George IV of the United Kingdom
George IV was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and King of Hanover following the death of his father, King George III, on 29 January 1820, until his own death ten years later. From 1811 until his accession, he served as Prince Regent during his father's final mental illness. George IV led an extravagant lifestyle, he was a patron of new forms of leisure and taste. He commissioned John Nash to build the Royal Pavilion in Brighton and remodel Buckingham Palace, Sir Jeffry Wyattville to rebuild Windsor Castle, his charm and culture earned him the title "the first gentleman of England", but his dissolute way of life and poor relationships with his parents and his wife, Caroline of Brunswick, earned him the contempt of the people and dimmed the prestige of the monarchy. He forbade Caroline to attend his coronation and asked the government to introduce the unpopular Pains and Penalties Bill in a desperate, unsuccessful attempt to divorce her. For most of George's regency and reign, Lord Liverpool controlled the government as Prime Minister.
George's ministers found his behaviour selfish and irresponsible. At all times he was much under the influence of favourites. Taxpayers were angry at his wasteful spending during the Napoleonic Wars, he act as a role model for his people. Liverpool's government presided over Britain's ultimate victory, negotiated the peace settlement, attempted to deal with the social and economic malaise that followed. After Liverpool's retirement, George was forced to accept Catholic emancipation despite opposing it, his only legitimate child, Princess Charlotte, died before him in 1817 and so he was succeeded by his younger brother, William. George was born at St James's Palace, London, on 12 August 1762, the first child of the British king George III and Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz; as the eldest son of a British sovereign, he automatically became Duke of Cornwall and Duke of Rothesay at birth. On 18 September of the same year, he was baptised by Archbishop of Canterbury, his godparents were the Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, the Duke of Cumberland and the Dowager Princess of Wales.
George was a talented student, learned to speak French and Italian, in addition to his native English. At the age of 18 he was given a separate establishment, in dramatic contrast with his prosaic, scandal-free father, threw himself with zest into a life of dissipation and wild extravagance involving heavy drinking and numerous mistresses and escapades, he was a witty conversationalist, drunk or sober, showed good, but grossly expensive, taste in decorating his palace. The Prince of Wales turned 21 in 1783, obtained a grant of £60,000 from Parliament and an annual income of £50,000 from his father, it was far too little for his needs – the stables alone cost £31,000 a year. He established his residence in Carlton House, where he lived a profligate life. Animosity developed between the prince and his father, who desired more frugal behaviour on the part of the heir apparent; the King, a political conservative, was alienated by the prince's adherence to Charles James Fox and other radically inclined politicians.
Soon after he reached the age of 21, the prince became infatuated with Maria Fitzherbert. She was a commoner, six years his elder, twice widowed, a Roman Catholic; the prince was determined to marry her. This was in spite of the Act of Settlement 1701, which barred the spouse of a Catholic from succeeding to the throne, the Royal Marriages Act 1772, which prohibited his marriage without the King's consent; the couple went through a marriage ceremony on 15 December 1785 at her house in Park Street, Mayfair. The union was void, as the King's consent was not granted. However, Fitzherbert believed that she was the prince's canonical and true wife, holding the law of the Church to be superior to the law of the State. For political reasons, the union remained secret and Fitzherbert promised not to reveal it; the prince was plunged into debt by his exorbitant lifestyle. His father refused to assist him, forcing him to quit Carlton House and live at Fitzherbert's residence. In 1787, the prince's political allies proposed to relieve his debts with a parliamentary grant.
