Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad
The Chicago and Quincy Railroad was a railroad that operated in the Midwestern United States. Referred to as the Burlington Route, the Burlington or as the Q, it operated extensive trackage in the states of Colorado, Iowa, Kentucky, Montana, Wisconsin, in New Mexico and Texas through subsidiaries Colorado and Southern Railway, Fort Worth and Denver Railway, Burlington-Rock Island Railroad, its primary connections included Chicago, Minneapolis-St. Paul, St. Louis, Kansas City and Denver; because of this extensive trackage in the midwest and mountain states, the railroad used the advertising slogans "Everywhere West", "Way of the Zephyrs", "The Way West". In 1967, it reported 19,565 million net ton-miles of revenue freight and 723 million passenger miles. At the end of the year CB&Q operated 8,538 route-miles, C&S operated 708 and FW&D operated 1362. In 1970, it merged with the Northern Pacific and Great Northern Railroads to form the Burlington Northern Railroad; the earliest predecessor of the Chicago and Quincy, the Aurora Branch Railroad, was chartered by act of the Illinois General Assembly on October 2, 1848.
The charter was obtained by citizens of Aurora and Batavia, who were concerned that the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad would bypass their towns in favor of West Chicago on its route. The Aurora Branch was built from Aurora, through Batavia, to Turner Junction in what is now West Chicago; the line was built with minimal, if any, grading. Using a leased locomotive and cars, the Aurora Branch ran passenger and freight trains from Aurora to Chicago via its own line from Aurora to Turner Junction and one of the G&CU's two tracks east from there to Chicago; the G&CU required the Aurora Branch to turn over 70 percent of their revenue per ton-mile handled on that railroad. The line from Aurora to Chicago was built through the fledgling towns of Naperville, Downers Grove, Hinsdale and the west side of Chicago, it was opened in 1864, passenger and freight service began. Regular commuter train service started in 1864 and remains operational to this day, making it the oldest surviving regular passenger service in Chicago.
Both the original Chicago line, to a much lesser extent, the old Aurora Branch right of way, are still in regular use today by the Burlington's present successor BNSF Railway. The company was renamed Chicago and Aurora Railroad on June 22, 1852, given expanded powers to extend from Aurora to a point north of LaSalle. Another amendment, passed February 28, 1854, authorized the company to build east from Aurora to Chicago via Naperville, changed its name to Chicago and Southwestern Railroad; the latter provision was never acted upon, was repealed by an act of February 14, 1855, which instead reorganized the line as the Chicago and Quincy Railroad. With a steady acquisition of locomotives, cars and trackage, the Burlington Route was able to enter the trade markets in 1862. From that year to date, the railroad and its successors have paid dividends continuously, never run into debt or defaulted on a loan—the only Class I U. S. railroad for which this is true. After extensive trackwork was planned, the Aurora Branch changed its name to the Chicago and Aurora Railroad in June 1852, to Chicago and Quincy Railroad in 1856, shortly reached its two other namesake cities, Burlington and Quincy, Illinois.
In 1868 CB&Q completed bridges over the Mississippi River both at Burlington and Quincy, Illinois giving the railroad through connections with the Burlington and Missouri River Railroad in Iowa and the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad in Missouri; the first Railway Post Office was inaugurated on the H&StJ to sort mail on the trains way across Missouri, passing the mail to the Pony Express upon reaching the Missouri River at St. Joseph, Missouri; the B&MR continued building west into Nebraska as a separate company, the Burlington & Missouri River Rail Road, founded in 1869. During the summer of 1870 it reached Lincoln, the newly designated capital of Nebraska and by 1872 it reached Kearney, Nebraska; that same year the B&MR across Iowa was absorbed by the CB&Q. By the time the Missouri River bridge at Plattsmouth, Nebraska was completed the B&MR in Nebraska was well on its way to the Mile High city of Denver, Colorado; that same year, the Nebraska B&MR was purchased by the CB&Q, which completed the line to Denver by 1882.
