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Charlotte Brontë

Charlotte Brontë was an English novelist and poet, the eldest of the three Brontë sisters who survived into adulthood and whose novels became classics of English literature. She enlisted in school at Roe Head in January aged 14 years, she left the year after to teach her sisters and Anne, at home, returning in 1835 as a governess. In 1839 she undertook the role as governess for the Sidgwick family but left after a few months to return to Haworth where the sisters opened a school, but failed to attract pupils. Instead, they turned to writing and they each first published in 1846 under the pseudonyms of Currer and Acton Bell. While her first novel, The Professor, was rejected by publishers, her second novel, Jane Eyre, was published in 1847; the sisters admitted to their Bell pseudonyms in 1848, by the following year were celebrated in London literary circles. Brontë was the last to die of all her siblings, she became pregnant shortly after her marriage in June 1854 but died on 31 March 1855 certainly from hyperemesis gravidarum, a complication of pregnancy which causes excessive nausea and vomiting.

Charlotte Brontë was born on 21 April 1816 in Market Street Thornton, west of Bradford in the West Riding of Yorkshire, the third of the six children of Maria and Patrick Brontë, an Irish Anglican clergyman. In 1820 her family moved a few miles to the village of Haworth, where her father had been appointed perpetual curate of St Michael and All Angels Church. Maria died of cancer on 15 September 1821, leaving five daughters, Elizabeth, Charlotte and Anne, a son, Branwell, to be taken care of by her sister, Elizabeth Branwell. In August 1824, Patrick sent Charlotte, Emily and Elizabeth to the Clergy Daughters' School at Cowan Bridge in Lancashire. Charlotte maintained that the school's poor conditions permanently affected her health and physical development, hastened the deaths of Maria and Elizabeth, who both died of tuberculosis in June 1825. After the deaths of his older daughters, Patrick removed Emily from the school. Charlotte used the school as the basis for Lowood School in Jane Eyre.

At home in Haworth Parsonage, Brontë acted as "the motherly friend and guardian of her younger sisters". Brontë wrote her first known poem at the age of 13 in 1829, was to go on to write more than 200 poems in the course of her life. Many of her poems were "published" in their homemade magazine Branwell's Blackwood's Magazine, concerned the fictional Glass Town Confederacy, she and her surviving siblings – Branwell and Anne – created their own fictional worlds, began chronicling the lives and struggles of the inhabitants of their imaginary kingdoms. Charlotte and Branwell wrote Byronic stories about their jointly imagined country and Emily and Anne wrote articles and poems about Gondal; the sagas they created were episodic and elaborate, they exist in incomplete manuscripts, some of which have been published as juvenilia. They provided them with an obsessive interest during childhood and early adolescence, which prepared them for literary vocations in adulthood. Between 1831 and 1832, Brontë continued her education at Roe Head in Mirfield, where she met her lifelong friends and correspondents Ellen Nussey and Mary Taylor.

In 1833 she wrote The Green Dwarf, using the name Wellesley. Around about 1833, her stories shifted from tales of the supernatural to more realistic stories, she returned to Roe Head as a teacher from 1835 to 1838. Unhappy and lonely as a teacher at Roe Head, Brontë took out her sorrows in poetry, writing a series of melancholic poems. In "We wove a Web in Childhood" written in December 1835, Brontë drew a sharp contrast between her miserable life as a teacher and the vivid imaginary worlds she and her siblings had created. In another poem "Morning was its freshness still" written at the same time, Brontë wrote "Tis bitter sometimes to recall/Illusions once deemed fair". Many of her poems concerned the imaginary world of Angria concerning Byronic heroes, in December 1836 she wrote to the Poet Laureate Robert Southey asking him for encouragement of her career as a poet. Southey replied, that "Literature cannot be the business of a woman's life, it ought not to be; the more she is engaged in her proper duties, the less leisure will she have for it as an accomplishment and a recreation."

This advice she did not heed. In 1839 she took up the first of many positions as governess to families in Yorkshire, a career she pursued until 1841. In particular, from May to July 1839 she was employed by the Sidgwick family at their summer residence, Stone Gappe, in Lothersdale, where one of her charges was John Benson Sidgwick, an unruly child who on one occasion threw a Bible at Charlotte, an incident that may have been the inspiration for a part of the opening chapter of Jane Eyre in which John Reed throws a book at the young Jane. Brontë did not enjoy her work as a governess, noting her employers treated her as a slave humiliating her. Brontë was less than five feet tall. In 1842 Charlotte and Emily travelled to Brussels to enrol at the boarding school run by Constantin Héger and his wife Claire Zoé Parent Héger. During her time in Brussels, Brontë, who favoured the Protestant ideal of an individual in direct contact with God, objected to the stern Catholicism of Madame Héger, which she considered a tyrannical religion that enforced conformity and submission to the Pope.

