Fiddling refers to the act of playing the fiddle, fiddlers are musicians that play it. A fiddle is a bowed string musical instrument, most a violin, it is a colloquial term for the violin, used by players in all genres including classical music. Although violins and fiddles are synonymous, the style of the music played may determine specific construction differences between fiddles and classical violins. For example, fiddles may optionally be set up with a bridge with a flatter arch to reduce the range of bow-arm motion needed for techniques such as the double shuffle, a form of bariolage involving rapid alternation between pairs of adjacent strings. To produce a "brighter" tone, compared to the deeper tones of gut or synthetic core strings, fiddlers use steel strings; the fiddle is part of many traditional styles, which are aural traditions—taught'by ear' rather than via written music. Among musical styles, fiddling tends to produce rhythms that focus on dancing, with associated quick note changes, whereas classical music tends to contain more vibrato and sustained notes.
Fiddling is open to improvisation and embellishment with ornamentation at the player's discretion—in contrast to orchestral performances, which adhere to the composer's notes to reproduce a work faithfully. It is less common for a classically trained violinist to play folk music, but today, many fiddlers have classical training; the medieval fiddle emerged in 10th-century Europe, deriving from the Byzantine lira, a bowed string instrument of the Byzantine Empire and ancestor of most European bowed instruments. The first recorded reference to the bowed lira was in the 9th century by the Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih. Lira spread westward to Europe. Over the centuries, Europe continued to have two distinct types of fiddles: one square-shaped, held in the arms, became known as the viola da braccio family and evolved into the violin. During the Renaissance the gambas were elegant instruments; the etymology of fiddle is uncertain: the Germanic fiddle may derive from the same early Romance word as does violin, or it may be natively Germanic.
The name appears to be related to Icelandic Fiðla and Old English fiðele. A native Germanic ancestor of fiddle might be the ancestor of the early Romance form of violin. In medieval times, fiddle referred to a predecessor of today's violin. Like the violin, it came in a variety of shapes and sizes. Another family of instruments that contributed to the development of the modern fiddle are the viols, which are held between the legs and played vertically, have fretted fingerboards. In performance, a solo fiddler, or one or two with a group of other instrumentalists, is the norm, though twin fiddling is represented in some North American, Scandinavian and Irish styles. Following the folk revivals of the second half of the 20th century, however, it has become common for less formal situations to find large groups of fiddlers playing together—see for example the Calgary Fiddlers, Swedish Spelmanslag folk-musician clubs, the worldwide phenomenon of Irish sessions. Orchestral violins, on the other hand, are grouped in sections, or "chairs".
These contrasting traditions may be vestiges of historical performance settings: large concert halls where violins were played required more instruments, before electronic amplification, than did more intimate dance halls and houses that fiddlers played in. The difference was compounded by the different sounds expected of violin music and fiddle music; the majority of fiddle music was dance music, while violin music had either grown out of dance music or was something else entirely. Violin music came to value a smoothness that fiddling, with its dance-driven clear beat, did not always follow. In situations that required greater volume, a fiddler could push their instrument harder than could a violinist. Various fiddle traditions have differing values. In the late 20th century, a few artists have attempted a reconstruction of the Scottish tradition of violin and "big fiddle," or cello. Notable recorded examples include Iain Fraser and Christine Hanson, Amelia Kaminski and Christine Hanson's Bonnie Lasses, Alasdair Fraser and Natalie Haas' Fire and Grace. and Tim Macdonald and Jeremy Ward's The Wilds.
