Bloemfontein anti-pass campaign
The 1913 Bloemfontein anti-pass campaign was a series of repeals by women of colour against official regulations which forced them to carry documentation of formal employment and restricted their movement. The pass system was enforced to ensure control over the Black and Coloured women providing domestic services in what was one of the Boer Republics, namely the Orange Free State The discovery of minerals in Kimberley and gold in the Transvaal gave rise to economic development and necessitated the construction of a railway line between Bloemfontein and the Transvaal; the British takeover from Boer leadership between 1848 and 1854 led to Bloemfontein becoming an administrative and legal hub. This development attracted a community of skilled and semi-skilled Black people and Indian South Africans as workers and farm labourers. Government records at the time refer to the people of colour who settled in the city as “Bastard,” “Bushmen,” “Fingo,” “Griqua” and “Hottentot,” among other derogatory terms.
Among the women who settled in Bloemfontein during this period were professionals and domestic workers, who were the wives of middle class men. Many of the people of colour came from Thaba'Nchu and were Tswana people with heterogenous backgrounds and historical ties to the area. There was no distinction between Black and Coloured people in Bloemfontein and they lived in the same areas unlike in other parts of the country, like in the Colony of Natal and the Cape; these demographic groups were considered Black then. Waaihoek, a location for Black people, just outside the town, emerged to accommodate the growing Black population and to move Black people away from the railway line, where many had become squatters; the establishment of Waaihoek led to the implementation of formal regulations, restricting the settlement of Black people to this area in 1891, away from where the white population lived. The Black population still provided services in the form of skilled and unskilled labour for the main town’s growing economy.
By the early 1900s, the law required every Black male person, including school learners above the age of 16, to carry a service book which documented their employer and place of residence. The Orange Free State was the first territory in South Africa to implement pass laws for women. In order to live and work in the city in the location of Waaihoek, this document had to be renewed monthly at a fee. Many women who did not live in urban areas or were not employed on a full-time basis as domestic workers did white people’s laundry for income, they travelled to their townships with laundry from parts of Bloemfontein which were assigned to white people. Health authorities traced cases of diphtheria and typhoid fever to the laundry done in unhygienic conditions in the township. In 1906, the Bloemfontein municipality built public laundry houses in town with sinks, steam rooms and ironing facilities; these Black women were prohibited from taking white people’s laundry to the location and subjected to permit fees, which allowed them to use the public laundry facilities.
The pass laws and permits that were introduced by the municipality put financial strain on women of colour. In the same year, the Union Of South Africa government published new rules for the enforcing the passes and police were given instructions of how to enforce the regulations. By October 1906 the effects of enforcing the residential pass were being felt in areas like Waaihoek. White farmers pushed for more stringent measures to control black people; as a result a new pass law aimed at black people in rural areas was put in force. In 1907, a new law was passed in Bloemfontein requiring domestic servants to carry a service book where details on their employment were written; these books were to be produced when demanded. Any person found without the book more than three times would be banished from the city. In 1908, a special Native Administration commission was established to investigate labour needs. Under the organisation’s constitution, women were not allowed to participate as full members of the South African Native National Convention, now known as the African National Congress, when it was founded in 1912.
As auxiliary members, they participated collectively. This led to the formal launch of the Bantu Women’s League under the leadership of Charlotte Maxeke in 1913; the organisation, which consisted of educated middle-class Black women, was established to challenge the pass laws, controlling the movement of Black women in the province. The Orange Free State Native, Coloured Women's Association and the African People's Organisation were among the organisations who fought against the racial restrictions; when Black political figures appealed to the Orange Free State authorities to abolish the pass laws, in vain, the women began approaching the higher offices of the national government. Once they had collected 5 000 women’s signatures for a petition, in March 1912 the women’s league handed the petition to Louis Botha, Prime Minister of the Union of South Africa. After the prime minister read their demands, six women presented their case in Cape Town to the Minister of Finance Henry Burton in April 1912.