In return for board and tuition Charlotte taught Emily taught music. Their time at the school was cut short when their aunt Elizabeth Branwell, who had joined the family in Ha

Gertrude Stein

Gertrude Stein was an American novelist, poet and art collector. Born in the Allegheny West neighborhood of Pittsburgh and raised in Oakland, Stein moved to Paris in 1903, made France her home for the remainder of her life, she hosted a Paris salon, where the leading figures of modernism in literature and art, such as Pablo Picasso, Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Sinclair Lewis, Ezra Pound, Sherwood Anderson and Henri Matisse, would meet. In 1933, Stein published a quasi-memoir of her Paris years, The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas, written in the voice of Alice B. Toklas, her life partner; the book became a literary bestseller and vaulted Stein from the relative obscurity of the cult-literature scene into the limelight of mainstream attention. Two quotes from her works have become known: "Rose is a rose is a rose is a rose," and "there is no there there", with the latter taken to be a reference to her childhood home of Oakland, her books include Q. E. D. about a lesbian romantic affair involving several of Stein's friends, Fernhurst, a fictional story about a love triangle, Three Lives, The Making of Americans.

In Tender Buttons, Stein commented on lesbian sexuality. Her activities during World War II have been the subject of commentary; as a Jew living in Nazi-occupied France, Stein may have only been able to sustain her lifestyle as an art collector, indeed to ensure her physical safety, through the protection of the powerful Vichy government official and Nazi collaborator Bernard Faÿ. After the war ended, Stein expressed admiration for another Nazi collaborator, Vichy leader Marshal Pétain. Stein, the youngest of a family of five children, was born on February 3, 1874, in Allegheny, Pennsylvania, to upper-middle-class Jewish parents and Amelia Stein, her father was a wealthy businessman with real estate holdings. German and English were spoken in their home; when Stein was three years old and her family moved to Vienna, Paris. Accompanied by governesses and tutors, the Steins endeavored to imbue their children with the cultured sensibilities of European history and life. After a year-long sojourn abroad, they returned to America in 1878, settling in Oakland, where her father became director of San Francisco's streetcar lines, the Market Street Railway, in an era when public transportation was a owned enterprise.

Stein attended First Hebrew Congregation of Oakland's Sabbath school. During their residence in Oakland, they lived for four years on a ten-acre lot, Stein built many memories of California there, she would go on excursions with her brother, with whom she developed a close relationship. Stein found formal schooling in Oakland unstimulating, but she read: Shakespeare, Scott, Smollett and more; when Stein was 14 years old, her mother died. Three years her father died as well. Stein's eldest brother, Michael Stein took over the family business holdings and in 1892 arranged for Gertrude and another sister, Bertha, to live with their mother's family in Baltimore. Here she lived with her uncle David Bachrach, who in 1877 had married Gertrude's maternal aunt, Fanny Keyser. In Baltimore, Stein met Claribel and Etta Cone, who held Saturday evening salons that she would emulate in Paris; the Cones shared an appreciation for art and conversation about it and modeled a domestic division of labor that Stein would replicate in her relationship with Alice B.

Toklas. Stein attended Radcliffe College an annex of Harvard University, from 1893 to 1897 and was a student of psychologist William James. With James's supervision and another student, Leon Mendez Solomons, performed experiments on normal motor automatism, a phenomenon hypothesized to occur in people when their attention is divided between two simultaneous intelligent activities such as writing and speaking; these experiments yielded examples of writing that appeared to represent "stream of consciousness", a psychological theory attributed to James and the style of modernist authors Virginia Woolf and James Joyce. In 1934, behavioral psychologist B. F. Skinner interpreted Stein's difficult poem Tender Buttons as an example of normal motor automatism. In a letter Stein wrote during the 1930s, she explained that she never accepted the theory of automatic writing: "here can be automatic movements, but not automatic writing. Writing for the normal person is too complicated an activity to be indulged in automatically."