The prince's relationship with Fitzherbert was suspected, revelation of the illegal marriage would have scandalised the nation and doomed any parliamentary proposal to aid him. Acting on the prince's authority, the Whig leader Charles James Fox declared that the story was a calumny. Fitzherbert was not pleased with the public denial of the marriage in such vehement terms and contemplated severing her ties to the prince, he appeased her by asking another Whig, Richard Brinsley Sheridan, to restate Fox's forceful declaration in more careful words. Parliament, granted the prince £161,000 to pay his debts and £60,000 for improvements to Carlton House. In the summer of 1788 the King's mental health deteriorated as the result of the hereditary disease porphyria, he was nonetheless able to discharge some of his duties and to declare Parliament prorogued from 25 September to 20 November. During the prorogation he became deranged, posing a threat to his own life, when Parliament reconvened in November the King could not deliver th
Sir William Beechey was a leading English portraitist of the golden age of British painting. Beechey was born at Burford, Oxfordshire, on 12 December 1753, the son of William Beechey, a solicitor, his wife Hannah Read. Both parents died when he was still quite young, he and his siblings were brought up by his uncle Samuel, a solicitor who lived in nearby Chipping Norton; the uncle was determined that the young Beechey should follow a career in the law, at an appropriate age he was entered as a clerk with a conveyancer near Stow-on-the-Wold. But as The Monthly Mirror recorded in July 1798, he was: "Early foredoomed his soul to cross/ And paint a picture where he should engross." Beechey was admitted to the Royal Academy Schools in 1772, where he is thought to have studied under Johan Zoffany. He first exhibited at the Academy in 1776, his earliest surviving portraits are small-scale full-length and conversation pieces which are reminiscent of Zoffany. In 1782, he moved to Norwich, where he gained several commissions, including a portrait of Sir John Wodehouse and a series of civic portraits for St. Andrew's Hall, Norwich.
By 1787, he had returned to London, in 1789, he exhibited a celebrated portrait of John Douglas, Bishop of Carlisle. Beechey’s career during this period is marked by a succession of adept and restrained portraits in the tradition of Sir Joshua Reynolds. Beechey’s style suited the conventional taste of the royal family, in 1793, he was commissioned to paint a full-length portrait of Queen Charlotte and subsequently named as her official portrait painter; that same year, he was elected as an associate member of the Royal Academy. Following his royal appointment, the number of royal commissions he undertook increased markedly, in 1797 he exhibited six royal portraits. In 1798, he was elected a full member of the Royal Academy and painted George III and the Prince of Wales Reviewing Troops for that year’s academy’s exhibition; this enormous composition depicts King George III, the Prince of Wales and staff officers on horseback at an imagined cavalry review in Hyde Park. The king was rewarded Beechey with a knighthood.
Joseph Farington's Diaries give many accounts of Beechey's relations with the royal family during this period, including his temporary fall from favour in 1804, which Farington attributes to the vagiaries of George III’s mental condition. Beechey's portraits of the turn of the century are considered to be his most lively, they are closer to the flamboyant and free techniques employed by his younger rivals, John Hoppner and Sir Thomas Lawrence. Royal patronage resumed in around 1813, when Beechey was appointed portrait painter to Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester, culminated with his appointment in 1830 as principal portrait painter to King William IV. In 1836, Beechey retired to Hampstead and on 9-11 June that year, the contents of his studio along with his collection were sold at Christie’s. Although capable of impetuousness and irascibility, Beechey was known for his generosity to students. In particular, he took a close interest in the career of the young John Constable. During a prolific career spanning half a century, Beechey painted many of the leading figures of his day.
His sitters included: In his 1978 novel Desolation Island, Patrick O'Brian wrote that Capt. Jack Aubrey had been painted by Beechey; the portrait, which showed Aubrey in Royal Navy uniform wearing the insignia of the Order of the Bath, hung in his home, Ashgrove Cottage. William Beechey's first marriage was to Mary Ann Jones in 1772, they had five children: Emma Amalia Beechey Henry William Beechey British painter and Egyptologist Charles Beechey Caroline Beechey Harriet Beechey He secondly married the successful miniature painter Anne Phyllis Jessop in 1793 and they had 16 children: Ann Phyllis Beechey Frederick William Beechey, Royal Navy captain, politician George Duncan Beechey, painter Anna Dodsworth Beechey William Nelson Beechey Charlotte Earl Beechey Alfred Beechey St. Vincent Beechey, clergyman Richard Brydges Beechey and admiral in the British navy Jane Henrietta Frances Beechey Augusta Beechey Fredericka Anne Beechey William Ernest Beechey Frances Beechey Phyliss Beechey a daughter S. R. Beechey Beechey’s Portrait of James Watt sold for £153,440 at Sotheby’s on 20 March 2003.