Hungarian and Romanian fiddle players are accompanied by a three-stringed variant of the viola—known as the kontra—and by double bass, with cimbalom and clarinet being less standard yet still common additions to a band. In Hungary, a three stringed viola variant with a flat bridge, called the kontra or háromhúros brácsa makes up part of a traditional rhythm section in Hungarian folk music; the flat bridge lets the musician play three-string chords. A three stringed double bass variant is used. To a greater extent than classical violin playing, fiddle playing is characterized by a huge variety of ethnic or folk music traditions, each of which has its own distinctive sound. English folk music fiddling, including The Northumbrian fiddle style, which features "seconding", an improvised harmo
Lynyrd Skynyrd is an American rock band formed in Jacksonville, Florida, in 1964 by Ronnie Van Zant, Gary Rossington, Allen Collins, Larry Junstrom and Bob Burns. It is best known for popularizing the Southern rock genre during the 1970s. Called My Backyard, the band was known by names such as The Noble Five and One Percent, before deciding on "Lynyrd Skynyrd" in 1969; the band gained worldwide recognition for its live performances and signature songs "Sweet Home Alabama" and "Free Bird". Van Zant, along with guitarist Steve Gaines, backup singer Cassie Gaines, were killed in an airplane crash on October 20, 1977, putting an abrupt end to the 1970s era of the band; the band re-formed in 1987 for a reunion tour with Ronnie's brother, Johnny Van Zant, as its lead vocalist. Lynyrd Skynyrd continues to tour and record with co-founder Gary Rossington, Johnny Van Zant, Rickey Medlocke, who first wrote and recorded with the band from 1971 to 1972 before his return in 1996. Artimus Pyle remains active in music, but no longer records with the band.
Michael Cartellone has recorded and toured with the band since 1999. Lynyrd Skynyrd has sold 28 million records in the United States, they were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame on March 13, 2006. In January 2018, Lynyrd Skynyrd announced their farewell tour, are working on a final studio album. In Jacksonville, Florida during the summer of 1964, Ronnie Van Zant, Bob Burns, Gary Rossington became acquainted while playing on rival baseball teams; the trio decided to jam together one afternoon. They set up their equipment in the carport of Burns' parents' house and played The Rolling Stones' then-current hit "Time Is on My Side". Liking what they heard, they decided to form a band, they soon approached guitarist Allen Collins to join the band, though Collins fled on his bicycle and hid in a tree at the sight of Van Zant pulling into his driveway. Collins was soon convinced that Van Zant meant he agreed to join the fledgling band. Bassist Larry Junstrom soon rounded out the lineup and the band settled on the name My Backyard changed to The Noble Five before becoming The One Percent by 1968.
Still known as The One Percent in 1969, Van Zant sought a new name after growing tired of taunts from audiences that the band had "1% talent". At Burns' suggestion, the group settled on Leonard Skinnerd, a mocking tribute to P. E. teacher Leonard Skinner at Robert E. Lee High School. Skinner was notorious for enforcing the school's policy against boys having long hair. Rossington dropped out of school; the more distinctive spelling "Lynyrd Skynyrd" was being used at least as early as 1970. Despite their high school acrimony, the band developed a friendlier relationship with Skinner in years, invited him to introduce them at a concert in the Jacksonville Memorial Coliseum. Skinner allowed the band to use a photo of his Leonard Skinner Realty sign for the inside of their third album. By 1970, Lynyrd Skynyrd had become a top band in Jacksonville, headlining at some local concerts, opening for several national acts. Pat Armstrong, a Jacksonville native and partner in Macon, Georgia-based Hustlers Inc. with Phil Walden's younger brother, Alan Walden, became the band's managers.
Armstrong left Hustlers shortly thereafter to start his own agency. Walden stayed with the band until 1974; the band continued to perform throughout the South in the early 1970s, further developing their hard-driving blues rock sound and image, experimenting with recording their sound in a studio. Skynyrd crafted this distinctively "southern" sound through a creative blend of country, a slight British rock influence. During this time, the band experienced some lineup changes for the first time. Junstrom left and was replaced by Greg T. Walker on bass. At that time, Rickey Medlocke joined as a second drummer and occasional second vocalist to help fortify Burns' sound on the drums. Medlocke grew up with the founding members of Lynyrd Skynyrd and his grandfather Shorty Medlocke was an influence in the writing of "The Ballad of Curtis Loew"; some versions of the band's history state Burns left the band during this time, although other versions state that Burns played with the band continuously through 1974.
