Newton is a city in and the county seat of Harvey County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 19,132. Newton is located 25 miles north of Wichita; the city of North Newton is located north, existing as a separate political entity. For millennia, the land now known as Kansas was inhabited by Native Americans. In 1803, most of modern Kansas was secured by the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase. In 1854, the Kansas Territory was organized in 1861 Kansas became the 34th U. S. state. In 1872, Harvey County was founded. In 1871, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway extended a main line from Emporia westward to Newton by July 1871; the town soon became an important railroad shipping point of Texas cattle. The city was founded in 1871 and named after Newton, home of some of the Santa Fe stockholders. In August 1871, there was a Gunfight at Hide Park; the incident began with an argument between Billy Bailey and Mike McCluskie. Because of this incident, Newton became known as "bloody and lawless—the wickedest city in the west.".
In 1872, the western terminal for the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway and the railhead for the Chisholm Trail were established here. Shortly after incorporation of the city in 1872, the Newton city council passed an ordinance prohibiting the running at large of buffalo and other wild animals. During World War II, the Newton airport was taken over by the US Navy as a secondary Naval Air Station, the main runway was extended to over 7,000 feet. Newton served as the Middle Division dispatching headquarters for the "Santa Fe" until the mid-1980s, when all dispatching for the Chicago to Los Angeles system was centralized in the Chicago area. In 1995, the Santa Fe merged with the Burlington Northern Railroad, is now known as the BNSF Railway; the BNSF continues to be a large industrial taxpayer although its impact as an employer has decreased in the past decade. Most locals still refer to this railroad as the "Santa Fe". On February 25, 2016, Newton was the site of the first of several related shooting incidents, which culminated in a mass shooting at an Excel Industries building in nearby Hesston that left three people dead and twelve others injured.
The shooter, identified as Excel employee Cedric Larry Ford, was killed by responding police officers. Newton is located at 38°2′39″N 97°20′51″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.60 square miles, all of it land. The city is in the central portion of the continental United States. U. S. Highway 81 known as the Meridian Highway, stretches from Winnipeg, Canada to Mexico City, Mexico through Central and South America, it passes through Newton, Kansas and is known as "Main Street." U. S. Highway 50 runs past the White House in Washington, DC through Newton and continues on to Sacramento, California; the climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Newton has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps. Newton is included in the Wichita metropolitan statistical area, it is located in Harvey County, an agricultural and small manufacturing county with 34,361 people.
Harvey County Kansas is part of a 5 county Metro Area with 650,000 people, the largest anchored in the state of Kansas. The major city in this metro area is Wichita, Kansas, 20 miles to the South via I-135; as of the census of 2010, there were 19,132 people, 7,584 households, 5,045 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,518.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 8,237 housing units at an average density of 653.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.4% White, 2.2% African American, 0.9% Native American, 0.8% Asian, 4.7% from other races, 2.9% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 16.3% of the population. There were 7,584 households of which 33.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 10.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 33.5% were non-families. 29.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.46 and the average family size was 3.01. The median age in the city was 36.8 years. 26.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.4% male and 51.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 17,190 people, 6,851 households, 4,610 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,794.0 people per square mile. There were 7,277 housing units at an average density of 759.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.73% White, 2.30% African American, 0.53% Native American, 0.66% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 6.84% from other races, 2.92% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 12.73% of the population. There were 6,851 households out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.2% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.7% were non-families. 28.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.99. In the city, the population had 26.3% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 28.2% f
Hope is a city in southern Dickinson County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 368; the motto of Hope is "There Will Always Be Hope In Kansas", the name of a song. For many millennia, the Great Plains of North America was inhabited by nomadic Native Americans. From the 16th century to 18th century, the Kingdom of France claimed ownership of large parts of North America. In 1762, after the French and Indian War, France secretly ceded New France to Spain, per the Treaty of Fontainebleau. In 1802, Spain returned most of the land to France. In 1803, most of the land for modern day Kansas was acquired by the United States from France as part of the 828,000 square mile Louisiana Purchase for 2.83 cents per acre. In 1854, the Kansas Territory was organized in 1861 Kansas became the 34th U. S. state. In 1857, Dickinson County was established within the Kansas Territory, which included the land for modern day Hope. In 1871, a group of about forty people, led by Newell Thurstin, began planning a town site in Hope.
The town is said to be named after one of Thurstin's sons. The first post office in Hope was established in July 1871. David Jacob Eisenhower, the father of US President Dwight David Eisenhower, lived in a 160-acre ranch near Hope from 1878 to his enrollment at Lane University, he and his partner, Milton Good, operated a general store here in 1885. Hope was incorporated in 1886, at that time it had a population of over 700, larger than what it is today; the arrival of the railroad one year before, brought access of bustling Chicago to tiny Hope. In 1887, Atchison and Santa Fe Railway built a branch line from Neva through Hope to Superior, Nebraska. In 1996, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway merged with Burlington Northern Railroad and renamed to the current BNSF Railway. Most locals still refer to this railroad as the "Santa Fe". Hope is located at 38°41′22″N 97°4′37″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.39 square miles, all of it land. There are two parks in Hope: one in the downtown area on Main Street and an older one in the northern edge of town.
