Count Peder Griffenfeld was a Danish statesman and royal favourite. He became the principal adviser to King Christian V of Denmark from 1670 and the de facto ruler of the dual kingdom of Denmark-Norway in the first half of the 1670s. In 1673 he was appointed as Chancellor of Denmark, elevated to count, the highest aristocratic rank in Denmark-Norway, received the Order of the Elephant, the country's highest order. At the behest of his enemies at court, Griffenfeld was arrested in early 1676 and convicted of treason, a charge that historians agree was false, he was imprisoned for 22 years at Munkholmen in Norway. Born at Copenhagen into a wealthy trading family connected with the leading civic and learned circles in the Danish capital, he was prepared for university by Jens Vorde. Vorde praises his extraordinary gifts, his mastery of the classical languages and his unnerving diligence; the brilliance he showed in his preliminary examination won him the friendship of the examiner, Bishop Jesper Brochmand, at whose palace he first met King Frederick III of Denmark.
The king was struck with Schumacher. In 1654 young Schumacher went abroad for eight years. From Germany he proceeded to the Netherlands, staying at Leiden and Amsterdam, passing in 1657 to the Queen's College, where he spent three years; the epoch-making events that occurred in England while he was at Oxford profoundly interested him. Coinciding with the Revolution in Denmark, which threw open a career to the middle classes, it convinced him that his future was in politics. In the autumn of 1660 Schumacher visited Paris, shortly after Mazarin's death, when the young Louis XIV of France first seized the reins of power. Schumacher seems to have been profoundly impressed by the administrative superiority of a strong centralised monarchy in the hands of an energetic monarch who knew his own mind; the last year of his travels was spent in Spain, where he obtained a thorough knowledge of the Castilian language and literature. He is said to have brought home easy morals as well as exquisite manners. On his return to Copenhagen, in 1662, Schumacher found the monarchy established on the ruins of the aristocracy, eager to buy the services of every man of the middle classes who had superior talents to offer.
The young adventurer contrived to secure the protection of Kristoffer Gabel, the king's confidant, in 1663 was appointed the royal librarian. A romantic friendship with the king's bastard, Count Ulric Frederick Gyldenløve, consolidated his position. In 1665 Schumacher obtained his first political post as the king's secretary, the same year composed the memorable Kongelov, he was now a personage at court, where he won many over by his gaiety. During these years, he had a notorious love affair with Mette TrolleOn the death of Frederick III Schumacher was the most trusted of all the royal counsellors, he alone was aware of the existence of the new throne of walrus ivory embellished with three silver life-size lions, of the new regalia, both of which treasures he had, by the king's command, concealed in a vault beneath the royal castle. Frederick III had confided to him a sealed packet containing the Kongelov, to be delivered to his successor alone. Schumacher had been recommended to his son by Frederick III on his death-bed.
"Make him a great man, but do it slowly," said Frederick, who understood the characters of his son and of his minister. Christian V was, moreover impressed by the confidence which his father had shown to Schumacher. When, on 9 February 1670, Schumacher delivered the Kongelov to Christian V, the king bade all those about him withdraw, after being closeted a good hour with Schumacher appointed him his Obergeheimesekreter, his promotion was rapid. In May 1670 he received the titles of privy councillor, he had captivated the accomplished Frederick III by ingenious speculations. Moreover, his commanding qualities were coupled with an organizing talent which made itself felt in every department of the state, with a marvellous adaptability which made him a great diplomat. On 25 May 1671 the dignities of baron were introduced into Denmark. Griffenfeld was the originator of these new institutions. To him monarchy was the ideal form of government, but he had a political object. The aristocracy of birth, despite its reverses, still remained the elite of society.
The new baronies and countships, owing their existence to the crown, introduced a strong solvent into aristocratic circles. Griffenfeld saw that, in future, the first
Anointing is the ritual act of pouring aromatic oil over a person's head or entire body. By extension, the term is applied to related acts of sprinkling, dousing, or smearing a person or object with any perfumed oil, butter, or other fat. Scented oils are used as perfumes and sharing them is an act of hospitality, their use to introduce a divine influence or presence is recorded from the earliest times. In present usage, "anointing" is used for ceremonial blessings such as the coronation of European monarchs; this continues an earlier Hebrew practice most famously observed in the anointings of Aaron as high priest and both Saul and David by the prophet Samuel. The concept is important to the figures of the Messiah and the Christ who appear prominently in Jewish and Christian theology and eschatology. Anointing—particularly the anointing of the sick—may be known as unction; the present verb derives from the now obsolete adjective anoint, equivalent to anointed. The adjective is first attested in 1303, derived from Old French enoint, the past participle of enoindre, from Latin inungere, an intensified form of ungere.