The band played some shows with both Medlocke, using a dual-drummer approach. In 1971, they made some recordings at the famous Muscle Shoals Sound Studio with Walker and Medlocke serving as the rhythm section, but without the participation of Burns. Medlocke and Walker left the band to play with Blackfoot; when Lynyrd Skynyrd made a second round of Muscle Shoals recordings in 1972, Burns was once again featured on drums along with new bassist, Leon Wilkeson. Medlocke and Walker did not appear on any album until the 1978 release of First and... Last, which compiled the early Muscle Shoals sessions. In 1972, roadie Billy Powell became the band's keyboardist after Ronnie Van Zant heard him playing his rendition of Freebird. In 1972, the band was discovered by musician and producer Al Kooper of Blood, Sweat & Tears, who had attended one of their shows at Funocchio's in Atlanta. Kooper signed them to his Sounds of the South label, to be distributed and supported by MCA Records, produced their first album.
Wilkeson, citing nervousness about fame, temporarily left the band during the early recording sessions for the album, only playing on two tracks. He
Wilmington, North Carolina
Wilmington is a port city and the county seat of New Hanover County in coastal southeastern North Carolina, United States. With a population of 119,045 in 2017, it is the eighth most populous city in the state. Wilmington is the principal city of the Wilmington Metropolitan Statistical Area, a metropolitan area that includes New Hanover and Pender counties in southeastern North Carolina, which has a population of 263,429 as of the 2012 Census Estimate. Wilmington was settled by the English along the Cape Fear River; the city was named after Spencer Compton, the Earl of Wilmington. Its historic downtown has a 1.75-mile Riverwalk, developed as a tourist attraction in the late 20th century. In 2014 Wilmington's riverfront was ranked as the "Best American Riverfront" by readers of USA Today, it is minutes away from nearby beaches. The National Trust for Historic Preservation selected Wilmington as one of its 2008 Dozen Distinctive Destinations. City residents live between the river and the ocean, with four nearby beach communities: Fort Fisher, Wrightsville Beach, Carolina Beach and Kure Beach, all within half-hour drives from downtown Wilmington.
In 2003 the city was designated by the US Congress as a "Coast Guard City". It is the home port for a United States Coast Guard medium endurance cutter; the World War II battleship USS North Carolina is held as a war memorial. Other attractions include the Cape Fear Museum, the Wilmington Hammerheads United Soccer Leagues soccer team; the University of North Carolina Wilmington provides a wide variety of programs for undergraduates, graduate students, adult learners, in addition to cultural and sports events open to the community. Wilmington is the home of EUE Screen Gems Studios, the largest domestic television and movie production facility outside California. "Dream Stage 10," the facility's newest sound stage, is the third-largest in the US. It houses the largest special-effects water tank in North America. After the studio's opening in 1984, Wilmington became a major center of American film and television production. Numerous movies in a range of genres and several television series have been produced here, including Maximum Overdrive, Iron Man 3, Fox's Sleepy Hollow, One Tree Hill, Dawson's Creek and NBC's Revolution.
The area along the river had been inhabited by various successive cultures of indigenous peoples for thousands of years. At the time of European encounter, historic Native Americans were members of tribes belonging to the Algonquian family; the ethnic European and African history of Wilmington spans a half centuries. In the early 16th century, explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano was the first European to see this area, including the city's present site; the first permanent European settlement in the area started in the 1720s with English colonists. In September 1732, a community was founded on land owned by John Watson on the Cape Fear River, at the confluence of its northwest and northeast branches; the settlement, founded by the first royal governor, George Burrington, was called "New Carthage," and "New Liverpool. Governor Gabriel Johnston soon after established his government there for the North Carolina colony. In 1739 or 1740, the town was incorporated with a new name, Wilmington, in honor of Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington.