His Portrait of Mirza Abu'l Hassan Khan, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to the Court of King George III sold for £181,600 at Christie’s on 8 June 2006. His Portrait of George Douglas, 16th Earl of Morton in the dress of the Royal Company of Archers sold for £481,250 at Christie’s on 5 July 2011, his portrait of The Dashwood Children sold at auction for $821,000 including premium at Christie’s on 29 January 2014. Beechey’s works are represented in many of the world’s leading collections, including the Louvre, the Smithsonian Institution, the Royal Collection, the Royal Academy of Arts, the National Portrait Gallery, the Tate and the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Redgrave, Richard. A Century of Painters of the English School. Sampson Low, Marston. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Roberts, W.. Sir William Beechey, R. A. London: Duckwort
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion
Frederick I of Württemberg
Frederick I was the last Duke of Würtemberg briefly Elector of Württemberg, was elevated to the status of King of Württemberg by Napoleon I. He was known for his size: at about 200 kg. Born in Treptow an der Rega, today Trzebiatów, Frederick was the eldest son of Frederick II Eugene, Duke of Württemberg, Sophia Dorothea of Brandenburg-Schwedt. Frederick's father was the third son of Charles Alexander, Duke of Württemberg, Frederick was thus the nephew of the long-reigning duke Charles Eugene. Since neither Duke Charles Eugene nor his next brother, Louis Eugene, had any sons, it was expected that Frederick's father would succeed to the Duchy, would be succeeded in turn by Frederick; that eventuality was however many years in the future, the birth of a legitimate son to either of his uncles would preempt Frederick's hopes conclusively. Further, his uncle the Duke was not disposed to give any member of his family any role in affairs of government. Frederick therefore determined - like his father - on a military career at the court of Frederick the Great.
This drew Frederick and his family into the Prussian king's network of marriage alliances - in 1776 his sister Sophie would marry to Tsesarevich Paul, future Emperor of Russia and son of Empress Catherine II. These family ties to Russia had immediate consequences for Frederick and far-reaching ones for Württemberg during the reorganisation of Europe in the wake of the 1814 Congress of Vienna. In June 1774 he entered the Prussian Army as an oberst in the Kürassierregiment Lölhöffel, rising to a commander in the same unit in December 1776, he fought with it in the War of the Bavarian Succession. In 1780 he took over the 2nd Dragoon Regiment. Frederick married Duchess Augusta of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel on 15 October 1780 at Braunschweig, she was the eldest daughter of Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Princess Augusta of Great Britain and thus a niece of George III of Great Britain and sister to Caroline of Brunswick, the future wife of George IV. The marriage was not a happy one - during her first pregnancy in 1781 she wished to separate but was persuaded to stay with Frederick by her father.
Though they had four children, Frederick was rumored to be bisexual, with a coterie of young noblemen. He had a good relationship with the King of Prussia and took part in cabinet meetings, though this was clouded by his sister Elizabeth's 1781 marriage to Francis of Austria the last Holy Roman Emperor and the first Emperor of Austria. Frederick the Great feared that Prussia would become isolated by a closer relationship between Russia and Austria, whose rulers were both Frederick of Württemberg's sisters and blamed him for Francis' marriage. In 1781 Frederick resigned from the Prussian Army as a major general and the following year he accompanied Sophie and her husband to Russia, after a Grand Tour of Europe that the imperial couple had undertaken. Pleased with the well-spoken and confident young man, Catherine II appointed Frederick Governor-General of Eastern Finland, with his seat at Viipuri. From June to October 1783 he was in command of a 15000-20000 strong corps in Kherson during the Russo-Turkish War, but he was not involved in combat.
Frederick's relationship with his wife became more strained. He was violent towards her and after a play during a visit to Saint Petersburg in December 1786, Augusta asked for protection from Empress Catherine, she ordered Frederick to leave Russia. When Sophie protested at the treatment of her brother, Catherine replied, "It is not I who cover the Prince of Württemberg with opprobrium: on the contrary, it is I who try to bury abominations and it is my duty to suppress any further ones." Catherine's relationship with Frederick's brother-in-law Paul had broken down and so Frederick had to help protect his sister as she came under fire from Catherine. Augusta was sent to live at Lohde Castle in Western Estonia but died on 27 September 1788 after miscarrying an illegitimate child and being refused any medical help to cover up the pregnancy. In the same year, Frederick sold his residence in Vyborg, known as Monrepos. In the meantime, Frederick's succession to the throne of Württemberg had become more and more likely.
