The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Lambert van Haven
Lambert van Haven was a Danish architect, master builder and painter. He was born in Bergen, the son of the artist Solomon van Haven who had succeeded in winning the favour of the Danish monarchy. Starting in 1653, he spent some 16 years travelling in Italy, under Christian V, he was appointed Denmarks first official General Building Master in 1671 with overall responsibility for executing the kings architectural wishes. Commissioned by Christian V, van Haven designed the imposing new Nørreport city gate after the gate had fallen into disrepair. Until it was dismantled in 1857, it was considered to be the tallest and finest of Copenhagens city gates with fine sandstone ornamentation, inspired by the Italian and French Baroque style, especially Berninis, he designed the interiors of Frederiksborg Palace which had been damaged by fire. The Audience Chamber, glorifying Christian V, is considered a masterpiece and he probably participated in the design of Charlottenborg Palace and in that of Niels Juels Mansion on Kongens Nytorv, now the French Embassy.
He was involved in designing a residential palace on Slotsholmen but this was never realised
Ewert Janssen or Evert Janssen was a Danish architect who became a royal masterbuilder in 1668. His greatest achievement was Charlottenborg Palace in Copenhagen, in 1665, Janssen completed his first major achievement with a connecting stairway at the medieval Gjorslev Castle in the south of Sealand. It appears to have copied from an earlier design by Dutch architect Philips Vingboons. The work was, not carried out and his original drawings for Charlottenborg Palace appear once again to have been based on Vingbooms plans for Amsterdams city hall which is now the royal residence. It was only thanks to Lambert van Havens significant alterations that the building has a style of its own, nevertheless, it is considered to be one of Denmarks architectural masterpieces. Janssen is credited with the design of several houses in southern Sealand, the most impressive being Nysø Manor. Manor house near Frederiksdal, Lolland Riding arena at Copenhagen Castle Gjethuset, theatre on Kongens Nytorv Søkvæsthuset, Kvæsthusgade, Gopenhagen Plans for Clausholm Castle
Jacob Coning or Jacob Koninck II was a Dutch-Danish painter who was painter to the Danish Court. He was one of the first painters in Denmark to specialize in painting, continuing the tradition from Dutch landscape painting. The son of Dutch painter Jacob Koninck, Jacob Coning was born in The Hague some time around 1647 and he trained as a painter under his father and Adriaen van de Velde. In 1676 he travelled to Copenhagen where he settled, from 1680 he worked for the Court. It was possibly his wife, who worked for Queen Charlotte Amalie and he mainly made topographical paintings and portraits but undertook other work such as gilding of frames. From 1698 to 1699, Coning was in Norway to create paintings for Frederiksberg Palace. In spite of his contact with the Court, Coning suffered from economic difficulties and he spent his last years in the poorhouse of the Reformed Church in Store Kongensgade. His carefully made landscape paintings are of cultural and historic value. He was a skilled portraitist with many customers among the Danish nobility, media related to Jacob Coning at Wikimedia Commons
The Holstein Mansion is a Baroque style town mansion on Stormgade in central Copenhagen, Denmark. Once home to the Natural History Museum, it now houses government offices, the original house was built for Hofmarschall Henrik Ulrik Lützow in 1687. The two storey, nine-bay house was designed by General Building Master Lambert van Haven. In 1706, the house was expanded with a bay at both ends of the main wing and two perpendicular wings to the rear. The architect of expansion was possibly Johan Conrad Ernst. The property was purchased by Privy Councillor Johan Georg Holstein in 1726 and his son, who inherited the mansion in 1730, acquired Ledreborg estate near Roskilde in 1739, continuing to use his house in Stormgade as his winter residence. Johan Ludvig Holsteins son, Christian von Holstein, commissioned court sculptor Jacob Fortling to carry out another expansion of the Holstein Mansion in 1756, the house remained in the hands of the Holstein family until it was acquired by Supreme Court Justice Christian Colbjørnsen in 1807.
The Holstein Mansion changed hands twice more before it was acquired by the Crown in 1827, the building was adapted for use as the Royal Museum of Natural History under supervision of Jørgen Hansen Koch. The naturalist Peter Wilhelm Lund was associated with the museum and he made several journeys to South America and is particularly known for his examinations of lime stone caves in Brazil. The zoologist Johannes Theodor Reinhardt was appointed inspector of the Royal Museum of Natural Historys 1st Department in 1848 and he had previously participated in the Galathea Expedition 1845-47 and visited Lund in Brazil in 1848. A new building for the Natural History Museum was inaugurated in Krystalgade in 1871, the building in Stormgade was sold to the insurance company Den almindelige Brandforsikring for Landbygninger. The Ministry of Housing purchased the building when Alm, brand moved to new premises on the Middle Pier in the Southern Freeport in 1971. The current exterior of the building dates from Fortlings expansion in 1756.
He added an extra floor topped by a balustrade decorated with vases and statues, the complex comprises the two perpendicular rear wings from 1706 and a half-timbered building in the yard from the second half of the 17th century. The building was converted into 12 apartments in 2016 and they vary in size between 90 and 386 square metres