Some early settlers of Wilmington came from the Albemarle and Pamlico regions, as well as from the colonies of Virginia and South Carolina, but most new settlers migrated from the northern British colonies, the West Indies, the British Isles. Many of the early settlers were indentured servants, recruited from the British Isles and northern Europe; as the indentured servants gained their freedom and fewer could be persuaded to leave England because of improving conditions there, the colonists imported an increasing number of African slaves to satisfy the labor demand. By 1767, slaves accounted for more than 62% of the population of the Lower Cape Fear region. Many worked in the port as laborers, some in ship-related trades. Naval stores and lumber fueled the region's economy, both after the American Revolution. During the Revolutionary War, the British maintained a garrison at Fort Johnston near Wilmington. Due to Wilmington's commercial importance as a major port, it had a critical role in opposition to the British in the years leading up to the Revolution.
The city had outspoken political leaders who influenced and led the resistance movement in North Carolina. The foremost of these was Wilmington resident Cornelius Harnett, who served in the General Assembly at the time, where he rallied opposition to the Sugar Act in 1764; when the British Parliament passed the Stamp Act the following year, designed to raise revenue for the Crown with a kind of tax on shipping, Wilmington was the site of an elaborate demonstration against it. On October 19, 1765, several hundred townspeople gathered in protest of the new law, burned an effigy of one town resident who favored the act, toasted to "Liberty, No Stamp Duty." On October 31, another crowd gathered in a symbolic funeral of "Liberty". But before the effigy was buried, Liberty was found to have a pulse, celebration ensued. Dr. William Houston of Duplin County was appointed Stamp Receiver for Cape Fear; when Houston visited Wilmington on business, still unaware of his appointment, he recounted, "The Inhabitants assembled about me & demanded a Categorical Answer whether I intended to put the Act relating the Stamps in force.
The Town Bell was rung Drums beating, Colours flying and great concourse of People gathered together." For the sake of his own life
Grand Ole Opry
The Grand Ole Opry is a weekly American country music stage concert in Nashville, Tennessee founded on November 28, 1925, by George D. Hay as a one-hour radio "barn dance" on WSM. Owned and operated by Opry Entertainment, it is the longest running radio broadcast in US history. Dedicated to honoring country music and its history, the Opry showcases a mix of famous singers and contemporary chart-toppers performing country, Americana and gospel music as well as comedic performances and skits, it attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors from around the world and millions of radio and internet listeners. The Opry's current primary slogan is "The Show That Made Country Music Famous." Other slogans include "Home of American Music" and "Country's Most Famous Stage."In the 1930s, the show began hiring professionals and expanded to four hours. Broadcasting by at 50,000 watts, WSM made the program a Saturday night musical tradition in nearly 30 states. In 1939, it debuted nationally on NBC Radio; the Opry moved to a permanent home, the Ryman Auditorium, in 1943.
As it developed in importance, so did the city of Nashville, which became America's "country music capital." The Grand Ole Opry holds such significance in Nashville that its name is included on the city/county line signs on all major roadways. The signs read "Music City|Metropolitan Nashville Davidson County|Home of the Grand Ole Opry." Membership in the Opry remains one of country music's crowning achievements. Since 1974, the show has been broadcast from the Grand Ole Opry House east of downtown Nashville, with an annual three-month winter foray back to the Ryman since 1999. In addition to the radio programs, performances have been sporadically televised over the years; the Grand Ole Opry started as the WSM Barn Dance in the new fifth-floor radio studio of the National Life & Accident Insurance Company in downtown Nashville on November 28, 1925. On October 17, 1925, management began a program featuring "Dr. Humphrey Bate and his string quartet of old-time musicians." On November 2, WSM hired long-time announcer and program director George D.
