Henry J. Kaiser
Henry John Kaiser was an American industrialist who became known as the father of modern American shipbuilding. He established the Kaiser Shipyards, which built Liberty ships during World War II, after which he formed Kaiser Aluminum and Kaiser Steel. Kaiser organized Kaiser Permanente health care for their families, he led Kaiser-Frazer followed by Kaiser Motors, automobile companies known for the safety of their designs. Kaiser was involved in large construction projects such as civic centers and dams, invested in real estate. With his wealth, he established the Kaiser Family Foundation, a nonprofit, non-partisan, charitable organization. Kaiser was born on May 9, 1882, in Sprout Brook, New York, the son of Franz and Anna Marie Kaiser, ethnic German immigrants, his father was a shoemaker. Kaiser's first job was as a cash boy in an Utica, New York, department store at the age of 16, he worked as an apprentice photographer early in life, was running the studio in Lake Placid by the age of 20. He used his savings to move to Washington state on the west coast of the United States in 1906, where he started a construction company that fulfilled government contracts.
Kaiser met his future wife, Bess Fosburgh, the daughter of a Virginia lumberman, when she came into his photographic shop in Lake Placid, New York, to buy some film. Fosburgh's father demanded that Kaiser show that he was financially stable before he would consent to their marriage, they married on April 8, 1907, had two children, Edgar Kaiser, Sr and Henry Kaiser, Jr. In 1914 Kaiser founded a paving company, Henry J. Kaiser Co. Ltd. one of the first to use heavy construction machinery. His firm expanded in 1927 when it received an $18-million contract to build roads in Camagüey Province, Cuba. In 1931 his firm was one of the prime contractors in building the Hoover Dam on the Colorado River, subsequently the Bonneville and Grand Coulee Dams on the Columbia River. While doing business among the "Six Companies, Inc.", remotely related to his interest in motor boat racing, he set up shipyards in Seattle and Tacoma, where he began using mass-production techniques, such as using welding instead of rivets.
Henry Kaiser was an early advocate of bringing American aid to those suffering from Nazi aggression in Europe. In 1940, a full year before the then-neutral United States had entered World War II, Kaiser was serving as National Chairman of United Clothing Collection for International War Relief to provide much-needed clothing for the refugees from Hitler's conquests in Europe, while the U. S. was still'isolationist'. Kaiser fought Hitler far more directly with what he is most famous for: the Kaiser Shipyard in Richmond, California; these ships became known as Liberty ships and were supplemented in the mid-war period by improved and faster Victory ships. He became world-renowned; the keel for the 10,500-ton SS Robert E. Peary was laid on Sunday, November 8, 1942, the ship was launched in California from the Richmond Shipyard #2 on Thursday, November 12, four days and 15½ hours later; the previous record had been ten days for the Liberty ship Joseph M. Teal. A visit to a Ford assembly plant by one of his associates led to the decision to use welding instead of riveting for shipbuilding.
Welding was advantageous because it took less strength to do and it was easier to teach to the thousands of employees unskilled laborers and many of them women. Kaiser adopted the use of sub-assemblies in ship construction. Though this practice had been tried on the East Coast and in Britain, Kaiser was able to take full advantage of the process by constructing new shipyards with this in mind. Other Kaiser shipyards were located in Ryan Point on the Columbia River in Washington state and on Swan Island in Portland, Oregon. A smaller vessel was turned out in 71 hours and 40 minutes from the Vancouver yard on November 16, 1942; the Kaiser hulls became America's smaller, more numerous "escort carriers", over one hundred small aircraft carriers employed in both the Pacific and the Atlantic theaters. The concepts he developed for the mass production of commercial and naval ships remain in use today. One problem with welded hulls, unknown at that time, was the issue of brittle fracture; this caused the loss of some Liberty ships in cold seas as the welds failed and the hulls would crack—sometimes in two.