The Minister is believed to have assured them that action would take place but, after another year, the women’s requests still went ignored. On 28 May 1913, the league met in Waaihoek to discuss the next steps and concluded that they would practise civil disobedience and no longer carry passes. On that day 200 women led by Charlotte M
Europe is a continent located in the Northern Hemisphere and in the Eastern Hemisphere. It is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the Mediterranean Sea to the south, it comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia. Since around 1850, Europe is most considered to be separated from Asia by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas and the waterways of the Turkish Straits. Although the term "continent" implies physical geography, the land border is somewhat arbitrary and has been redefined several times since its first conception in classical antiquity; the division of Eurasia into two continents reflects East-West cultural and ethnic differences which vary on a spectrum rather than with a sharp dividing line. The geographic border does not follow political boundaries, with Turkey and Kazakhstan being transcontinental countries. A strict application of the Caucasus Mountains boundary places two comparatively small countries and Georgia, in both continents.
Europe covers 2 % of the Earth's surface. Politically, Europe is divided into about fifty sovereign states of which the Russian Federation is the largest and most populous, spanning 39% of the continent and comprising 15% of its population. Europe had a total population of about 741 million as of 2016; the European climate is affected by warm Atlantic currents that temper winters and summers on much of the continent at latitudes along which the climate in Asia and North America is severe. Further from the sea, seasonal differences are more noticeable than close to the coast. Europe, in particular ancient Greece, was the birthplace of Western civilization; the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 AD and the subsequent Migration Period marked the end of ancient history and the beginning of the Middle Ages. Renaissance humanism, exploration and science led to the modern era. Since the Age of Discovery started by Portugal and Spain, Europe played a predominant role in global affairs. Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European powers controlled at various times the Americas all of Africa and Oceania and the majority of Asia.
The Age of Enlightenment, the subsequent French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars shaped the continent culturally and economically from the end of the 17th century until the first half of the 19th century. The Industrial Revolution, which began in Great Britain at the end of the 18th century, gave rise to radical economic and social change in Western Europe and the wider world. Both world wars took place for the most part in Europe, contributing to a decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the Soviet Union and the United States took prominence. During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron Curtain between NATO in the West and the Warsaw Pact in the East, until the revolutions of 1989 and fall of the Berlin Wall. In 1949 the Council of Europe was founded, following a speech by Sir Winston Churchill, with the idea of unifying Europe to achieve common goals, it includes all European states except for Belarus and Vatican City. Further European integration by some states led to the formation of the European Union, a separate political entity that lies between a confederation and a federation.
The EU originated in Western Europe but has been expanding eastward since the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991. The currency of most countries of the European Union, the euro, is the most used among Europeans. In classical Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess; the word Europe is derived from her name. The name contains the elements εὐρύς, "wide, broad" and ὤψ "eye, countenance", hence their composite Eurṓpē would mean "wide-gazing" or "broad of aspect". Broad has been an epithet of Earth herself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion and the poetry devoted to it. There have been attempts to connect Eurṓpē to a Semitic term for "west", this being either Akkadian erebu meaning "to go down, set" or Phoenician'ereb "evening, west", at the origin of Arabic Maghreb and Hebrew ma'arav. Michael A. Barry, professor in Princeton University's Near Eastern Studies Department, finds the mention of the word Ereb on an Assyrian stele with the meaning of "night, sunset", in opposition to Asu " sunrise", i.e. Asia.