"Judge" Hay, an enterprising pioneer from the National Barn Dance program at WLS in Chicago, named the most popular radio announcer in America as a result of his radio work with both WLS and WMC in Memphis, Tennessee. Hay launched the WSM Barn Dance with 77-year-old fiddler Uncle Jimmy Thompson on November 28, 1925, that date is celebrated as the birth date of the Grand Ole Opry; some of the bands on the show during its early days included Bill Monroe, the Possum Hunters, the Fruit Jar Drinkers with Uncle Dave Macon, the Crook Brothers, the Binkley Brothers' Dixie Clodhoppers, Sid Harkreader, Deford Bailey, Fiddlin' Arthur Smith, the Gully Jumpers. Judge Hay liked the Fruit Jar Drinkers and asked them to appear last on each show because he wanted to always close each segment with "red hot fiddle playing." They were the second band accepted with the Crook Brothers being the first. When the Opry began having square dancers on the show, the Fruit Jar Drinkers always played for them. In 1926, Uncle Dave Macon, a Tennessee banjo player who had recorded several songs and toured on the vaudeville circuit became its first real star.
The phrase "Grand Ole Opry" was first uttered on radio on December 10, 1927. At the time, the NBC Red Network's Music Appreciation Hour, a program with classical music and selections from grand opera, was followed by Barn Dance. Opry presenter George Hay introduced the programme: For the past hour, we have been listening to music taken from Grand Opera. From now on, we will present the "Grand Ole Opry." As audiences for the live show increased, National Life & Accident Insurance's radio venue became too small to accommodate the hordes of fans. They built a larger studio. After several months with no audiences, National Life decided to allow the show to move outside its home offices. In October 1934, the Opry moved into then-suburban Hillsboro Theatre before moving to the Dixie Tabernacle in East Nashville on June 13, 1936; the Opry moved to the War Memorial Auditorium, a downtown venue adjacent to the State Capitol, a 25-cent admission fee was charged to try to curb the large crowds, but to no avail.
On June 5, 1943, the Opry moved to Ryman Auditorium. Top-charting country music acts performed at the Opry during the Ryman years, including Roy Acuff – called the King of Country Music – Hank Williams, Webb Pierce, Faron Young, Martha Carson, Lefty Frizzell, many others. One hour of the Opry was nationally broadcast by the NBC Red Network from 1939 to 1956, for much of its run, it aired one hour after the program that had inspired it, National Barn Dance; the NBC segment known by the name of its sponsor, The Prince Albert Show, was first hosted by Acuff, succeeded by Red Foley from 1946 to 1954. From October 15, 1955 to September 1956, ABC-TV aired a live, hour-long television version once a month on Saturday nights that pre-empted one hour of the then-90-minute Ozark Jubilee. From 1955 to 1957, Al Gannaway owned and produced both The Country Show and Stars of the Grand Ole Opry, both filmed programs syndicated by Flamingo Films. Gannaway's Stars of the Grand Ole Opry was the first television show shot in color.
On October 2, 1954, a teenage Elvis Presley had his only Opry performance. Although the audience reacted politely to his revolutionary brand of rockabilly music, Opry manager Jim Denny told Presley's producer Sam Phillips after the show that the singer's style did not suit the program. In the 1960s, as the hippie counterculture movement spread, the Opry maintained a strait-laced, conservative ima
Bridgestone Arena is an all-purpose venue in downtown Nashville, completed in 1996, is the home of the Nashville Predators of the National Hockey League. Designed by HOK Sport in conjunction with the Nashville-based architecture/engineering firm Hart Freeland Roberts, INC. it was designed at an angle on the corner of Broadway and 5th Avenue in Nashville in physical homage to the historic Ryman Auditorium, the original home of the Grand Ole Opry. Bridgestone Arena is owned by the Sports Authority of Nashville and Davidson County and operated by Powers Management Company, a subsidiary of the Nashville Predators National Hockey League franchise, its primary tenant since 1998; the Predators hosted the NHL Entry Draft here in 2003. In 1997, it was the venue of the United States Figure Skating Championships, in 2004 hosted the USA Gymnastics National Championships, it was the home of the Nashville Kats franchise of the Arena Football League from 1997 until 2001, hosted the team's revival from 2005 to 2007, when the Kats folded.
