click links in text for more info

Charlie Crist

Charles Joseph Crist Jr. is an American politician and lawyer, the U. S. Representative from Florida's 13th congressional district since 2017, he served as the 44th governor of Florida from 2007 to 2011. Crist began his political career as a Republican, serving in the Florida Senate from 1993 to 1999, running unsuccessfully against incumbent Bob Graham for the U. S. Senate in 1998 and serving as Florida Education Commissioner from 2001 to 2003 and Florida Attorney General from 2003 to 2007, before being elected governor in 2006. Crist decided not to run for reelection as governor in 2010, announcing on May 12, 2009 that he was running for the U. S. Senate seat being vacated by Republican Senator Mel Martinez. After leading in the race for the Republican nomination, he was overtaken in the polls by Marco Rubio, in April 2010 Crist left the Republican Party and ran as an independent. In the general election he lost to Rubio in a three-way race, taking 30% of the vote to Rubio's 49% and Democratic nominee Kendrick Meek's 20%.

Crist's term as governor ended in January 2011. On December 7, 2012, Crist joined the Democratic Party, having endorsed President Barack Obama for reelection in 2012. On November 1, 2013, he announced, he was defeated by Crist's successor, by a 1 % margin. In 2016, Crist was elected to the United States House of Representatives from Florida's 13th congressional district, defeating incumbent David Jolly, 52%-48%. Crist was born in Altoona, Pennsylvania, on July 24, 1956, to Charles Joseph Crist, an American physician of Greek Cypriot and Lebanese descent, Nancy, of Scots-Irish and Welsh descent, his family name is adapted from the original Greek name "Christodoulou."As a child Crist moved to St. Petersburg, where he attended Riviera Middle School, Shorecrest Preparatory School, St. Petersburg High School, from which he graduated in 1974, he is the second of four children and has three sisters: Margaret Crist Wood, Elizabeth Crist Hyden, Catherine Crist Kennedy. He attended Wake Forest University for two years.

Crist earned his undergraduate degree from Florida State University, where he was elected vice president of the student body and became a member of the Pi Kappa Alpha fraternity. He received his J. D. from Samford University Cumberland School of Law. After graduating from Cumberland School of Law in 1981, passing the bar on his third attempt, Crist was hired as general counsel to Minor League Baseball, headquartered in St. Petersburg. Drawn to politics, Crist was a candidate for public office for the first time in 1986, in the Republican primary for a state Senate seat in Pinellas County. After losing in a runoff, Crist joined his brother-in-law in private practice in St. Petersburg, but soon returned to politics as an aide on the successful 1988 United States Senate campaign of Connie Mack III, whom he has since described as his political mentor. In 1992 Crist was elected to a two-year term to the Florida Senate from the 20th District, which encompassed parts of St. Petersburg and south Tampa.

He defeated longtime incumbent Democratic State Senator Helen Gordon Davis of Tampa, 58.3 to 41.7%. Crist was able to unseat Gordon Davis following the 1992 decennial redistricting process, which reconfigured the districts in the Tampa Bay area, his victory was credited with helping to end the Democratic Party's 128-year control of the Florida Senate, as the Republicans netted three seats in 1992, resulting in a 20-20 tie between the parties. Crist was known as a law-and-order senator, sponsoring legislation requiring inmates to serve at least 85% of their sentences before becoming eligible for parole, he supported teacher salary increases, charter schools, a specialty license plate for Everglades conservation. With Crist as chairman, the Senate Ethics and Elections Committee investigated actions of then-governor Lawton Chiles amid allegations that Chiles's campaign had made "scare calls" to senior citizens days before the 1994 gubernatorial election. Chiles admitted that his campaign had made the calls.

In 1994 Crist was reelected to a four-year term in the Senate, defeating Democrat Dana Lynn Maley with 63.3% of the vote. Crist gained recognition in 1998 as the Republican challenger to incumbent Democratic U. S. Senator Bob Graham, he lost to Graham by 26 percentage points. In 2000 he was elected Education Commissioner of Florida, a position he held until it became an appointive office in 2003, as the result of a 1998 constitutional amendment. Crist left his position. In 2002 Crist was elected Florida Attorney General, his candidacy was supported by the host of John Walsh. Walsh and other supporters cited his work with the Center for Exploited Children. Civil rights and consumer groups praised Crist for expanding the attorney general's powers during his time in office; these powers enabled him and future attorneys general to have greater power to prosecute civil rights and fraud cases. Crist worked to combat spam e-mail, freeze utility rates, end telecom deception, protect the environment. Having won the 2006 election, Crist was inaugurated as governor of Florida on January 2, 2007.