The same naming motive according to "cartographic convention" appears in Greek Ἀνατολή. Martin Litchfield West stated that "phonologically, the match between Europa's name and any form of the Semitic word is poor." Next to these hypotheses there is a Proto-Indo-European root *h1regʷos, meaning "darkness", which produced Greek Erebus. Most major world languages use words derived from Europa to refer to the continent. Chinese, for example, uses the word Ōuzhōu. In some Turkic languages the Persian name Frangistan is used casually in referring to much of Europe, besides official names such as Avrupa or Evropa; the prevalent definition of Europe as a geographical term has been in use since the mid-19th century. Europe is taken to be bounded by large bodies of water
Bloemfontein is the capital city of the province of Free State of South Africa. Situated at an altitude of 1,395 m above sea level, the city is home to 520,000 residents and forms part of the Mangaung Metropolitan Municipality which has a population of 747,431; the city of Bloemfontein hosts the Supreme Court of Appeal of South Africa, the Franklin Game Reserve, Naval Hill, the Maselspoort Resort and the Sand du Plessis Theatre. The city hosts numerous museums, including the National Women's Monument, the Anglo-Boer War Museum, the National Museum, the Oliewenhuis Art Museum Bloemfontein host sub-Saharan Africa's first digital planetarium, the Naval Hill Planetarium and Boyden Observatory, an astronomical research observatory erected by Harvard University. Bloemfontein is popularly and poetically known as "the city of roses", for its abundance of these flowers and the annual rose festival held there; the city's Sesotho name is Mangaung, meaning "place of cheetahs". The origin of the city's name is disputed.
It is borrowed from the Dutch words bloem and fontein, meaning fountain of flowers. Popular legends include an ox named "Bloem" owned by Rudolphus Martinus Brits, one of the pioneer farmers, taken by a lion near a fountain on his property, while another story names Jan Bloem, a Korana KhoiKhoi leader who settled there. Though a predominantly Afrikaner settlement, Bloemfontein was founded in 1846 as a fort by British army major Henry Douglas Warden as a British outpost in the Transoranje region, at that stage occupied by various groups of peoples including Cape Colony Trek Boers and Barolong. Warden chose the site because of its proximity to the main route to Winburg, the spacious open country, the absence of horse sickness. Bloemfontein was the original farm of Johannes Nicolaas Brits born 21 February 1790, owner and first inhabitant of Bloemfontein. Johann – as he was known – sold the farm to Major Warden. With colonial policy shifts, the region changed into the Orange River Sovereignty and the Orange Free State Republic.
From 1902–10 it served as the capital of the Orange River Colony and since that time as the provincial capital of the Free State. In 1910 it became the Judicial capital of the Union of South Africa The Orange Free State was an independent Boer sovereign republic in southern Africa during the second half of the 19th century. Extending between the Orange and Vaal rivers, its borders were determined by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1848 when the region was proclaimed as the Orange River Sovereignty, with a seat of a British Resident in Bloemfontein; as the capital of the Orange Free State Republic the growth and maturing of the Republic resulted in the growth of Bloemfontein. Numerous public buildings that remain in use today were constructed; this was facilitated by the excellent governance of the Republic and the compensation from the British for the loss of the diamond rich Griqualand area. The old Orange Free State's presidential residence the Old Presidency is a museum and cultural space in the city.
A railway line was built in 1890 connecting Bloemfontein to Cape Town. The writer J. R. R. Tolkien was born in the city on 3 January 1892, though his family left South Africa following the death of his father, Arthur Tolkien, while Tolkien was only three, he recorded that his earliest memories were of "a hot country". In 1899 the city was the site of the Bloemfontein Conference, which failed to prevent the outbreak of the Second Boer War; the conference was a final attempt to avert a war between the South African Republic. With its failure the stage was set for war, which broke out on 11 October 1899; the rail line from Cape Town provided a centrally located railway station, proved critical to the British in occupying the city later. On 13 March 1900, following the Battle of Paardeberg, British forces captured the city and built a concentration camp nearby to house Boer women and children; the National Women's Monument, on the outskirts of the city, pays homage to the 26,370 women and children as well as 1,421 old men who died in these camps in various parts of the country.
The hill in town was named Naval Hill after the naval guns brought in by the British in order to fortify the position against attack. On 31 May 1910 eight years after the Boers signed the Peace Treaty of Vereeniging that ended the Anglo-Boer War between the British Empire and two Boer states, the South African Republic and the Orange Free State, South Africa became a Union. Due to disagreements over where the Union's capital should be, a compromise was reached that allowed Bloemfontein to host Appellate Division and become the Union's judicial capital. Bloemfontein was given financial compensation. On 8 January 1912, the South African Native National Congress was founded in Bloemfontein; the Union of South Africa had not granted rights to black South Africans, causing the organisation's creation. Its primary aim was to fight for the rights of black South Africans. From 1 to 9 January 1914, James Barry Munnik Hertzog and his supporters met in Bloemfontein to form the National Party of the Orange Free State, to
Durban is the third most populous city in South Africa—after Johannesburg and Cape Town—and the largest city in the South African province of KwaZulu-Natal. Located on the east coast of South Africa, Durban is famous for being the busiest port in the country, it is seen as one of the major centres of tourism because of the city's warm subtropical climate and extensive beaches. Durban forms part of the eThekwini Metropolitan Municipality, which includes neighboring towns and has a population of about 3.44 million, making the combined municipality one of the biggest cities on the Indian Ocean coast of the African continent. It is the second most important manufacturing hub in South Africa after Johannesburg. In 2015, Durban was recognised as one of the New7Wonders Cities. Archaeological evidence from the Drakensberg mountains suggests that the Durban area has been inhabited by communities of hunter-gatherers since 100,000 BC; these people lived throughout the area of present-day KwaZulu-Natal until the expansion of Bantu farmers and pastoralists from the north saw their gradual displacement, incorporation or extermination.
Little is known of the history of the first residents, as there is no written history of the area until it was sighted by Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama, who sailed parallel to the KwaZulu-Natal coast at Christmastide in 1497 while searching for a route from Europe to India. He named Christmas in Portuguese. In 1822 Lieutenant James King, captain of the ship Salisbury, together with Lt. Francis George Farewell, both ex-Royal Navy officers from the Napoleonic Wars, were engaged in trade between the Cape and Delagoa Bay. On a return trip to the Cape in 1823, they were caught in a bad storm and decided to risk the Bar and anchor in the Bay of Natal; the crossing went off well and they found safe anchor from the storm. Lt. King decided to map the Bay and named the "Salisbury and Farewell Islands". In 1824 Lt. Farewell, together with a trading company called J. R. Thompson & Co. decided to open trade relations with Shaka the Zulu King and establish a trading station at the Bay. Henry Francis Fynn, another trader at Delagoa Bay, was involved in this venture.
Fynn left Delagoa Bay and sailed for the Bay of Natal on the brig Julia, while Farewell followed six weeks on the Antelope. Between them they had 26 possible settlers. On a visit to King Shaka, Henry Francis Fynn was able to befriend the King by helping him recover from a stab wound suffered as a result of an assassination attempt by one of his half-brothers; as a token of Shaka's gratitude, he granted Fynn a “25-mile strip of coast a hundred miles in depth.” On 7 August 1824 they concluded negotiations with King Shaka for a cession of land, including the Bay of Natal and land extending ten miles south of the Bay, twenty-five miles north of the Bay and one hundred miles inland. Farewell took possession of this grant and raised the Union Jack with a Royal Salute, which consisted of 4 cannon shots and twenty musket shots. Of the original 18 would-be settlers, only 6 remained, they can be regarded as the founding members of Port Natal as a British colony; these 6 were joined by Lt. James Saunders King and Nathaniel Isaacs in 1825.
The modern city of Durban thus dates from 1824 when the settlement was established on the northern shores of the bay near today's Farewell Square. During a meeting of 35 European residents in Fynn's territory on 23 June 1835, it was decided to build a capital town and name it "D'Urban" after Sir Benjamin D'Urban governor of the Cape Colony; the Voortrekkers established the Republic of Natalia with its capital at Pietermaritzburg. Tension between the Voortrekkers and the Zulus prompted the governor of the Cape Colony to dispatch a force under Captain Charlton Smith to establish British rule in Natal, for fear of losing British control in Port Natal; the force arrived on 4 May 1842 and built a fortification, to be The Old Fort. On the night of 23/24 May 1842 the British attacked the Voortrekker camp at Congella; the attack failed, the British had to withdraw to their camp, put under siege. A local trader Dick King and his servant Ndongeni were able to escape the blockade and rode to Grahamstown, a distance of 600 km in fourteen days to raise reinforcements.