The arena has hosted college basketball events, including both men's and women's tournaments of the Southeastern Conference and the Ohio Valley Conference. Nashville will serve as a primary venue for the SEC Men's Basketball Tournament nine times between 2015 and 2025 after the SEC signed a long-term agreement with the Nashville Sports Council in 2013, it hosted the 2014 NCAA Women's Final Four and will host women's tournaments in 2018, 2022, 2026. In odd-numbered years, the arena was one of eight sites to host the first and second rounds of the men's NCAA Basketball Tournament for the first ten years of its existence, though it was taken out of the rotation for several years due to the obsolete octagonal mid-1990s-style scoreboard that hung above the arena floor, it was replaced in the summer of 2007 by digital control room. The NCAA Tournament returned to Nashville in 2012. Since 2002, the arena has hosted a Professional Bull Riders Built Ford Tough Series event every year until 2010; the event moved to the Arena in 2002 after having occupied the Municipal Auditorium from 1994 to 2001.
The venue has hosted numerous concerts and religious gatherings. Beginning in 2006, the Country Music Association Awards have been held in the arena, after the awards show moved from the Grand Ole Opry House with a one-year stop in New York City at Madison Square Garden in 2005. Due to the 2012–13 NHL lockout, the Predators did not host any games that season until January 19, 2013. Instead, the arena hosted a Southern Professional Hockey League preseason game between the only other Tennessee pro hockey franchise, the Knoxville Ice Bears, their cross-border rivals Huntsville Havoc on October 20. Bridgestone Arena has a seating capacity of 17,113 for ice hockey, 19,395 for basketball, 10,000 for half-house concerts, 18,500 for end-stage concerts and 20,000 for center-stage concerts, depending on the configuration used, it has hosted several professional wrestling events and a boxing card since its opening. The seating configuration is notable for the oddly-shaped south end, which features two large round roof support columns, no mid-level seating, only one level of suites, bringing the upper-level seats much closer to the floor.
The arena can be converted into the 5,145-seat Music City Theater, used for theater concerts and Broadway and family shows, by placing a stage at the north end of the arena floor and hanging a curtain behind the stage and another to conceal the upper deck. The arena features 43,000 square feet of space in a trade show layout. Mumford & Sons set the attendance record on March 2019, with 19,047 fans in attendance. During construction of the arena there was a major time loss accident October 5, 1995 when a temporary column collapsed. Lead ironworker connector Daniel Lane Foreman suffered a shattered pelvis and was hospitalized for 10 days at Vanderbilt University Hospital. Ironworker Raymond Vance Foreman was treated and released. Besides hosting the Nashville Predators, Bridgestone Arena has seen many other famous performers and events: CMA Awards CMT Music Awards 2003 NHL Entry Draft June 21, 2003 61st National Hockey League All-Star Game January 31, 2016 2017 Stanley Cup Finals Game 3, 4 and 6.
This is the fourth time. The first was in 1998 as the Nashville Arena, in 1999 and 2000 as the Gaylord Entertainment Center. In 2017 it was named loudest arena in sports; the arena's original name when opened in 1996 was Nashville Arena. In 1999, the arena was renamed Gaylord Entertainment Center after a 20-year, $80 million naming rights contract was signed between the Predators and Nashville-based Gaylord Entertainment Company, which at the time was a minority owner of the team. In February 2005, it was announced that the Predators and Gaylord had reached an agreement terminating any further involvement between them, that the Gaylord name would remain on the building only until a new purchaser could be found for the naming rights; as a result, many in the Nashville media reverted to calling the facility by its original name. With the beginning of the
Session musicians, studio musicians, or backing musicians are musicians hired to perform in recording sessions or live performances. Session musicians are not permanent members of a musical ensemble or band, they work behind the scenes and achieve individual fame in their own right as soloists or bandleaders. However, top session musicians are well known within the music industry, some have become publicly recognized, such as the Wrecking Crew and Motown's The Funk Brothers. Many session musicians specialize in playing common instruments such as guitar, bass, or drums. Others are specialists, play brass and strings. Many session musicians play multiple instruments, which lets them play in a wider range of musical situations and styles. Examples of "doubling" include electric bass. Session musicians are used. Session musicians are used by recording studios to provide backing tracks for other musicians for recording sessions and live performances. In the 2000s, the terms "session musician" and "studio musician" are synonymous, though in past decades, "studio musician" meant a musician associated with a single record company, recording studio or entertainment agency.