He was involved in the state's purchase of sugar plantations. He worked on education, with Florida rising into the top 10 states for K12 education under his control. Crist supported President Obama's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, a stimulus package in response to the Great Recession. Fellow Republicans were angered by Crist's support for the stimulus. Crist called the act a "godsend," maintaining that it had saved the jobs of nearly 20,000 Florida schoolteach

Christian Klucker

Christian Klucker was a Swiss mountain guide who made many first ascents in the Alps in the Bernina Range, the Bregaglia and the Pennine Alps. Amongst his first ascents were: Gurgel on north-east face of Piz Bernina on 18 June 1890 North-west face of Piz Scerscen on 9 July 1890 North-east face of Piz Roseg on 16 July 1890 East-north-east ridge of the Ober Gabelhorn on 1 August 1890'Norman-Neruda route' on the north-east face of Lyskamm on 9 August 1890 Nadelgrat from the Hohberghorn to the Lenzspitze in 1892 Peuterey ridge to the summit of Mont Blanc via a couloir on the Brenva face on 15–19 August 1893 West-south-west ridge of Piz Badile on 14 June 1897 First traverse from the Italian side of the Porta da Roseg on Piz Roseg on 21 June 1898 Klucker appeared as the character Otto Spring in the 1929 mountain film, Die weiße Hölle vom Piz Palü, directed by Arnold Fanck. Collomb, Bernina Alps, Goring: West Col Productions, 1988 Collomb, Robin G. Bregaglia West, Goring: West Col Productions, 1984 Collomb, Robin G. Pennine Alps Central, London: Alpine Club, 1975 Dumler and Willi P. Burkhardt, The High Mountains of the Alps, London: Diadem, 1994 Klucker, Adventures of an Alpine Guide, London: John Murray, 1932 List of first ascents with Anton von Rydzewski in the Bregaglia


The Ordnung is a set of rules for Amish, Old Order Mennonite and Conservative Mennonite living. Ordnung is the German word for order, rule, organization, or system; because the Amish have no central church government, each assembly is autonomous and is its own governing authority. Thus, every local church maintains an individual set of rules, adhering to its own Ordnung, which may vary from district to district as each community administers its own guidelines; these rules are unwritten, yet they define the essence of Amish identity. Conservative Mennonites refer to Ordnung by the English terms "discipline" or "standard" and are written; the Amish blueprint for expected behavior, called the Ordnung, regulates private and ceremonial life. Ordnung does not translate into English. Sometimes rendered as ordinance or discipline, the Ordnung is best thought of as an ordering of the whole way of life... a code of conduct which the church maintains by tradition rather than by systematic or explicit rules.

A member noted: The order is not written down. The people just know it. Rather than a packet of rules to memorize, the Ordnung is the understood behavior by which the Amish are expected to live. In the same way that the rules of grammar are learned by children, so the Ordnung, the grammar of order, is learned by Amish youth; the Ordnung evolved over the decades as the church sought to strike a delicate balance between tradition and change. Specific details of the Ordnung vary across church settlements. Anabaptists, such as the Amish, believe in a literal interpretation of the Bible, thus the Ordnung is intended to ensure that church members live according to the biblical Word of God. The Ordnung is a set of behavioral rules, all members within a church agree to have their lives ordered by that code; each person is expected to live simple lives devoted to God, to family, to the community, based upon God's laws. Outsiders may consider the Ordnung as legalistic, thereby resulting in harsh consequences when broken.

But to the Amish, the Ordnung provides a strong sense of group identity. The “world”, with its grasping to gather possessions, is seen as in direct conflict with the teachings of Jesus; the Ordnung creates boundaries for the Amish, much like a children's schoolyard fence. Remaining within the enclosure allows them freedom, but to cross the fence would mean worldly danger. In Garry Schmidt's book, Early Anabaptist Spirituality, he indicates that a person who has learned to live within a respectful Ordnung was appreciating the value of freedom of heart, peace of mind, clear conscience; such a person had more freedom, more liberty, more privilege than those outside the church. Some of the most common Ordnung rules are: separation from the world, hard work, a woman's submission to her husband, mode of dress, refusal to buy insurance. Outsiders think of the Ordnung in terms of restrictions, i.e. no electrical power lines, no telephone in the home, no personal ownership of automobiles. However, many of the Ordnung guidelines are for the purpose of guarding a person's character.

The Ordnung attempts to prevent pride, vanity, dishonesty, etc. Therefore, the foundations of the Amish life are: an unassuming character, the love of friends and family, respect for the community; the purpose of the Ordnung is to guide Amish behavior into being more Christ-like, thus defining who they are. It intends that they be different from the world; the world exhibits the human tendency of self-exaltation, the Ordnung provides a way for the Amish to refrain from such behavior. Anything viewed as disruptive to their society, such as personal power and status, are funneled through the Ordnung into the social order of love and brotherhood. Disobedience to these lifestyle regulations is punished by discipline initiated by the church leaders. One of the more severe actions that the Amish bishop can mete out is Shunning. An Amish minister says of the Ordnung: A respected Ordnung generates peace, contentment and unity, it creates a desire for togetherness and fellowship. It binds marriages, it strengthens family ties to live together, to work together, to worship together and to commune secluded from the world.