Constance Tipper was one of the first people to discover. Minor changes in design and more rigid welding control implemented in 1947 eliminated Liberty ship losses until 1955. Through his membership in a group called the Six Companies, Kaiser had a major role in the Joshua Hendy Iron Works of Sunnyvale, which built the EC-2 triple expansion steam engines for the Liberty ships. Kaiser and his associates organized the California Shipbuilding Corporation. At Kaiser Shipyards in Richmond, Kaiser implemented the pioneering idea of Dr. Sidney Garfield of Kaiser Permanente. Opened on August 10, 1942, Kaiser Richmond Field Hospital for Kaiser Shipyards was financed by the U. S. Maritime Commission, sponsored by Henry J. Kaiser's Permanente Foundation, run by Dr. Garfield. In part due to wartime materials rationing, the Field Hospital was a single-story wood frame structure designed in a simple modernist mode. Intended for use as an emergency facilit
Fairchild was an American aircraft and aerospace manufacturing company based at various times in Farmingdale, New York. The company was founded by Sherman Fairchild in 1924 as Fairchild Aviation Corporation, based in Farmingdale, East Farmingdale, New York, it was established as the parent company for Fairchild's many aviation interests. The company produced the first US aircraft to include a enclosed cockpit and hydraulic landing gear, the Fairchild FC-1. At some point, it was known as the Fairchild Aircraft Manufacturing Company; the Fairchild Aircraft Ltd. of Longueuil, Canada was an aircraft manufacturer during the period of 1920 to 1950, which served as a subsidiary of the Fairchild company of the United States. The Fairchild Engine Company was formed with the purchase of the Caminez Engine Company in 1925. In 1929, Sherman Fairchild purchased a majority stock interest in Kreider-Reisner Aircraft Company of Hagerstown, Maryland; the company moved to Hagerstown in 1931. A series of related designs beginning with the Fairchild FC-1 and continuing to the Fairchild 71 were designed for aerial photography as a result of dissatisfaction towards available aircraft which were incapable of flying enough at a sufficient altitude.
In 1935, Fairchild was hired by the US government to do aerial photograph surveys of the United States to track soil erosion and its effects. Their performance and carrying ability led to them becoming one of the most popular bushplanes of the era. A Fairchild 71 monoplane, the Virginia, was taken as one of three aircraft by Richard E. Byrd on his 1928–1929 expedition to the South Pole, it was used for reconnaissance. During World War II, Fairchild produced PT-19/PT-23/PT-26 and AT-21 Gunner trainers, C-82 Packet transports and drones; the Fairchild AT-21 Gunner, a twin-engine trainer, was manufactured at a former rayon mill in Burlington, North Carolina. Large numbers of the Fairchild 24 were produced for the military, continued production after the war for the civilian market. Fairchild ranked 73rd among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts; the Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar was a US military transport aircraft developed from the World War II C-82 Packet.
The C-119 could carry cargo, stretcher patients and mechanized equipment with the ability to make "paradrops" of cargo and troops. The first C-119 made its initial flight in November 1947, by the time production ceased in 1955, more than 1,100 C-119s had been built for use in the USAF, the Royal Canadian Air Force and others. Many were converted into waterbombers after being retired from military service. In 1949 the Hagerstown, Maryland Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation developed the Chase XCG-20 glider into the C-123 Provider transport which entered service in 1955. In 1954 Fairchild purchased the American Helicopter Company, incorporating it and the XH-26 Jet Jeep as a division. In 1956, the company acquired rights to the Fokker Friendship, producing 206 of the aircraft as the Fairchild F-27 and Fairchild Hiller FH-227. During the 1950s, Fairchild was a large subcontractor to Boeing for B-52 fuselage sections and wing panels, they would build McDonnell-Douglas F-4 Phantom II tail sections, Grumman F-14 Tomcat tails, Space Shuttle stabilizers.