The reinforcements arrived in Durban 20 days later. Fierce conflict with the Zulu population led to the evacuation of Durban, the Afrikaners accepted British annexation in 1844 under military pressure; when the Borough of Durban was proclaimed in 1854, the council had to procure a seal for official documents. The seal was produced in 1855 and was replaced in 1882; the new seal contained a coat of arms without helmet or mantling that combined the coats of arms of Sir Benjamin D’Urban and Sir Benjamin Pine. An application was made to register the coat of arms with the College of Arms in 1906, but this application was rejected on grounds that the design implied that D’Urban and Pine were husband and wife; the coat of arms appeared on the council's stationery from about 1912. The following year, a helmet and mantling was added to the council's stationery and to the new city seal, made in 1936; the motto reads "Debile principium melior fortuna sequitur"—"Better fortune follows a humble beginning". The blazon of the arms registered by the South African Bureau of Heraldry and granted to Durban on 9 February 1979.
The coat of arms fell into disuse with the re-organisation of the South African local government structure in 2000. The seal ceased to be used in 1995. With the end of apartheid, Durban was subject to restruct
Limpopo is the northernmost province of South Africa. It is named after the Limpopo River, which forms the province's northern borders; the name "Limpopo" has its etymological origin in the Northern Sotho language word diphororo tša meetse, meaning "strong gushing waterfalls". The capital is Polokwane; the province was formed from the northern region of Transvaal Province in 1994, was named Northern Transvaal. The following year, it was renamed Northern Province, which remained the name until 2003, when it was formally changed to Limpopo after deliberation by the provincial government and amendment of the South African Constitution. An alternate name considered for the province was Mapungubwe; the Northern Sotho language is spoken by more than 60% of Limpopo's population. The Northern Sotho people traditionally occupy more than 70% of land mass in the province, with the Tsonga and the Venda both sharing less than 30% of the remaining land mass. 74% of dwelling is located in a tribal or traditional area, compared to a national average of 27.1%.
Traditional leaders and chiefs still form a strong backbone of the province’s political landscape. Established in terms of the Limpopo House of Traditional Leaders Act, Act 5 of 2005, the Limpopo House of Traditional Leaders’s main function is to advise government and the legislature on matters related to custom and culture including developmental initiatives that have an impact on rural communities. Kgoshi Malesela Dikgale was re-elected as the Chairperson of Limpopo House of Traditional Leaders in 2017. Limpopo province is home to the Zion Christian Church known as Boyne, the largest African initiated church operating across Southern Africa; the church's headquarters are at Zion City Moria in South Africa. According to the 1996 South African Census, the church numbered 3.87 million members. By 2001, its membership had increased to 4.97 million members. The final number of ZCC members today is most between 8 and 10 million, in total, according to figures provided by Neal Collins from The New Age and Alex Matlala from The Citizen, two South African newspapers.
Limpopo Province shares international borders with districts and provinces of three countries: Botswana's Central and Kgatleng districts to the west and northwest Zimbabwe's Matabeleland South and Masvingo provinces to the north and northeast and Mozambique's Gaza Province to the east. Limpopo is the link between countries further afield in sub-Saharan Africa. On its southern edge, from east to west, it shares borders with the South African provinces of Mpumalanga and North West, its border with Gauteng includes that province's Johannesburg-Pretoria axis, the most industrialised metropole on the continent. The province is at the centre of regional and international developing markets. Limpopo contains much of the Waterberg Biosphere, a massif of 15,000 km2, the first region in the northern part of South Africa to be named a UNESCO Biosphere Reserve; the massif was shaped by hundreds of millions of years of riverine erosion yielding diverse bluff and butte landforms. The Waterberg ecosystem can be characterised as Bushveld.