In June 1789 he traveled to Paris to see the first stages of the French Revolution at first hand, before moving to Ludwigsburg the following year, much to the displeasure of his uncle Carl Eugen, still on the throne. His father came to the throne in 1795 and Frederick gained his long-wished political influences, his Brunswick-born father helped him make contact with the British royal family - Frederick's first wife had been a niece of George III. On 18 May 1797, Frederick married George's eldest daughter Charlotte at the Chapel Royal in St James's Palace. On 22 December 1797, Frederick's father, who had succeeded his brother as Duke of Württemberg two years before and Frederick became Duke of Württemberg as Frederick III, he was not to enjoy his reign undisturbed for however. In 1800, the French army occupied the Duke and Duchess fled to Vienna. In 1801, Duke Frederick ceded the enclave of Montbéliard to the French Republic, received Ellwangen in exchange two years later. In the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss, which reorganized the Empire as a result of the French annexation of the west bank of the Rhine, the Duke of Württemberg was raised to the dignity of Imperial Elector.
Frederick assumed the title Prince-Elector on 25 Februar
Kew Palace is a British royal palace in Kew Gardens on the banks of the Thames up river from London. A large complex, few elements of it survive. Dating to 1631 but built atop the undercroft of an earlier building, the main survivor is known as the Dutch House, its royal occupation lasted from around 1728 until 1818, with a final short-lived occupation in 1844. The Dutch House is Grade I listed, open to visitors, it is cared for by an independent charity, Historic Royal Palaces, which receives no funding from the Government or the Crown. Alongside the Dutch House is a part of its 18th-century service wing, whilst nearby are a former housekeeper's cottage and kitchen block – most of these buildings are private, though the kitchens are open to the public; these kitchens and Queen Charlotte's Cottage are run by Historic Royal Palaces. Beneath the Dutch House is the undercroft of a 16th-century building; this was on land owned by John Dudley and restored to his son Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester, childhood friend and court favourite of Queen Elizabeth I, in 1558.
It belonged to a west-facing brick building and may be identifiable with a house in Kew in which Robert Dudley entertained Elizabeth in 1563 – one of Elizabeth's main palaces at that time was the nearby Richmond Palace. In 1619 the building above the undercroft was leased by Samuel Fortrey, who demolished all but the undercroft in 1631, erecting a new larger south-facing manor house in its place; the father of the author Samuel Fortrey, Samuel Fortrey senior was a merchant descended from a family originating near Lille, though confusion over his ancestry led to the building becoming known as the Dutch House. That name originated in the house's Dutch style of architecture, known as Artisan Mannerist and dominated by Dutch gables – this style was more prevalent in London, East Anglia and East Kent than the Netherlands at the time. In 1697, Fortrey's descendents leased the building to Sir Richard Levett, a powerful merchant and the former Lord Mayor of the City of London, who left it to his daughter Mary.
Facing the 1631 house was another mansion of Tudor origin. It was visited by the diarist John Evelyn and passed from Richard Bennett to his daughter Dorothy, wife of Henry Capel. Dorothy and Henry remained childless and so the house passed to Dorothy's great-niece Elizabeth, wife of the Prince of Wales's secretary Samuel Molyneux and of Molyneux's physician Nathaniel St André; this mansion was the site of James Bradley's observations in 1725 that led to his discovery of the aberration of light. William IV marked the site of the observations with a Thomas Tompion sundial in 1832, transferred from Hampton Court Palace to a plinth to the Dutch House's south-east; this was replaced with a replica in 1959 and moved to its new and different site directly to the south of the Dutch House. In 1727 Queen Caroline and George II came to the British throne. By that time they had six children living with them at their summer residence at Richmond Lodge. In 1728 Caroline leased the Dutch House to house her three eldest daughters Anne and Caroline and another nearby building which became known as the'Queen's House', though the intended occupant may have been her son William rather than the queen herself.
This left Louise with her at Richmond Lodge. George and Caroline had come to Britain in 1714 when George's father took the throne as George I, leaving their eldest son Frederick behind in Hanover aged 7; when George II succeeded his father, Frederick became Prince of Wales and so was allowed to come to Britain. He arrived in December 1728, less than a year after his mother had taken the lease on the Dutch House. Now aged 21, knowing little of his sisters and wishing for a family rapprochement, he soon took a long lease on the old Capel House at Kew and in 1731 purchased its contents from St André. Frederick set about remodeling it with assistance from William Kent – it became known as the White House due to its plastered exterior. Frederick added a large new separate kitchen block, open to the public since 2012 as'the Royal Kitchens'. There was a stable block of an unknown date serving the White House, located a short distance to its north-east and demolished in the late 19th century. A oil-on-canvas musical portrait from 1733 shows Frederick and his three eldest sisters playing mandolin and cello.