The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Hope has a humid subtropical climate, abbreviated "Cfa" on climate maps; as of the census of 2010, there were 368 people, 166 households, 104 families residing in the city. The population density was 943.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 192 housing units at an average density of 492.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.5% White, 2.4% African American, 0.8% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 3.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.3% of the population. There were 166 households of which 22.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.2% were married couples living together, 6.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.4% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.3% were non-families. 33.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 18.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.81. The median age in the city was 48.7 years. 19.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.7% male and 50.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 372 people, 164 households, 106 families residing in the city; the population density was 821.8 people per square mile. There were 185 housing units at an average density of 408.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 98.12% White, 0.81% African American, 0.54% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.27% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.27% of the population. There were 164 households out of which 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.3% were married couples living together, 5.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.8% were non-families. 32.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 21.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.88.
In the city, the population was spread out with 24.5% under the age of 18, 3.8% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 22.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,365, the median income for a family was $32,813. Males had a median income of $27,639 versus $18,036 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,300. About 4.8% of families and 7.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.6% of those under age 18 and 14.0% of those age 65 or over. The Hope government consists of five council members; the council meets the 1st Monday of each month at 7 pm. The current mayor is Larry Ryff. Hope is located on the longest highway in the state, it was once at the junction of the BNSF and Missouri Pacific railroads, but is no longer served by either Railroad. Hope is part of Unified School District 481.
Edgar N. Eisenhower, brother of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, was born in Kansas. Hope Township, Dickinson County, Kansas CityCity of Hope Hope – Directory of Public Officials Hope – Information, kansasheritage.orgSchoolsUSD 481, local school district USD 481 School District Boundary Map, KDOTHistoricalHistoric
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Cottonwood River (Kansas)
Cottonwood River is one of the principal tributaries of the Neosho River in central Kansas of the United States. The river begins near the west line of Marion County as two tributaries, the North Cottonwood River and the South Cottonwood River, they both start within 2 miles of each other, within a few miles northwest of Lehigh. The North Cottonwood starts near the west line of Marion County, crosses into McPherson County and parallels the county line northward for 5 miles crosses back into Marion County, it flows through Durham into the Marion Reservoir. The South Cottonwood starts near the west line of Marion County, flows southward about 1 mile west of Lehigh flows eastward about 2 miles south of Hillsboro northeast towards the lower side of the Marion Reservoir; the North and South Cottonwood join about 1 mile southeast of the Marion Reservoir to become the North Fork Cottonwood River, before flowing through the city of Marion. The river flows southeast to Florence eastward towards Chase County.
In Chase County, it flows northeast through Cedar Point near Clements and Elmdale. It flows eastward through Strong City, Cottonwood Falls; the South Fork Cottonwood River starts south of Matfield Green flows northward along the east side of Matfield Green and Bazaar. It merges with the North Fork Cottonwood River about 3 miles east of Cottonwood Falls flows eastward near Saffordville and across into Lyon County near Plymouth, Kansas along the south edge of Emporia, it flows into the Neosho River about 5 miles east of Emporia. In 1806, Zebulon Pike led the Pike expedition westward from St Louis, Missouri, of which part of their journey followed the Cottonwood River through Marion County near the current towns of Florence, Durham. Marion Florence Cedar Point Clements Elmdale Strong City Cottonwood Falls Saffordville Emporia Cedar Creek Diamond Creek Doyle Creek Jacobs Creek The following lakes are located in the Cottonwood River drainage basin: Marion Reservoir, northwest of Marion. Marion County Lake, southeast of Marion.
Chase County State Lake, west of Cottonwood Falls. Camp Wood YMCA Lake, south of Elmdale. Peabody Country Club Lake, south of Peabody; the following bridges over the Cottonwood River are on the National Register of Historic Places list: 1916 Cottonwood River Pratt Truss Bridge, 0.8 miles west of Cedar Point. 1886 Clements Stone Arch Bridge, 0.5 miles southeast of Clements. 1914 Cottonwood River Bridge, north edge of Cottonwood Falls. 1923 Soden's south edge of Emporia. Cedar Point Mill Jacobs Creek and Jacobs Creek Flood Great Flood of 1951 List of Kansas rivers U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Cottonwood RiverCottonwood River current depth and history west edge of Marion 1 mile east of Florence 1 mile southwest of Plymouth 4 miles east of Emporia
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol