The Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union enshrines certain political and economic rights for European Union citizens and residents into EU law. It was drafted by the European Convention and solemnly proclaimed on 7 December 2000 by the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and the European Commission. However, its legal status was uncertain and it did not have full legal effect until the entry into force of the Treaty of Lisbon on 1 December 2009. Under the Charter, the European Union must act and legislate with the Charter and the EU's courts will strike down legislation adopted by the EU's institutions that contravenes it; the Charter applies to the Institutions of the European Union and its member states when implementing European Union law. The Treaty establishing the European Economic Community did not include any reference to fundamental or human rights; the EEC Treaty was written a few years after the failure of the European Defence Community Treaty and the European Political Community Treaty.
The latter treaty had included rights provisions and Craig and de Búrca argue that, in light of that failure, the drafters of the EEC Treaty wished to eschew any implicitly political elements. However, the idea that the purely economic end of the new EEC Treaty would be unlikely to have any implications for fundamental rights was soon to be tested. Soon after the entry into force of the EEC Treaty, the Community established itself as a major political entity with policy ramifications beyond its economic aims. In 1964, the European Court of Justice handed down its decision in Costa v ENEL, in which the Court decided that Union law should take precedence over conflicting national law; this meant that national governments could not escape what they had agreed to at a European level by enacting conflicting domestic measures, but it potentially meant that the EEC legislator could legislate unhindered by the restrictions imposed by fundamental rights provisions enshrined in the constitutions of member states.
This issue came to a head in 1970 in the Internationale Handelsgesellschaft case when a German court ruled that a piece of EEC legislation infringed the German Basic Law. On a reference from the German court, the ECJ ruled that whilst the application of Union law could not depend on its consistency with national constitutions, fundamental rights did form an "integral part of the general principles of law" and that inconsistency with fundamental rights could form the basis of a successful challenge to a European law. In ruling as it did in Internationale Handelsgesellschaft the ECJ had in effect created a doctrine of unwritten rights which bound the Community institutions. While the court's fundamental rights jurisprudence was approved by the institutions in 1977 and a statement to that effect was inserted into the Maastricht Treaty it was only in 1999 that the European Council formally went about the initiating the process of drafting a codified catalogue of fundamental rights for the EU.
In 1999 the European Council proposed that a "body composed of representatives of the Heads of State and Government and of the President of the Commission as well as of members of the European Parliament and national parliaments" should be formed to draft a fundamental rights charter. On being constituted in December of that year the "body" entitled itself the European Convention; the Convention adopted the draft on 2 October 2000 and it was solemnly proclaimed by the European Parliament, the Council of Ministers and the European Commission on 7 December 2000. It was at the same time, decided to defer making a decision on the Charter's legal status. However, it did come with the political weight of having been approved by three powerful institutions and as such was cited by the ECJ as a source of fundamental rights. A modified Charter formed part of the defunct European Constitution. After that treaty's failure, its replacement, the Lisbon Treaty gave force to the Charter albeit by referencing it as an independent document rather than by incorporating it into the treaty itself.
However, both the version included in the Constitution and the one referenced in the Lisbon Treaty were amended versions of the Charter. On the coming into force of the Lisbon Treaty on 1 December 2009, Justice Commissioner Viviane Reding proposed that Commissioners should swear to uphold all EU treaties and the Charter. On 3 May 2010, the European Commission swore a solemn declaration at the European Court of Justice in Luxembourg, pledging to respect the EU Treaties and to be independent in carrying out their duties during their mandate. For the first time, the Commissioners explicitly pledged to respect the new Charter of Fundamental Rights. Several states insisted upon an opt-out from national application of the charter. Following the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty in 2009 the fundamental rights charter has the same legal value as the European Union treaties; the Charter referred to in the Treaty is an amended version of the 2000 document, solemnly declared by the same three institutions a day before the signing of the Lisbon Treaty itself.
Article 51 of the Charter addresses the Charter to the EU's institutions, bodies established under EU law and, when implementing EU laws, the EU's member states. In addition both Article 6 of the amended Treaty of European Union and Article 51 of the Charter itself restrict the Charter from extending the competences of the EU. A consequence of this is that the EU will not be able to legislate to vindicate a right set out in the Charter unless the power to do such is set out in the Treaties proper. Furthermore, individuals will not be able to take a member state to court for failing to uphold the
David Dixon is an English professional golfer. Dixon was born in Bridgwater, England, he turned professional in 2001. Dixon had a glittering amateur career, the highlight of, his performance at the 2001 Open Championship, where he earned the silver medal as the lowest finishing amateur. Dixon bounced between the European Tour and the Challenge Tour between 2001 and 2007. However, in 2008 he secured his first professional win, his status as a European Tour member, with victory at the Saint-Omer Open, he was never able to follow up his win and in 2019, he won the Matchroom Sport Championship on the PGA EuroPro Tour. 2000 Lytham Trophy 2001 South African Amateur Championship 2019 Matchroom Sport Championship 2014 Jamega Pro Golf Tour - Spanish Swing 2014 2018 PGA Play-offs Note: Dixon only played in The Open Championship. LA = Low Amateur "T" = tied PGA Cup: 2015, 2019 2005 European Tour Qualifying School graduates 2007 European Tour Qualifying School graduates 2011 European Tour Qualifying School graduates 2015 European Tour Qualifying School graduates David Dixon at the European Tour official site David Dixon at the Official World Golf Ranking official site
The South Harwich Methodist Church is a historic Methodist church building on 270 Chatham Road in South Harwich, Massachusetts, USA. Built in 1836, it is a well-preserved example of a typical Cape Cod church of the first half of the 19th century, it was the town's second Methodist meeting house, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1986. The South Harwich Methodist Church is locate on the north side of Chatham Road, at its junction with Old Country Road, it stands on a parcel of land that includes a cemetery established in 1829. It is a single-story wood frame structure, covered by a gabled roof, its exterior is clad in wooden clapboards, has a combination of modest Greek Revival and Gothic Revival features. The corners of the building have pilasters, which rise to an entablature and gable returns at the roof edge; the main facade is symmetrically arranged, with two entrances flanking a central double window. Each of these elements is topped bya lancet-arched louver; the side walls each have three windows topped by lancet-arched louvers.
A round-arch bay projects from the building rear. The interior is notable for its trompe-l'œil paintings and intact original features. Oil lamps used for lighting have been electrified. Methodism was introduced to Cape Cod in the 1790s by Reverend Jesse Lee; the first Methodist church was built in East Harwich in 1799, this, the town's second, was built in 1836 on land given to the congregation by John Paine Eldredge. The congregation was termed reform Methodist in belief, but underwent a schism over slavery and the nature of its services, the building was retained by a more conservative faction. In 1878 it was united with the East Harwich Methodist Church. By the time of the church's listing on the National Register, its congregation had dwindled in size to less than two dozen. National Register of Historic Places listings in Harwich, Massachusetts