It was painted by his librarian and art agent Philip Mercier and exists in three variants, two of which show the Dutch House in the background – the third variant in the Royal Collection shows the same group in an interior Kensington Palace. Anne married and left England the year after the portrait was painted and Caroline left Kew in 1743, retiring to St James's Palace, where she died in 1757. Along with Cliveden, the White House became Frederick's main family country home, where he entertained poets such as James Thomson and Alexander Pope. In 1738 Pope gave Prince Frederick a dog, with the following verse inscribed on its collar: I am His Highness' dog at Kew. Pray tell me, whose dog are you? Frederick began remodelling the gardens associated with the White House, but "after staying all day in the garden till night, in the damp rain and hail to look at his workmen" in 1751 he caught a chill which – combined with a pulmonary embolism – proved fatal, his widow Augusta continued living at the White House with their children and remodelling the gardens.
She was advised by her husband's friend John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute and assisted by Sir William Chambers, one of the greates
Ozias Humphry was a leading English painter of portrait miniatures oils and pastels, of the 18th century. He was elected to the Royal Academy in 1791, in 1792 he was appointed Portrait Painter in Crayons to the King. Humphry is the spelling Ozias himself used in his signature on the backing card of his miniature of Charlotte, Princess Royal; this is the spelling given in the catalogues of the annual exhibitions of the Royal Academy from 1779 to 1795. The different spelling in the far more common form of Humphrey may well be due to a mistake but was in use during his own lifetime, it appears thus in the Royal Academy catalogues for the years 1796 and 1797 as well as in the writings of Horace Walpole and John Thomas Smith. Humphry is the used spelling today. Born and schooled in Honiton, Humphry was attracted by the gallery of casts opened by the Duke of Richmond and came to London to study art at Shipley's school, he studied art in Bath. As a young artist, he found his talent encouraged by Thomas Gainsborough and Sir Joshua Reynolds, among others.
His problems with his sight, which led to blindness, began in the early 1770s and forced him to paint larger works in oils and pastel. He traveled to Italy in 1773 with his great friend George Romney, stopping en route at Knole, near Sevenoaks in Kent, where the Duke of Dorset commissioned several works from him, his stay in Italy lasted until 1777. On his return, his numerous subjects included George Stubbs, fellow academician Dominic Serres, the chemist Joseph Priestley, a portrait claimed to be of the teenage Jane Austen, from as early as 1790, known as the "Rice" portrait after a owner, though this has always been a controversial attribution of the sitter; this failed to reach its minimum estimate in a Christie's auction in April 2007, was withdrawn from sale. His pupils included John Opie, he compiled a fifty-page manuscript A Memoir of George Stubbs, based on what Stubbs had related to him. This was edited and published in the 1870s and republished in 2005, he knew William Blake and commissioned copies of some of his illustrated books.
At least one of Blake's letters to him is a significant document for Blake's biographers. From 1785 to 1787, he travelled to India, producing many sketches, he was elected a member of the Royal Academy in 1791. In 1792 he was appointed Portrait Painter in Crayons to the King. Most of his many portraits of the Royal Family are still in the Royal Collection, his sight failed in 1797, he died in 1810 in Hampstead, north London. The bulk of his possessions came into the hands of his natural son, William Upcott, the book collector. From him the British Museum acquired a large number of papers relating to Humphry, he is alluded to in some lines by Hayley. Humphry is said to be the painter of the Rice portrait of Jane Austen, although both the attribution and the identity of the sitter are disputed; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Humphry, Ozias". Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press. 10 paintings by or after Ozias Humphry at the Art UK site 7 works by Humphry from the National Portrait Gallery Profile on Royal Academy of Arts Collections
Princess Augusta of Great Britain
Princess Augusta Frederica of Great Britain was a British princess, granddaughter of King George II and the only elder sibling of King George III. She was a Duchess consort of Brunswick by marriage to Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, her daughter Caroline was the spouse of King George IV. Princess Augusta Frederica was born at London, her father was the eldest son of George II and Caroline of Ansbach. Her mother was Augusta of Saxe-Gotha; as the eldest child, she was born second in the line of succession to the British throne, after her father. This would change the next year in 1738. Fifty days she was christened at St. James's Palace by the Archbishop of Canterbury, her godparents were her paternal grandfather, the King, her grandmothers, Queen Caroline and the Dowager Duchess of Saxe-Gotha. Her third birthday was celebrated by the first public performance of Rule, Britannia! at Cliveden in Buckinghamshire. Augusta was given a careful education, she was not described as a beauty, having loose mouth and a long face.