Within the Waterberg, archaeological finds date to the Stone Age. Nearby are early evolutionary finds related to the origin of humans; the current Premier of Limpopo Province is Stanley Mathabatha, representing the African National Congress. Limpopo Province is divided into five district municipalities; the district municipalities are in turn divided into 25 local municipalities: The province is a typical developing area, exporting primary products and importing manufactured goods and services. It is one of the poorest regions of South Africa with a big gap between poor and rich residents in rural areas. However, Limpopo's economy and standard of living have shown great improvement. A recent border shift with Limpopo's wealthier neighbour, was effected to try and bring some wealth into the province; the bushveld is beef cattle country, where extensive ranching operations are supplemented by controlled hunting. About 80% of South Africa's game hunting industry is found in Limpopo. Sunflowers, cotton and peanuts are cultivated in the Bela-Bela and Modimolle areas.
Modimolle is known for its table grapes. Tropical fruit, such as bananas, pineapples and pawpaws, as well as a variety of nuts, are grown in the Tzaneen and Louis Trichardt areas. Tzaneen is at the centre of extensive citrus and coffee plantations, a major forestry industry. Limpopo's rich mineral deposits include the platinum group metals, iron ore, high- and middle-grade coking coal, antimony and copper, as well as mineral reserves like gold, scheelite, vermiculite and mica. Commodities such as black granite and feldspar are found. Mining contributes to over a fifth of the provincial economy. Limpopo has the largest platinum deposit in South Africa; the Waterberg Coalfield, the eastern extension of Botswana's Mmamabula coalfields, is estimated to contain 40% of South Africa's coal reserves. Tourism is one of the three pillars of the Limpopo economy along with mining and agribusiness. In 2008, the Province accounted for 5% of all foreign tourist bed nights in South Africa, numbers which are showing strong annual growth.
The R 93 million Provincial tourism budget for 2010/11 represents 11% of Limpopo's total budget. Near Modjadjiskloof, at Sunland Baobab farms, there is a large Baobab tree which has been
Methodism known as the Methodist movement, is a group of related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley. George Whitefield and John's brother Charles Wesley were significant early leaders in the movement, it originated as a revival movement within the 18th-century Church of England and became a separate denomination after Wesley's death. The movement spread throughout the British Empire, the United States, beyond because of vigorous missionary work, today claiming 80 million adherents worldwide. Wesley's theology focused on the effect of faith on the character of a Christian. Distinguishing Methodist doctrines include the new birth, an assurance of salvation, imparted righteousness, the possibility of perfection in love, the works of piety, the primacy of Scripture. Most Methodists teach that Jesus Christ, the Son of God, died for all of humanity and that salvation is available for all; this teaching rejects the Calvinist position that God has pre-ordained the salvation of a select group of people.
However and several other early leaders of the movement were considered Calvinistic Methodists and held to the Calvinist position. Methodism emphasises charity and support for the sick, the poor, the afflicted through the works of mercy; these ideals are put into practice by the establishment of hospitals, soup kitchens, schools to follow Christ's command to spread the gospel and serve all people. The movement has a wide variety of forms of worship, ranging from high church to low church in liturgical usage. Denominations that descend from the British Methodist tradition are less ritualistic, while American Methodism is more so, the United Methodist Church in particular. Methodism is known for its rich musical tradition, Charles Wesley was instrumental in writing much of the hymnody of the Methodist Church. Early Methodists were drawn from all levels of society, including the aristocracy, but the Methodist preachers took the message to labourers and criminals who tended to be left outside organised religion at that time.
In Britain, the Methodist Church had a major effect in the early decades of the developing working class. In the United States, it became the religion of many slaves who formed black churches in the Methodist tradition; the Methodist revival began with a group of men, including John Wesley and his younger brother Charles, as a movement within the Church of England in the 18th century. The Wesley brothers founded the "Holy Club" at the University of Oxford, where John was a fellow and a lecturer at Lincoln College; the club met weekly and they systematically set about living a holy life. They were accustomed to receiving Communion every week, fasting abstaining from most forms of amusement and luxury and visited the sick and the poor, as well as prisoners; the fellowship were branded as "Methodist" by their fellow students because of the way they used "rule" and "method" to go about their religious affairs. John, leader of the club, took the attempted mockery and turned it into a title of honour.