Their association with Boeing would continue into the 1980s as they built wing control surfaces for 747s and 757s. In 1964, the company purchased Hiller Aircraft, changing its name to Fairchild Hiller and producing the FH-1100, until 1973 when the helicopter division was sold back to Stanley Hiller. In 1965, the company acquired the Republic Aviation Company. Following the death of its founder, Fairchild changed its name to Fairchild Industries in 1971, before purchasing Swearingen and manufacturing the Fairchild Swearingen Metroliner, a successful commuter aircraft which gained orders from the US military as the C-26 Metroliner. In 1971 the company began developing the Fairchild Republic A-10 Thunderbolt II which prevailed over the rival Northrop YA-9 in the A-X competition for an eventual production run of 716 aircraft; the company developed the T-46 jet trainer to replace the elderly Cessna T-37 Tweet trainer, but it was not accepted by the Air Force because of performance problems. Aircraft production was ended in Hagerstown, Maryland in 1984.
After the company's takeover of Dornier's civil assets in 1996, the company was renamed Fairchild Dornier. The company commenced production of the Dornier 328 in 1998 under license from DASA. In December 1999, Fairchild Aerospace Corporation was acquired by German insurer Allianz A. G. and the United States investment group Clayton, Dubilier & Rice Inc. for $1.2 billion. In 2003, the assets of Fairchild were purchased by M7 Aerospace and the new company was relocated to San Antonio. On December 15, 2010, M7 was purchased by the United States subsidiary of the Israeli defense contractor Elbit Systems. AUM-N-2 Petrel SAM-N-2 Lark XSM-73 Goose International Cometary Explorer Pegasus ATS-6 Fairchild Industries Fairchild Corporation Fairchild Semiconductor Fairchild Camera and Instrument Ranger/Fairchild Engines List of aircraft engines Referenceforbusiness.com: History of Fairchild Aircraft, Inc. and associated companies Fairchild Industries Collection, National Air and Space Archives PDF — includes corporate history and chronology.
Fairchild Controls Corporation company website M7 Aerospace company website Airfields-freeman.com: — WWII Fairchild trainer production at Greensboro N. C. Planesandchoppers.com: Photos of Fairchild aircraft Hagerstown Aviation Museum website — in Hagerstown, headquarters of Fairchild Aircraft from 1931-1984, "Home of the Flying Boxcar."
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the five branches of the United States Armed Forces, one of the seven American uniformed services. Formed as a part of the United States Army on 1 August 1907, the USAF was established as a separate branch of the U. S. Armed Forces on 18 September 1947 with the passing of the National Security Act of 1947, it is the youngest branch of the U. S. Armed Forces, the fourth in order of precedence; the USAF is the largest and most technologically advanced air force in the world. The Air Force articulates its core missions as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control; the U. S. Air Force is a military service branch organized within the Department of the Air Force, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the Air Force, through the Department of the Air Force, is headed by the civilian Secretary of the Air Force, who reports to the Secretary of Defense, is appointed by the President with Senate confirmation.
The highest-ranking military officer in the Air Force is the Chief of Staff of the Air Force, who exercises supervision over Air Force units and serves as one of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Air Force components are assigned, as directed by the Secretary of Defense, to the combatant commands, neither the Secretary of the Air Force nor the Chief of Staff of the Air Force have operational command authority over them. Along with conducting independent air and space operations, the U. S. Air Force provides air support for land and naval forces and aids in the recovery of troops in the field; as of 2017, the service operates more than 5,369 military aircraft, 406 ICBMs and 170 military satellites. It has a $161 billion budget and is the second largest service branch, with 318,415 active duty airmen, 140,169 civilian personnel, 69,200 reserve airmen, 105,700 Air National Guard airmen. According to the National Security Act of 1947, which created the USAF: In general, the United States Air Force shall include aviation forces both combat and service not otherwise assigned.