During the 1950s and 1960s, session players were active in local recording scenes concentrated in places such as Los Angeles, New York City, Memphis and Muscle Shoals. Each local scene had its circle of "A-list" session musicians, such as The Nashville A-Team that played on numerous country and rock hits of the era, the two groups of musicians in Memphis, both the Memphis Boys and the musicians who backed Stax/Volt recordings, the Funk Brothers in Detroit, who played on many Motown recordings. At the time, multi-tracking equipment, though common, was less elaborate, instrumental backing tracks were recorded "hot" with an ensemble playing live in the studio. Musicians had to be available "on call" when producers needed a part to fill a last-minute time slot. In the 1960s, Los Angeles was considered the top recording destination in the United States — studios were booked around the clock, session time was sought after and expensive. Songs had to be recorded in the fewest possible takes. In this environment, Los Angeles producers and record executives had little patience for needless expense or wasted time and depended on the service of reliable standby musicians who could be counted on to record in a variety of styles with minimal practice or takes, deliver hits on short order.
A studio band is a musical ensemble, in the employ of a recording studio for the purpose of accompanying recording artists who are customers of the studio. The Nashville A-Team Studio musicians, their contributions began in the 1950s with artists such as Elvis Presley. The original A-Team includes bassist Bob Moore. Cramer, McCoy and Randolph, along with A-Teamer and producer Chet Atkins, would emerge as part of Hee Haw's Million Dollar Band in the 1980s. Booker T. & the M. G.'s The house band at Stax records in Memphis during the 1960s and 1970s, playing behind Otis Redding, Eddie Floyd and Dave, Isaac Hayes, The Staple Singers, others. MGs guitarist Steve Cropper co-wrote many of Redding's hits and the MGs produced albums and hit singles such as "Green Onions" in their own right while being the house band at Stax; the Wrecking Crew Prolific, established studio musicians based in Los Angeles. They have recorded many albums since the 1960s; the Ron Hicklin Singers was a vocal session group associated with the Wrecking Crew and appeared as backing vocalists on many of the Crew's recordings.
The Funk Brothers Session musicians who backed many Motown Records recordings from the late 1950s to the early 1970s, as well as a few non-Motown recordings, notably on Jackie Wilson's " Higher and Higher."The Andantes The Memphis Boys The Section A Los Angeles singer/songwriter scene associated with the Troubadour nightclub and Laurel Canyon in the late 1960s to mid-1970s was supported by musicians Russ Kunkel, Danny Kortchmar, Leland Sklar and Craig Doerge. This session combo, nicknamed "the Section" or "the Mafia", backed many musicians, among others: Carole King, James Taylor, Jackson Browne, Warren Zevon, Kris Kristofferson and David Crosby; the Muscle Shoals Rhythm Section A group comprising Barry Beckett, Roger Hawkins, David Hood, Jimmy Johnson known as the Swampers, became known for the "Muscle Shoals Sound." Many of the recordings done in the Memphis area, which included Muscle Shoals, used The Memphis Horns in their arrangements. MFSB MFSB was a group of soul music studio musicians based in Philadelphia at the Sigma Sound Studios.
The Hillside Singers A vocal group commissioned to provide vocals for Mayoham Music, formed by husband and wife Al Ham and M
A novelty song is a comical or nonsensical song, performed principally for its comical effect. Humorous songs, or those containing humorous elements, are not novelty songs; the term arose in Tin Pan Alley to describe one of the major divisions of popular music. Novelty songs achieved great popularity during the 1930s, they had a resurgence of interest in the 1960s. Novelty songs are a parody or humor song, may apply to a current event such as a holiday or a fad such as a dance or TV programme. Many use unusual lyrics, sounds, or instrumentation, may not be musical. For example, the 1966 novelty song "They're Coming to Take Me Away, Ha-Haaa!" has little music and is set to a rhythm tapped out on a snare drum and tambourine. A book on achieving an attention-grabbing novelty single is The Manual, written by The KLF, it is based on their achievement of a UK number-one single with "Doctorin' the Tardis", a 1988 dance remix mashup of the Doctor Who theme music released under the name of'The Timelords.'