It is thus cognate with "unction". The oil used in a ceremonial anointment may be called "chrism", although Christianity distinguishes a sanctified chrism from other oils which might be used. Several related words such as "chrismation" and "chrismarium" derive from the same root. Anointing served and serves three distinct purposes: it is regarded as a means of health and comfort, as a token of honor, as a symbol of consecration, it seems probable that its sanative purposes were enjoyed before it became an object of ceremonial religion, but the custom appears to predate written history and the archaeological record, its genesis is impossible to determine with certainty. Used in conjunction with bathing, anointment with oil closes, it was regarded as reducing sweating. Aromatic oils masked body and other offensive odors, other forms of fat could be combined with perfumes. Applications of oils and fats are used as traditional medicines; the Bible records olive oil being poured into wounds. Known sources date from times when anointment served a religious function.
It was more used in traditional Indian medicine to remove illness, "bad luck", "demonic possession". Anointing was understood to "seal in" goodness and resist corruption via analogy with the use of a top layer of oil to preserve wine in ancient amphoras, its spoiling being credited to demonic influence. For sanitary and religious reasons, the bodies of the dead are sometimes anointed. In medieval and early modern Christianity, the practice was associated with protection against vampires and ghouls who might otherwise take possession of the corpse. Anointing guests with oil as a mark of hospitality and token of honor is recorded in Egypt and Rome, as well as in the Hebrew scriptures, it was a common custom among the ancient Hebrews and continued among the Arabs into the 20th century. For about 3,000 years, Persian Zoroastrians honor their guests with rose extract while holding a mirror in front of their guest's face; the guests hold their palms out, collect the rose water, spread the perfumed liquid upon their faces and sometimes heads.
The words of rooj kori aka might be said as well. In the sympathetic magic common to prehistoric and primitive religions, the fat of sacrificial animals and persons is reckoned as a powerful charm, second to blood as the vehicle and seat of life. East African Arabs traditionally anointed themselves with lion's fat to gain courage and provoke fear in other animals. Australian Aborigines would rub themselves with a human victim's caul fat to gain his powers. In religions like Christianity where animal sacrifice is no longer practiced, it is common to consecrate the oil in a special ceremony. In ancient Egypt, officials were anointed as part of a ceremony. Anointment of the corpse with scented oils was an important part of mummification. In Indian religion, late Vedic rituals developed involving the anointing of government officials and idols; these are now known as abhisheka. The practice spread to Indian Buddhists. In modern Hinduism and Jainism, anointment is common, although the practice employs water or yoghurt, milk, or butter from the holy cow, rather than oil.
Many devotees are anointed as an act of consecration or blessing at every stage of life, with rituals accompanying birthing, educational enrollments, religious initiations, death. New buildings and ritual instruments are anointed, some idols are anointed daily. Particular care is taken in such rituals to the direction of the smearing. People are anointed from head to downwards; the water may derive from one of the holy rivers or be scented with saffron, turmeric, or flower infusions. Ointments may include ashes, powdered sandalwood, or herbal pastes. Buddhist practices of anointing are derived from India
Prince Christian of Denmark (1675–1695)
Prince Christian of Denmark and Norway was the third son of Christian V of Denmark and his consort, Charlotte Amalie of Hesse-Kassel, thus a younger brother of King Frederick IV. He died aged 20, never married. At the age of 12 he was mentioned as a possible royal subject for Poland's throne; as a 14-year-old was in charge of the celebrations on the occasion of his father's birthday that brought the first opera in Denmark, which ended with Amalienborg fire in 1689. Described as a strong and lively young man he took up his first major trip to Italy in May 1695, soon after he got infected by smallpox and died 27 June in Ulm; the body was taken to Roskilde, where interment took place 11 September of that year
Robert Molesworth, 1st Viscount Molesworth
Robert Molesworth, 1st Viscount Molesworth PC came of an old Northamptonshire family. He married Hon. Letitia Coote, daughter of Richard Coote, 1st Baron Coote of Coloony, Mary St. George, his father Robert was a Cromwellian who made a fortune in Dublin by provisioning Cromwell's army. In 1695 he became a prominent member of the Privy Council of Ireland; the same year he stood for Dublin County in the Irish House of Commons, a seat he held until 1703. Subsequently, he represented Swords until 1715. In the following year, he was created Viscount Molesworth, of Swords, in the Peerage of Ireland. Molesworth's An Account of Denmark, as it was in the Year 1692 was somewhat influential in the burgeoning field of political science in the period, he made a case for comparative political analysis, comparing the political situation of a country to the health of an individual. Through his son Richard, 3rd Viscount Molesworth's daughter Louisa, he is one of the ancestors of Diana, Princess of Wales. Robert Molesworth was born two days after his fathers' death on 9 September 1656.