It shall be organized and equipped for prompt and sustained offensive and defensive air operations. The Air Force shall be responsible for the preparation of the air forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war except as otherwise assigned and, in accordance with integrated joint mobilization plans, for the expansion of the peacetime components of the Air Force to meet the needs of war. §8062 of Title 10 US Code defines the purpose of the USAF as: to preserve the peace and security, provide for the defense, of the United States, the Territories and possessions, any areas occupied by the United States. The stated mission of the USAF today is to "fly and win...in air and cyberspace". "The United States Air Force will be a trusted and reliable joint partner with our sister services known for integrity in all of our activities, including supporting the joint mission first and foremost. We will provide compelling air and cyber capabilities for use by the combatant commanders. We will excel as stewards of all Air Force resources in service to the American people, while providing precise and reliable Global Vigilance and Power for the nation".
The five core missions of the Air Force have not changed since the Air Force became independent in 1947, but they have evolved, are now articulated as air and space superiority, global integrated intelligence and reconnaissance, rapid global mobility, global strike, command and control. The purpose of all of these core missions is to provide, what the Air Force states as, global vigilance, global reach, global power. Air superiority is "that degree of dominance in the air battle of one force over another which permits the conduct of operations by the former and its related land, sea and special operations forces at a given time and place without prohibitive interference by the opposing force". Offensive Counterair is defined as "offensive operations to destroy, disrupt, or neutralize enemy aircraft, launch platforms, their supporting structures and systems both before and after launch, but as close to their source as possible". OCA is the preferred method of countering air and missile threats since it attempts to defeat the enemy closer to its source and enjoys the initiative.
OCA comprises attack operations, sweep and suppression/destruction of enemy air defense. Defensive Counter air is defined as "all the defensive measures designed to detect, identify and destroy or negate enemy forces attempting to penetrate or attack through friendly airspace". A major goal of DCA operations, in concert with OCA operations, is to provide an area from which forces can operate, secure from air and missile threats; the DCA mission comprises both passive defense measures. Active defense is "the employment of limited offensive action and counterattacks to deny a contested area or position to the enemy", it includes both ballistic missile defense and air-breathing threat defense, encompasses point defense, area defense, high-value airborne asset defense. Passive defense is "measures taken to reduce the probability of and to minimize the effects of damage caused by hostile action without the intention of taking the initiative", it includes warning.
A bomber is a combat aircraft designed to attack ground and naval targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry, firing torpedoes and bullets, or deploying air-launched cruise missiles. Strategic bombing is done by heavy bombers designed for long-range bombing missions against strategic targets such as supply bases, factories and cities themselves, to diminish the enemy's ability to wage war by limiting access to resources through crippling infrastructure or reducing industrial output. Current examples include the strategic nuclear-armed bombers: B-2 Spirit, B-52 Stratofortress, Tupolev Tu-95'Bear', Tupolev Tu-22M'Backfire'. IV, Avro Lancaster, Heinkel He 111, Junkers Ju 88, Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress, Consolidated B-24 Liberator, Boeing B-29 Superfortress, Tupolev Tu-16'Badger'. Tactical bombing, aimed at countering enemy military activity and in supporting offensive operations, is assigned to smaller aircraft operating at shorter ranges near the troops on the ground or against enemy shipping.
This role is filled by tactical bomber class, which crosses and blurs with various other aircraft categories: light bombers, medium bombers, dive bombers, fighter-bombers, attack aircraft, multirole combat aircraft, others. Current examples: Xian JH-7, Dassault-Breguet Mirage 2000D, the Panavia Tornado IDS Historical examples: Ilyushin Il-2 Shturmovik, Junkers Ju 87 Stuka, Republic P-47 Thunderbolt, Hawker Typhoon and Mikoyan MiG-27; the first use of an air-dropped bomb was carried out by Italian Second Lieutenant Giulio Gavotti on 1 November 1911 during the Italo-Turkish war in Libya. Although his plane was not designed for the task of bombing, his improvised attack on Ottoman positions at Ainzzarra had little impact; these picric acid-filled steel spheres were nicknamed "ballerinas" from the fluttering fabric ribbons attached. In 1912, during the First Balkan War, Bulgarian Air Force pilot Christo Toprakchiev suggested the use of aircraft to drop "bombs" on Turkish positions. Captain Simeon Petrov developed the idea and created several prototypes by adapting different types of grenades and increasing their payload.