In 1735, at the invitation of the founder of the Georgia Colony, General James Oglethorpe, both John and Charles Wesley set out for America to be ministers to the colonists and missionaries to the Native Americans. Unsuccessful in their work, the brothers returned to England conscious of their lack of genuine Christian faith, they looked for help to other members of the Moravian Church. At a Moravian service in Aldersgate on 24 May 1738, John experienced what has come to be called his evangelical conversion, when he felt his "heart strangely warmed", he records in his journal: "I felt I did trust in Christ alone, for salvation. Charles had reported a similar experience a few days previously. Considered a pivotal moment, Daniel L. Burnett writes: "The significance of Wesley's Aldersgate Experience is monumental … Without it the names of Wesley and Methodism would be nothing more than obscure footnotes in the pages of church history."The Wesley brothers began to preach salvation by faith to individuals and groups, in houses, in religious societies, in the few churches which had not closed their doors to evangelical preachers.
John Wesley came under the influence of the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius. Arminius had rejected the Calvinist teaching that God had pre-ordained an elect number of people to eternal bliss while others perished eternally. Conversely, George Whitefield, Howell Harris, Selina Hastings, Countess of Huntingdon were notable for being Calvinistic Methodists. George Whitefield, returning from his own mission in Georgia, joined the Wesley brothers in what was to become a national crusade. Whitefield, a fellow student of the Wesleys at Oxford, became well known for his unorthodox, itinerant ministry, in which he was dedicated to open-air preaching—reaching crowds of thousands. A key step in the development of John Wesley's ministry was, like Whitefield, to preach in fields and churchyards to those who did not attend parish church services. Accordingly, many Methodist converts were those disconnected from the Church of England. Faced with growing evangelistic and pastoral responsibilities and Whitefield appointed lay preachers and leaders.
Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital
The Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, nicknamed Joburg Gen is an accredited general hospital in Parktown, Gauteng, South Africa. It has 1,088 usable beds; the hospital’s professional and support staff exceeds 4,000 people. It is the main teaching hospital for the University of the Witwatersrand, faculty of Health Sciences; the institution provides the service base for undergraduate and post-graduate training in all area of health professions. The joint staff produces world-class research and collaborates with several universities on the continent and abroad; the hospital offers a full range of tertiary and specialized services. The costs of providing these services to the population of Gauteng Province, in addition to the neighbouring provinces, are funded by a National Tertiary Services Grant, as well as Provincial allocation; the hospital serves as a referral hospital for a number of hospitals in its referral chain. It was built on the site of Hohenheim, the first Parktown mansion, the home of Sir Lionel and Lady Florence Phillips.
In 2012 the Sunday Times of South Africa reported on a critical shortage of equipment and manpower that compromised medical care. Nursing Department Medicine Cardiology Neurology Pulmonology Haemotology and Oncology Dermatology Geriatrics Family Health Nephrology Hepatology Endocrinology Department of Surgery Otorhinolaryngology Paediatric surgery Urology Trauma Unit Plastic and Reconstructive surgery Cardiothoracic surgery Maxillo-facial and Oral surgery Neurosurgery Department of Nuclear Medicine Department of Orthopaedics Department of Ophthalmology Department of Anaesthesia Department of Radiation Therapy Department of Paediatrics and Child Health Department of Radiology – Diagnostics Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health Dietary Services Occupational Therapy Pharmacy Physiotherapy Speech Therapy & Audiology Social Work The hospital registered a coat of arms at the Bureau of Heraldry in 1980: Azure, on a Latin cross nowy, the arms potent and the foot throughout, Argent, a pomme charged with a gold stamp Or, between on the arms three potents and on the foot a rod of Aesculapius, the rod entwined of a serpent Or