Two types of Ordnung must be distinguished. The special conference decisions throughout history, from the 16th century onward; the contemporary rules defined by each church district. The first are printed rules, the second are verbal and are universally understood by the local members. All rules guide the Amish believer in the practice of godly principles. Both types clarify what is considered sinful. To be worldly is to be lost. Any rule, not directly supported by biblical references will be justified through reasoning as to why violating it would cause the believer to turn worldly. Separation from the world means to be different from the world, the congregation must agree on how they are to be different; this is accomplished through the Ordnung. Two times each year the members come together and express their unity before they partake in communion, their concurrence on the Ordnung implies complete satisfaction with it. The agreement brings peace among members, peace with God. If there is not group unity the Lord’s Supper is not observed.

Obedience is a close associate to Ordnung, because it is a symbol informing the body of believers as to whether a member loves the church or does not. There is no middle ground. An important part of Amish life is Gelassenheit (German pronunciation: [ɡəˈlas.ən

Anti-Drug National Command

The Anti-Drug National Command is an operating unit of the Venezuelan National Guard, tasked with preventing illegal drug trade within Venezuela. The unit is headed by General Arturo Olivar. Univision has described the unit as a "low-profile" component of the National Guard. General Ramón Guillén Dávila, a commanding general of the Anti-Drug National Command was accused of drug trafficking in the 1990s. Ramón Guillén Dávila and his successor Orlando Hernández Villegas cooperated with the Central Intelligence Agency in "controlled deliveries of cocaine" in an program titled "Operation North"; the CIA installed an operations center with the Anti-Drug National Command's offices in Colinas de Las Acacias urbanization of Caracas, establishing a direct network to the El Paso Intelligence Center. According to the United States Drug Enforcement Administration, over 200 kilograms destined for the United States never reached their targets in 1991. However, Operation North was performed unknown to Venezuelan authorities.

Both generals were pardoned by President Carlos Andrés Pérez in 1993 and the CIA pulled out of Venezuela. The Operation North incident led to the origin of the term "Cartel of the Suns", the suspected involvement of Venezuelan generals in drug trafficking. Officials linked to the Anti-Drug National Command have been sanctioned for their alleged participation with corruption in Venezuela. Néstor Reverol, who served under Guillén Dávila, was accused of drug trafficking as well and was sanctioned by the United States in 2016. Eustiquio José Lugo Gómez, the former Operations Director was sanctioned by the United States on 27 June 2019. Low-ranking members have been involved in drug trafficking incidents. On 11 September 2013, French officials seized 1.3 tons of cocaine arriving from a Air France flight from Venezuela. Three members of the Anti-Drug National Command were linked to the event and brought to court in Venezuela

Robin Harrison

Alick Robin Walsham Harrison was an English academic, Warden of Merton College, Oxford from 1963 until his death in 1969. Robin Harrison was born on 15 November 1900 in Hambledon and was educated at Haileybury and Merton College, Oxford, he became a master at Westminster School and returned to Merton in 1930. In 1932 he married eldest daughter of Sir David Ross, he was a cousin of Eileen Younghusband. At the start of the Second World War he entered government service in the Ministry of Food, where he became Deputy Director of Public Relations and Private Secretary to the minister Lord Woolton, he was awarded an OBE in 1943 and made a CBE in 1950. That year he returned to Merton to take up his old job as Tutor in Ancient History, he served for a time as Domestic Bursar and was elected Warden in 1963. He was involved in university planning and helped in the foundation of two new colleges, Wolfson and St. Cross, he was made an honorary fellow of both. He was the author of various academic books dealing with law in the ancient world, including The Law of Athens.

He was a man of "untiring scholarship, good sense, sound judgment". Harrison died on 18 May 1969 in Oxford. Works by or about Robin Harrison in libraries

Patricia Clavin

Patricia M. Clavin, is a British historian and academic, who specialises in international relations, economic crises, twentieth-century history, she is Professor of International History at the University of Oxford, a fellow and tutor in history at Jesus College, Oxford. Clavin studied Modern History at King's College London, graduating with a Bachelor of Arts degree and a Doctor of Philosophy degree. Before moving to Oxford, Clavin was Reader in Modern History at Keele University. In October 2003, she was elected a Fellow of Jesus College and appointed a university lecturer in modern history at the University of Oxford. In 2011, she was granted a Title of Distinction as "Professor of International History". In 2015, Clavin was awarded the British Academy Medal for her book, Securing The World Economy: The Reinvention of the League of Nations 1920-1946. In July 2016, she was elected a Fellow of the British Academy, the UK's national academy for the humanities and the social sciences, she is a Fellow of the Royal Historical Society, a Foreign Member of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.

Clavin, Patricia. The failure of economic diplomacy: Britain, Germany and the United States, 1931-36. Basingstoke: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0333605301. Briggs, Asa. Modern Europe: 1789-1989. London: Longman. ISBN 978-0582494060. Clavin, Patricia; the Great Depression in Europe, 1929-1939. Basingstoke: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0333606803. Briggs, Asa. Modern Europe, 1789 - present. London: Pearson Longman. ISBN 978-0582772601. Clavin, Patricia. Securing the world economy: the reinvention of the League of Nations, 1920-1946. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0199577934