On 16 October 1912, observer Prodan Tarakchiev dropped two of those bombs on the Turkish railway station of Karağaç from an Albatros F.2 aircraft piloted by Radul Milkov, for the first time in this campaign. This is deemed to be the first use of an aircraft as a bomber; the first heavier-than-air aircraft purposely designed for bombing were the Italian Caproni Ca 30 and British Bristol T. B.8, both of 1913. The Bristol T. B.8 was an early British single engined biplane built by the Bristol Aeroplane Company. They were fitted with a prismatic Bombsight in the front cockpit and a cylindrical bomb carrier in the lower forward fuselage capable of carrying twelve 10 lb bombs, which could be dropped singly or as a salvo as required; the aircraft was purchased for use both by the Royal Naval Air Service and the Royal Flying Corps, three T. B.8s, that were being displayed in Paris during December 1913 fitted with bombing equipment, were sent to France following the outbreak of war. Under the command of Charles Rumney Samson, a bombing attack on German gun batteries at Middelkerke, Belgium was executed on 25 November 1914.
The dirigible, or airship, was developed in the early 20th century. Early airships were prone to disaster, but the airship became more dependable, with a more rigid structure and stronger skin. Prior to the outbreak of war, Zeppelins, a larger and more streamlined form of airship designed by German Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin, were outfitted to carry bombs to attack targets at long range; these were strategic bombers. Although the German air arm was strong, with a total of 123 airships by the end of the war, they were vulnerable to attack and engine failure, as well as navigational issues. German airships inflicted little damage with 557 Britons killed and 1,358 injured; the German Navy lost 53 of its 73 airships, the German Army lost 26 of its 50 ships. The Caproni Ca 30 was built by Gianni Caproni in Italy, it was a twin-boom biplane with three 67 kW Gnome rotary engines and first flew in October 1914. Test flights revealed power to be insufficient and the engine layout unworkable, Caproni soon adopted a more conventional approach installing three 81 kW Fiat A.10s.
The improved design was bought by the Italian Army and it was delivered in quantity from August 1915. While used as a trainer, Avro 504s were briefly used as bombers at the start of the First World War by the Royal Naval Air Service when they were used for raids on the German airship sheds. Bombing raids and interdiction operations were carried out by French and British forces during the War as the German air arm was forced to concentrate its resources on a defensive strategy. Notably, bombing campaigns formed a part of the British offensive at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle in 1915, with Royal Flying Corps squadrons attacking German railway stations in an attempt to hinder the logistical supply of the German army; the early, improvised attempts at bombing that characterized the early part of the war gave way to a more organized and systematic approach to strategic and tactical bombing, pioneered by various air power strategists of the Entente Major Hugh Trenchard.
The radial engine is a reciprocating type internal combustion engine configuration in which the cylinders "radiate" outward from a central crankcase like the spokes of a wheel. It resembles a stylized star when viewed from the front, is called a "star engine" in some languages; the radial configuration was used for aircraft engines before gas turbine engines became predominant. Since the axes of the cylinders are coplanar, the connecting rods cannot all be directly attached to the crankshaft unless mechanically complex forked connecting rods are used, none of which have been successful. Instead, the pistons are connected to the crankshaft with a master-and-articulating-rod assembly. One piston, the uppermost one in the animation, has a master rod with a direct attachment to the crankshaft; the remaining pistons pin their connecting rods' attachments to rings around the edge of the master rod. Extra "rows" of radial cylinders can be added in order to increase the capacity of the engine without adding to its diameter.