She did publish an article in a psychological journal on "spontaneous automatic writing" while at Radcliffe, but "the unconscious and the intuition never concerned her."At Radcliffe, she began a lifelong friendship with Mabel Foote Weeks, whose correspondence traces much of the progression of Stein's life. In 1897, Stein spent the summer in Woods Hole, studying embryology at the Marine Biological Laboratory, she received her A. B. magna cum laude from Radcliffe in 1898. William James, who had become a committed mentor to Stein at Radcliffe, recognizing her intellectual potential, declaring her his "most brilliant woman student", encouraged Stein to enroll in medical school. Although Stein professed no interest in either the theory or practice of medicine, she enrolled at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine in 1897. In her fourth year, Stein failed an important course, lost interest, left. Medical school had bored her, she had spent many of her evenings not applying herself to her studies, but taking long walks and attending the opera.

Stein's tenure at Johns Hopkins was marked by stress. Men dominated the med

Golders Green Crematorium

Golders Green Crematorium and Mausoleum was the first crematorium to be opened in London, one of the oldest crematoria in Britain. The land for the crematorium was purchased in 1900, costing £6,000, the crematorium was opened in 1902 by Sir Henry Thompson. Golders Green Crematorium, as it is called, is in Hoop Lane, off Finchley Road, Golders Green, London NW11, ten minutes' walk from Golders Green Underground station, it is directly opposite the Golders Green Jewish Cemetery. The crematorium is secular, accepts all faiths and non-believers; the crematorium gardens are listed at Grade I in the National Register of Historic Parks and Gardens. Cremation was not legal in Great Britain until 1885; the first crematorium was built in Woking and it was successful. At that time cremation was championed by the Cremation Society of Great Britain; this society was governed at that time led by Sir Henry Thompson. There is a bust to his memory in the West Chapel of Golders Green Crematorium. Out of this Society was formed the London Cremation Company, who desired to build a crematorium within easy reach of London.

The crematorium in Golders Green was designed by the architect Sir Ernest George and his partner Alfred Yeates. The gardens were laid out by William Robinson; the crematorium is a red brick building in Lombardic style and was built in stages, as money became available. The crematorium was built in four phases. By 1939, the site was completed, although since some buildings have been added. Since November 1902 more than 323,500 cremations have taken place at Golders Green Crematorium, far more than any other British crematorium, it is estimated. The funerals of many prominent people have taken place there over the last century; the ashes of the first person cremated at Woking, Mrs Jeanette Pickersgill, widow of artist Henry William Pickersgill, were removed from Woking to the East Columbarium at Golders Green, according to Woking's cremation records. The chimney of the crematorium is located within the tower and the building is in an Italianate style; the 12 acres of gardens are extensively planted, produce a beautiful and tranquil environment for visitors.

There are several large tombs, two ponds and bridge, a large crocus lawn. Another notable feature is a special children's section. There is a'communist corner' with memorials to notables of the Communist Party of Great Britain. There are a chapel of remembrance. There are three columbaria containing the ashes of thousands of Londoners and residents of neighbouring counties. There have been 14 holders of the Victoria Cross cremated here, there are locations and memorials for many other military personnel of all ranks, from many countries. Largest among them is the Commonwealth War Graves Commission memorial, commemorating 497 British and Commonwealth military casualties of both World Wars who were cremated here. Designed by Sir Edward Maufe, it was unveiled in 1952. Built in Portland Stone with names listed on three bronze panels, it stands at head of an ornamental pond at the western end of the memorial cloister. At Christmas, a Christmas tree is erected in the field in front of the main buildings.

Although the crematorium is secular, a nativity scene is placed near the chapel of remembrance. The crematorium gardens are listed at Grade I in the National Register of Historic Parks and Gardens; the Philipson Family mausoleum, designed by Edwin Lutyens, is a Grade II* listed building on the National Heritage List for England and the crematorium building, the wall, along with memorials and gates, the Martin Smith Mausoleum and Into The Silent Land, a sculpture by Henry Alfred Pegram are all Grade II listed buildings. A map of the Gardens of Remembrance and some information on persons cremated here is available from the office. Staff are available to help in finding a specific location; this service is £10 per request. The columbaria can be visited. There is a tea room. Among those whose ashes are retained or were scattered here, are: Among those cremated here, but whose ashes are elsewhere, are: Commonwealth War Graves Commission: Golders Green Crematorium Golders Green Crematorium at Hampstead Garden Suburb Trust Crematoria in Europe