He was raised by his mothers' family, the Bysses, at Brackenstown, near Swords, County Dublin. His grandfather, John Bysse, was an eminent lawyer who became Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer under Charles II. In 1675, Robert graduated from Trinity College, Dublin with a B. A.. On 15 August 1676, shortly before his 20th birthday, he was married in Dublin to Letitia Coote, third daughter of Richard Coote, 1st Baron Coote of Colooney, Mary St. George, daughter of George St. George, Deputy Admiral of Connaught. Letitia's brother Richard was created Earl of Bellomont and served as Governor of New York and New Hampshire for William III from 1697 until his sudden death in 1701. Robert and Letitia Molesworth subsequently settled at the Bysse family seat, Brackenstown House, where according to a letter of 1721 Letitia bore seventeen children, nine of whom were still living at the time. On 7 May 1689, young Molesworth, an active supporter of the Williamites, was attainted by King James II's Catholic-dominated Irish Parliament.
His estate, valued at £2825 per annum, was duly confiscated. James had succeeded his brother Charles II as king of England and Scotland early in 1685. Although fearful of alienating English and Irish Protestant opinion, James came under the influence of the Catholic Richard Talbot, 1st Earl of Tyrconnell and determined to make the island of Ireland a Catholic stronghold. Tyrconnell secured the king's agreement to revise the 1662 Act of Settlement, which had confirmed many of the leading Cromwellian planters in their estates. Over the course of the next two years, war raged across Ireland between the rival armies of James II and the Dutch Protestant, William of Orange, invited to take the throne of England by the Parliament in 1688; the decisive victory of the Williamite forces at the battle of the Boyne in 1690, the battle of Aughrim in 1691, confirmed the new Protestant monarchy and secured New English interests in Ireland. The age of the Protestant Ascendancy had begun. Robert Molesworth, an ardent Whig, became a prominent figure in the new Williamite administration.
Contemporaries acknowledged his opinions on politics and economy with considerable respect. From July 1689 to December 1692 he served as British Ambassador to the Court of Denmark, during which time he wrote a spirited attack on Danish absolutism in a treatise entitled An Account of Denmark as it was in the Year 1692. From 1695 to 1698 he stood as Whig MP in both the English and Irish Parliaments, representing Camelford and Dublin City respectively. In August 1697, he was appointed to the Irish Privy Council, an effective cabinet charged with the governance of Ireland and the introduction of the "Penal Laws". From 1703 to 1715 he represented Swords as MP in the Irish Parliament. Between November 1714 and December 1715 he served in the fruitful post of Commissioner of Trade and Plantations. On 16 July 1716, Robert was advanced to the Irish peerage as Baron of Phillipstown and Viscount Molesworth of Swords "in reward for his steadfast adherence to the House of Hanover", he took his seat as such on 1 July 1719.