Burlington's rapid expansion after the American Civil War was based upon sound financial management, dominated by John Murray Forbes of Boston and assisted by Charles Elliott Perkins. Perkins was a powerful administrator who forged a system out of loosely held affiliates tripling Burlington's size during his presidency from 1881 to 1901. Perkins believed the Burlington Railroad must be included into a powerful transcontinental system. Though the railroad stretched as far west as Denver and Billings, Montana, it had failed to reach the Pacific Coast during the 1880s and 1890s, when construction was less expensive. Though approached by E. H. Harriman of the Union Pacific Railroad, Perkins felt his railroad was a more natural fit with James J. Hill's Great Northern Railway. With its river line to the Twin Cities, the Burlington Route formed a natural connection between Hill's
The Sandhills written Sand Hills, is a region of mixed-grass prairie on grass-stabilized sand dunes in north-central Nebraska, covering just over one quarter of the state. The dunes were designated a National Natural Landmark in 1984; the boundaries of the Sandhills are variously defined by different organizations. Depending on the definition, the region's area can be as small as 19,600 mi2 or as large as 23,600 mi2. Dunes in the Sandhills may exceed 330 ft in height; the average elevation of the region increases from about 1,800 ft in the east to about 3,600 ft in the west. The Sandhills sit atop the massive Ogallala Aquifer; the eastern and central sections of the region are drained by tributaries of the Loup River and the Niobrara River, while the western section is composed of small interior drainage basins. The World Wide Fund for Nature designated the Sandhills as an ecoregion, distinct from other grasslands of the Great Plains. According to their assessment, as much as 85% of the ecoregion is intact natural habitat, the highest level in the Great Plains.
This is chiefly due to the lack of crop production: most of the Sandhills land has never been plowed. Paleoclimate proxy data and computer simulations reveal that the Nebraska Sandhills had active sand dunes as as the Medieval Warm Period, when temperatures in the North Atlantic region were about 1 °C warmer than the current climate. Much of the area was a scrub desert, with desert-like conditions extending to several other states. Current global warming may make the grassland climate more unstable, giving way to desert given more fires, mild drought and erosion; the plant-anchored dunes of the Sandhills were long considered an irreclaimable desert. In the 1870s, cattlemen began to discover their potential as rangeland for Longhorn cattle; the fragility of the sandy soil makes the area unsuitable for cultivation of crops. Attempts at farming were made in the region in the late 1870s and again around 1890; the 1904 Kinkaid Act allowed homesteaders to claim 640 acres of land, rather than the 160 acres allowed by the 1862 Homestead Act.
Nearly nine million acres were claimed by "Kinkaiders" between 1910 and 1917. Some of the Kinkaiders farmed the land, but these attempts failed; this included Nebraska's largest black settlement, DeWitty, located in southeast Cherry County until the 1930s. Many of the largest ranches broke up about the same time due to regulations against fencing federal range lands; some development of cropland agriculture in the modern era has occurred through the use of center-pivot irrigation systems. In the 21st century, the Sandhills are a productive cattle ranching area, supporting over 530,000 beef cattle; the population of the region continues to decline as older generations die out and as younger generations move to the cities. A number of small towns remain in the region; the Sandhills, the largest and most intricate wetland ecosystem in the United States, contain a large array of plant and animal life. Minimal crop production has led to limited land fragmentation; the Sandhills are home to 314 vertebrate species including mule deer, white-tail deer, red fox, wild turkeys, skunks, native bat species, many fish species.