Ayyalasomayajula Lalitha

Ayyalasomayajula Lalitha was India's first female engineer. Ayyalasomayajula Lalitha was born in Madras on August 27 1919, she was married at 15 and in 1937, gave birth to her daughter Syamala. Her husband died four months later, her father, Pappu Subba Rao, supported her wish to complete her secondary education and study engineering at the otherwise all-male College of Engineering, Guindy where he was a professor. Lalitha graduated in 1943 with a degree in electrical engineering - becoming India's first woman engineer, she completed her practical training with a one year apprenticeship in Jamalpur Railway Workshop, a major repair and overhaul facility. After graduation, Lalitha worked at Central Standards Organisation Shimla and helped her father research smokeless ovens and the jelectromonium. Keen to make her own living, Lalitha joined a British firm Associated Electrical Industries in Calcutta and worked on the largest dam in India, Bhakra Nangal Dam, designing transmission lines, substation layouts.

In 1953 the Council of the Institution of Electrical Engineers of London elected her to be an associate member, promoted to full member in 1966. Lalitha was the only female engineer from India to have attended the First International Conference of Women Engineers and Scientist in New York in 1964. Lalitha was elected as a member of the British Women's Engineering Society in 1965 and served as the Organising Committees' India representative for the Second International Conference of Women Engineers and Scientist held in Cambridge in July 1967. In 1979, she died of a brain aneurysm, aged 55

Lacrosse (album)

Lacrosse is a double album by John Zorn. It is made up of different takes of his early game piece, "Lacrosse"; the first disc is from WKCR in June 1978 where Mark Abbott, Polly Bradfield, Eugene Chadbourne, LaDonna Smith and Zorn recorded six different takes. Takes 3, 4 and 6 were released on the Parachute Records double LP School; the second disc is the original recording of "Lacrosse", made by Eugene Chadbourne, Henry Kaiser, Bruce Ackley, Zorn in San Francisco, California in June 1977. Lacrosse was released in 1997 as a part of The Parachute Years Box Set and released on its own in 2000; the Allmusic review by Joslyn Layne awarded the album 2 stars stating "The release consists of a number of takes, or outcomes, of two different groups of musicians performing this structure for improvisation." Disc one"Take 3" – 23:06 "Take 4" – 19:06 "Take 6" – 6:20 "Take 1" – 7:01 "Take 2" – 8:08 "Take 5" – 8:16Disc two"Twins Version" – 29:56All compositions by John Zorn. Disc two recorded June 1977 in San Francisco, Disc one recorded at WKCR, New York on June 10, 1978 John Zorn – alto saxophone, soprano saxophone, liner notes Mark Abbott – electronics Bruce Ackley – soprano saxophone, liner notes Allen Asaf – engineer Polly Bradfield – violin, electric violin Eugene Chadbourne – acoustic guitar, electric guitar, twelve string guitar, liner notes, six string bass, twelve string acoustic guitar Henry Kaiser – electric guitar LaDonna Smith – violin, viola Davey Williamsbanjo, electric guitar, hollow body guitar

List of universities and colleges in Thailand

As of 2018, Thailand had 310 colleges and tertiary academic institutes. This is a categorized listing of institutions of higher learning in Thailand. Public universities were called "government universities" and were supported by the government, they are independent as government-supported public universities. However, their staff are no longer civil servants. Application is by annual nationwide competitive admission examination or by special direct application. Autonomous universities have their own administrative structure and budgeting system for self-governance and full autonomy, allowing decision making on administrative and management matters to be handled by the university itself. There are 40 universities in the Rajabhat Universities system; the universities are designed to provide higher education in provinces. They were called Rajabhat Institutes and emerged as colleges of education. Admission is by competitive direct application; some Rajabhat Universities have several campuses such as Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University.

The Rajamangala University of Technology system includes nine schools. It was a polytechnic institute system and was renamed "Rajamangala Institute of Technology" before being granted university status. Admission is by direct application; the Ministry of University Affairs's Directory of Universities. Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment Thailand Graduate Institute of Science and Technology Thailand Advanced Institute of Science and Technology LAOTSE Greater Mekong Sub-region Academic and Research Network Lists of universities and colleges by country Lists of universities and colleges Education in Thailand List of schools in Thailand List of medical schools in Thailand 126 MAELAO DISTRICT NIE CENTRE ศูนย์การศึกษานอกระบบและการศึกษาตามอัธยาศัยอำเภอแม่ลาว เว็บไซต์ http://ml.ac.th/ Colleges and Universities in Thailand at Curlie