the view of the town shrouded by mountains. In 1995, the Zhongyue Township and former Daweishan Township merged to form the Daweishan Town. In 2005, Baisha Township was merged into the town; the town is divided into 10 villages and two communities, the following areas: Dongmen Community Baisha Community Zhongyue Village Tongxing Village Zhongduan Village Jinzhongqiao Village Chudong Village Tianxinqiao Village Shangping Village Liuheyuan Village Beiluyuan Village Daweishan Village The Daxi River flows through the town. There are a number of popular mountains located adjacent to the townsite which include Mount Qixingling.

The local economy is based upon agriculture and tourism. Wood, traditional Chinese medicine and phyllostachys pubescens are important to the economy. Daweishan Middle School The County Road X002 passes across the town west to east. A national park is located southeast of the town: Daweishan National Forest Park. Daweishan Rafting is a famous scenic spot. Other main attractions are the Dongmen Ancient Weishan Academy and Tomb of Tang Shou. 行政区划网-浏阳市历史沿革 浏阳政务网-浏阳乡镇街道介绍 人口普查数据来源于 湖南省2000年第五次全国人口普查乡、镇、街道数据