In 1761–62, a marriage was discussed between Augusta and her second cousin, the Hereditary Prince of Brunswick. The negotiations were delayed; this obstacle was overcome due to a reason described by Walpole: "Lady Augusta was lively, much inclined to meddle in the private politics of the Court. As non of her children but the King, had, or had reason to have, much affection for their mother, she justly apprehended Lady Augusta instilling their disgust on to the Queen, she could not forbid her daughter's frequent visits at Buckingham House, but to prevent ill consequence of them, she accompanied her thither. This, was an attendance and a constraint the Princess of Wales could not support, her exceeding indolence, her more excessive love of privacy, the subjection of being with the Queen, whose higher rank was a never ceasing mortification, all concurred to make her resolve, at any rate, to deliver herself of her daughter. To obtain this end, the profusion of favors to the hated House of Brunswick was not though too much.
The Hereditary Prince was prevailed to accept Lady Augusta's hand, with four-scour thousand pounds, an annuity of £5.000 a year on Ireland, three thousand a year on Hanover." On 16 January 1764, Augusta married Charles William Ferdinand at the Chapel Royal of St James's Palace. The wedding was followed by a state dinner at Leicester House, congratulations from the House of Parliament, a ball given by the Queen and an opera performance at Covent Garden, before departing from Harwich on the 26th. Augusta never adapted to life in Brunswick due to her British patriotism and disregard of all things "east of the Rhine"; this attitude did not change with time, twenty five years after her marriage, she was described as: "wholly English in her tastes, her principles and her manners, to the point that her cynical independence makes, with the etiquette of the German courts, the most singular contrast I know". During her first pregnancy in 1764, she returned to Great Britain in the company of Charles to give birth to her first child.
During their visit in England, it was noted that the Brunswicks were cheered by the crowds when they showed themselves in public. This exposed them to suspicion at court. During their visit, her sister-in-law Queen Charlotte refused them some honors at court, such as military salutes; this attracted negative publicity toward the hosting royal couple. During the negotiations thirty years for the marriage of her daughter to the Prince of Wales, Augusta commented to the British negotiator, Lord Malmesbury, that Queen Charlotte disliked both her and her mother because of jealousy dating from the visit of 1764. Augusta regarded the residence in Brunswick as too simple, was bored with the scholarly tone of her mother-in-law's court during the summers, when her spouse was absent at camp. A summer retreat was built for her in the southern part of Braunschweig where she could spend time away from court, built by Carl Christoph Wilhelm Fleischer and called Schloss Richmond to remind her of England. In her retreat, Augusta amused herself spending her days eating heavy luncheons and playing cards with her favourites receiving English guests.
The marriage was an arranged dynastic marriage. However, Augusta was attracted by Charles' handsome looks and pleased with him. Shortly after the birth of her first daughter, she wrote: "No two people live better together than we do, I would go through fire and water for him", it was noted that she seemed to be unaware of his flirtations in London. In 1771-72, Augusta visited England on her mother's invitation. On this occasion, she was involved in another conflict with her sister-in-law Queen Charlotte, she was not allowed to live at Carlton House or St. James Palace despite the fact that it was empty at the time, but was forced to live in a small house on Pall Mall; the queen disagreed with her about etiquette, refused to let her see her brother the king alone. According to Mr. Walpole, the reason was jealousy on the part of the queen, she attended her mother's deathbed during her second visit to England, upon her return to Brunswick, extended her period of mourning, which led to her retirement from participation in court life.
When her sister, queen Caroline Matilda of Denmark, was convicted of adultery and exiled near Brunswick in Celle, Augusta took the habit to visit her for weeks on end, to the disapproval of her spouse an