In his years he established the "Molesworth Circle", a group of eminent scientists and thinkers who met at Brackenstown and are said to have introduced the spread of "politeness" in 18th century Ireland. Other members of this Whig-minded intellectual circle included Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, Francis Hutcheson, James Arbuckle, John Toland and Jonathan Swift. Molesworth's pamphlet Considerations on the Agriculture and Employment of the Poor of Ireland prompted Swift to address the last of his celebrated Drapier's Letters to Molesworth in 1724; when the so-called South Sea Bubble burst in 1720, the 1st Viscount was the most vehement of those seeking vengeance against the company directors. He and his grandson, Robert Molesworth, had invested in the company, he advised that, as no law existed for punishing such companies, the government "ought upon this occasion follow the example of the ancient Romans, having no law against parricide, because their legislators supposed no son could be so unnaturally wicked as to embrue his hands in his father's blood
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Hesse or Hessia the State of Hesse, is a federal state of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants. The state capital is Wiesbaden; as a cultural region, Hesse includes the area known as Rhenish Hesse in the neighbouring state of Rhineland-Palatinate. The German name Hessen, like the name of other German regions is derived from the dative plural form of the name of the inhabitants or eponymous tribe, the Hessians, short for the older compound name Hessenland; the Old High German form of the name is recorded as Hessun, in Middle Latin as Hassia, Hassonia. The name of the Hessians continues the tribal name of the Chatti; the ancient name Chatti by the 7th century is recorded as Chassi, from the 8th century as Hassi or Hessi. An inhabitant of Hesse is called a "Hessian"; the American English term Hessian for 18th-century British auxiliary troops originates with Landgrave Frederick II of Hesse-Cassel hiring out regular army units to the government of Great Britain to fight in the American Revolutionary War.
The English form Hesse is in common use by the 18th century, first in the hyphenated names Hesse-Cassel and Hesse-Darmstadt, but the latinate form Hessia remains in common English usage well into the 19th century. The German term Hessen is used by the European Commission in English-language contexts because their policy is to leave regional names untranslated; the synthetic element hassium, number 108 on the periodic table, was named after the state of Hesse in 1997, following a proposal of 1992. The territory of Hesse was delineated only as Greater Hesse, under American occupation, it corresponds only loosely to the medieval Landgraviate of Hesse. In the 19th century, prior to the unification of Germany, the territory of what is now Hesse comprised the territories of Grand Duchy of Hesse, the Duchy of Nassau, the free city of Frankfurt and the Electorate of Hesse; the Central Hessian region was inhabited in the Upper Paleolithic. Finds of tools in southern Hesse in Rüsselsheim suggest the presence of Pleistocene hunters about 13,000 years ago.
A fossil hominid skull, found in northern Hesse, just outside the village of Rhünda, has been dated at 12,000 years ago. The Züschen tomb is a prehistoric burial monument, located between Lohne and Züschen, near Fritzlar, Germany. Classified as a gallery grave or a Hessian-Westphalian stone cist, it is one of the most important megalithic monuments in Central Europe. Dating to c. 3000 BC, it belongs to the Late Neolithic Wartberg culture. An early Celtic presence in what is now Hesse is indicated by a mid-5th-century BC La Tène-style burial uncovered at Glauberg; the region was settled by the Germanic Chatti tribe around the 1st century BC, the name Hesse is a continuation of that tribal name. The ancient Romans had a military camp in Dorlar, in Waldgirmes directly on the eastern outskirts of Wetzlar was a civil settlement under construction; the provincial government for the occupied territories of the right bank of Germania was planned at this location. The governor of Germania, at least temporarily had resided here.
The settlement appears to have been abandoned by the Romans after the devastating Battle of the Teutoburg Forest failed in the year AD 9. The Chatti were involved in the Revolt of the Batavi in AD 69. Hessia, from the early 7th century on, served as a buffer between areas dominated by the Saxons and the Franks, who brought the area to the south under their control in the early sixth century and occupied Thuringia in 531. Hessia occupies the northwestern part of the modern German state of Hesse, its geographic center is Fritzlar. To the west, it occupies the valleys of the Rivers Lahn, it measured 90 kilometers north-south, 80 north-west. The area around Fritzlar shows evidence of significant pagan belief from the 1st century on. Geismar was a particular focus of such activity. Excavations have produced bronze artifacts. A possible religious cult may have centered on a natural spring in Geismar, called Heilgenbron; the village of Maden, now a part of Gudensberg near Fritzlar and less than ten miles from Geismar, was an ancient religious center.
By the mid-7th century, the Franks had established themselves as overlords, suggested by archeological evidence of burials, they built fortifications in various places, including Christenberg. By 690, they took direct control over Hessia to counteract expansion by the Saxons, who built fortifications in Gaulskopf and Eresburg across the River Diemel, the northern boundary of Hessia; the Büraburg