Four-stroke radials have an odd number of cylinders per row, so that a consistent every-other-piston firing order can be maintained, providing smooth operation. For example, on a five-cylinder engine the firing order is 1, 3, 5, 2, 4, back to cylinder 1. Moreover, this always leaves a one-piston gap between the piston on its combustion stroke and the piston on compression; the active stroke directly helps compress the next cylinder to fire. If an number of cylinders were used, an timed firing cycle would not be feasible; the prototype radial Zoche aero-diesels have an number of cylinders, either four or eight. The radial engine uses fewer cam lobes than other types; as with most four-strokes, the crankshaft takes two revolutions to complete the four strokes of each piston. The camshaft ring is geared to spin slower and in the opposite direction to the crankshaft; the cam lobes exhaust. For example, four cam lobes serve all five cylinders, whereas 10 would be required for a typical inline engine with the same number of cylinders and valves.
Most radial engines use overhead poppet valves driven by pushrods and lifters on a cam plate, concentric with the crankshaft, with a few smaller radials, like the Kinner B-5 and Russian Shvetsov M-11, using individual camshafts within the crankcase for each cylinder. A few engines use sleeve valves such as the 14-cylinder Bristol Hercules and the 18-cylinder Bristol Centaurus, which are quieter and smoother running but require much tighter manufacturing tolerances. C. M. Manly constructed a water-cooled five-cylinder radial engine in 1901, a conversion of one of Stephen Balzer's rotary engines, for Langley's Aerodrome aircraft. Manly's engine produced 52 hp at 950 rpm. In 1903–1904 Jacob Ellehammer used his experience constructing motorcycles to build the world's first air-cooled radial engine, a three-cylinder engine which he used as the basis for a more powerful five-cylinder model in 1907; this was made a number of short free-flight hops. Another early radial engine was the three-cylinder Anzani built as a W3 "fan" configuration, one of which powered Louis Blériot's Blériot XI across the English Channel.
Before 1914, Alessandro Anzani had developed radial engines ranging from 3 cylinders — early enough to have been used on a few French-built examples of the famous Blériot XI from the original Blériot factory — to a massive 20-cylinder engine of 200 hp, with its cylinders arranged in four rows of five cylinders apiece. Most radial engines are air-cooled, but one of the most successful of the early radial engines was the Salmson 9Z series of nine-cylinder water-cooled radial engines that were produced in large numbers during the First World War. Georges Canton and Pierre Unné patented the original engine design in 1909, offering it to the Salmson company. From 1909 to 1919 the radial engine was overshadowed by its close relative, the rotary engine, which differed from the so-called "stationary" radial in that the crankcase and cylinders revolved with the propeller, it was similar in concept to the radial, the main difference being that the propeller was bolted to the engine, the crankshaft to the airframe.
The problem of the cooling of the cylinders, a major factor with the early "stationary" radials, was alleviated by the engine generating its own cooling airflow. In World War I many French and other Allied aircraft flew with Gnome, Le Rhône, Bentley rotary engines, the ultimate examples of which reached 250 hp although none of those over 160 hp were successful. By 1917 rotary engine development was lagging behind new inline and V-type engines, which by 1918 were producing as much as 400 hp, were powering all of the new French and British combat aircraft. Most German aircraft of the time used water-cooled inline 6-cylinder engines. Motorenfabrik Oberursel made licensed copies of the Gnome and Le Rhône rotary powerplants, Siemens-Halske built their own designs, including the Siemens-Halske Sh. III eleven-cylinder rotary engine, unusual for the period in being geared through a bevel geartrain in the rear end of the crankcase without the crankshaft being mounted to the aircraft's airframe, so that the engine's internal working components (fully in
The Chase CG-14 known as the G-14 or Model MS.1, was an assault glider manufactured by Chase Aircraft for the United States Army Air Forces during the Second World War. The aircraft failed to progress beyond the prototype stage, being overtaken by larger, improved glider designs; the first aircraft to be developed by Chase after its founding in 1943, the CG-14 was developed in preference to the Laister-Kauffman CG-10. Constructed from marine-grade mahogany, as spruce wood was being used by the war effort in higher priority projects, the XG-14 featured improved crash protection when compared to preceding gliders; the XCG-14 made its maiden flight on January 4, 1945, following successful flight trials the aircraft was developed into two improved versions, the wood-and-metal XCG-14A and the enlarged YCG-14A. The CG-14 was one of the few glider projects to be continued after the end of the war. Chase MS.1 Company designation for the XCG-14 XCG-14 First prototype, all-wooden. 16 seats. XCG-14A Wood and metal version of XCG-14.