It argued that achieving a number one single could be achieved less by musical talent than through market research and gimmicks matched to an underlying danceable groove. Novelty songs were a major staple of Tin Pan Alley from its start in the late 19th century, they continued to proliferate in the early years of the 20th century, some rising to be among the biggest hits of the era. Varieties included songs with an unusual gimmick, such as the stuttering in "K-K-K-Katy" or the playful boop-boop-a-doops of "I Wanna Be Loved By You", which made a star out of Helen Kane and inspired the creation of Betty Boop. We Have No Bananas"; these songs were perfect for the medium of Vaudeville, performers such as Eddie Cantor and Sophie Tucker became well-known for such songs. Zez Confrey's 1920s instrumental compositions, which involved gimmicky approaches or maniacally rapid tempos, were popular enough to start a fad of novelty piano pieces that lasted through the decade; the fad was brought about by the increasing availability of audio recordings by way of the player piano and the phonograph.
A 1940s novelty song was Spike Jones' 1942 "Der Fuehrer's Face", which included raspberries in its chorus. Tex Williams's "Smoke! Smoke! Smoke!" Topped the Billboard best-sellers chart for six weeks and the country music chart for 16 weeks in 1947 and 1948. Hank Williams, Sr.'s "Move It On Over," his first hit song, has some humor and novelty elements, but contemporaries disputed this and noted that many men had been faced with eviction under similar circumstances. The 1953 #1 single " That Doggie in the Window?" became notable both for its extensive airplay and the backlash from listeners who found it annoying. Satirists such as Stan Freberg and Tom Lehrer used novelty songs to poke fun at contemporary pop culture in the 1950s and early 1960s. In 1951, Frank Sinatra was paired in a CBS television special with TV personality Dagmar. Mitch Miller at Columbia Records became intrigued with the pairing and compelled songwriter Dick Manning to compose a song for the two of them; the result was "Mama Will Bark", a novelty song performed by Sinatra with interspersed spoken statements by Dagmar, saying things like "mama will bark", "mama will spank", "papa will spank".
The recording includes the sound of a dog yowling. It is regarded by both music scholars and Sinatra enthusiasts to be the worst song he recorded. Sinatra would in fact record a few others before he left Columbia and joined Capitol Records in 1952. Dickie Goodman faced a lawsuit for his 1956 novelty song "The Flying Saucer", which sampled snippets of contemporary hits without permission and arranged them to resemble interviews with an alien landing on Earth. Goodman released more hit singles in the same vein for the next two decades including his gold record RIAA certified hit with Mr. Jaws in 1975 which charted #1 in Cash Box and Record World and was based on the movie Jaws. Among the more far out songs of this genre was the two released in 1956 by Nervous Norvus, "Transfusion" and "Ape Call"; the Coasters had novelty songs such as "Charlie Brown" and "Yakety Yak". "Yakety Yak" became a #1 single on July 21, 1958, is the only novelty song included in the Songs of the Century. "Lucky Ladybug" by Billy and Lillie was popular in December 1958.
Lonnie Donegan's 1959 cover of the 1924 novelty song "Does Your Chewing Gum Lose Its Flavour" was a transatlantic hit, reaching #5 on the Billboard charts two years after its release. Three songs using a sped-up recording technique became #1 hits in the United States in 1958-59: David Seville's "Witch Doctor" and Ragtime Cowboy Joe, Sheb Wooley's "The Purple People Eater", Seville's "The Chipmunk Song", which used a speeded-up voice technique to sim