24 seats. YCG-14A/YG-14A Production prototype version of XCG-14A, superseded by XCG-14B. Chase MS.7 Company designation for the XCG-14B XCG-14B/XG-14B Enlarged, improved variant, redesignated XCG-18, 2 built. Data from Fighting Gliders of World War IIGeneral characteristics Crew: 2 Capacity: One 1-ton 4 x 4 truck + 3 soldiers or One M3A1 75 mm howitzer + crew or 18 troops equipped Length: 42 ft 10.5 in Wingspan: 71 ft 9.6 in Height: 6 ft 9.60 in Wing area: 507 sq ft Aspect ratio: 10.18 Airfoil: NACA 23016 Empty weight: 3,237 lb Max takeoff weight: 7,605 lb Performance Maximum speed: 170 mph Maximum Aero-tow speed Stall speed: 60 mph flaps down Never exceed speed: 200 mph Related lists List of military aircraft of the United States Notes Bibliography
Michael Stroukoff was a Russian-born aircraft designer, who served in the White Army before emigrating to the United States. After spending some time as an architect, he joined the Chase Aircraft Company and designed a number of transport aircraft for the United States Army Air Forces and the United States Air Force starting his own company to perform further aeronautical work. Born 29 January 1883 in Yekaterinoslav, a city in the Russian Empire, Stroukoff attended the Kiev Polytechnic Institute, graduating in 1908 with a degree in civic engineering. Joining the Russian Army, he saw service during World War I after the war he served in the White Army during the Russian Revolution, attaining the rank of Major and being awarded the Order of St. George of the Fourth Degree. With the defeat of the Whites by the Bolsheviks, he fled Russia and emigrated to the United States in 1922. Following his emigration, Stroukoff started a career in architecture and interior design, before being appointed chief engineer and president of Chase Aircraft upon its foundation.
His first design was the XCG-14, a wooden troop-carrying assault glider, developed into the larger CG-18 and CG-20 gliders, the latter being the largest glider constructed in the United States. Following World War II, the assault glider fell out of favour, replaced by powered transports, Stroukoff modified a YG-18 into the prototype YC-122, a small number of the aircraft were built. More important was the conversion of the G-20 into the C-123, described as a "Winged Truck" by Stroukoff. While one version of the aircraft was the first jet-powered transport built in America, it was the piston-engined'assault transport' version of the C-123 that won a contract from the United States Air Force for production. However, following a procurement scandal and political issues, the C-123 contract was awarded to Fairchild Aircraft, Kaiser bought out Chase Aircraft. Setting up a new company, the Stroukoff Aircraft Corporation, Stroukoff continued work on improved versions of the C-123, most notably the YC-134, however none of them would go into production, in 1959 the company closed down.
Stroukoff died at the age of 90 in St. Francis Hospital in Trenton, New Jersey on December 22, 1973; the Larissa Stroukoff Memorial Trophy, awarded by the Soaring Society of America for the highest speed recorded on a closed course in a glider during the U. S. National Open Class Soaring Championships, was designed by Stroukoff. Notes Bibliography Comments by Michael Stroukoff Jr on the C-123 and Kaiser