The Sandhills' thousands of ponds and lakes replenish the Ogallala Aquifer, which feeds creeks and rivers such as the Niobrara and Loup rivers. These bodies of water are homes for many species of fish; the lakes are sandy-bottomed and provide water for the region's cattle, as well as a habitat for aquatic species. Some lakes in the area support several species of phyllopod shrimp. 720 different species of plants are found in the Sandhills. Most are native, with only 7% exotics — half the percentage of most other prairie systems; the blowout penstemon is an endangered species, found only in the Sandhills and in similar environments in central Wyoming. The blowout penstemon stabilizes the soil where wind erosion exposes the bare sand and creates a blowout, but is choked out when other species begin to recolonize. Grazing and land management practices used by Sandhills ranchers have reduced natural erosion, thus destroying some of the plant's habitat. Many of the plants of the Sandhills are sand-tolerant species from short-grass, mixed-grass, tallgrass prairies.
These plants have helped to stabilize the sand dunes, creating an ecosystem beneficial for other plants and animals. Better land management and grazing practices by the ranchers of the region have led to less erosion over time, which has kept the natural landscape of the area intact. Many species of insect are found in the Sandhills, including dragonflies and mosquitos. There are many types of spiders. Due to the ephemeral nature of both alkaline and freshwater lakes throughout the region, coupled with the wetland marsh areas, mosquito populations increase during the summer months; the Sandhills are part of the Central Flyway for many species of migratory birds, the region's many bodies of water give them places to rest. The ponds and lakes of the region are lay-over points for migratory cranes and many species of ducks. Species found year-round include the western meadowl
1930 United States Census
The Fifteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau one month from April 1, 1930, determined the resident population of the United States to be 122,775,046, an increase of 13.7 percent over the 106,021,537 persons enumerated during the 1920 Census. The 1930 Census collected the following information: address name relationship to head of family home owned or rented if owned, value of home if rented, monthly rent whether owned a radio set whether on a farm sex race age marital status and, if married, age at first marriage school attendance literacy birthplace of person, their parents if foreign born: language spoken at home before coming to the U. S. year of immigration whether naturalized ability to speak English occupation and class of worker whether at work previous day veteran status if Indian: whether of full or mixed blood tribal affiliationFull documentation for the 1930 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series.
The original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in 1949. The microfilmed census is located on 2,667 rolls of microfilm, available from the National Archives and Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, digital indices. Microdata from the 1930 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1930 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com 1931 U. S Census Report Contains 1930 Census results Historic US Census data 1930Census.com: 1930 United States Census for Genealogy & Family History Research 1930 Interactive US Census Find stories and more attached to names on the 1930 US census
Yuma County, Colorado
Yuma County is one of the 64 counties of the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 10,043; the county seat is Wray. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,369 square miles, of which 2,364 square miles is land and 4.3 square miles is water. The point where the Arikaree River flows out of Yuma County and into Cheyenne County, Kansas is the lowest point in the State of Colorado at 1,010 meters elevation; this crossing point holds the distinction of being the highest low point of any U. S. state. Phillips County Chase County, Nebraska Cheyenne County, Kansas Dundy County, Nebraska Kit Carson County Washington County Logan County As of the census of 2000, there were 9,841 people, 3,800 households, 2,644 families residing in the county; the population density was 4 people per square mile. There were 4,295 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.17% White, 0.11% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.07% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 4.14% from other races, 1.21% from two or more races.
12.88% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,800 households out of which 33.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.60% were married couples living together, 6.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.40% were non-families. 27.40% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.13. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.30% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 26.00% from 25 to 44, 22.30% from 45 to 64, 16.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 96.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,169, the median income for a family was $39,814. Males had a median income of $26,124 versus $18,578 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,005.
About 8.80% of families and 12.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.50% of those under age 18 and 10.70% of those age 65 or over. Yuma County is a Republican Party stronghold in presidential elections. Only five presidential elections from 1912 to the present day have seen the county fail to back the Republican candidate, the most recent being 1964 during Lyndon B. Johnson's statewide & national landslide. Wray Yuma Eckley Idalia Joes Kirk Laird Vernon Hale Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles National Register of Historic Places listings in Yuma County, Colorado Yuma County Government website Yuma County farm photos and documentation, from Historic American Buildings Survey Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society
Nebraska's 3rd congressional district
Nebraska's 3rd congressional district seat encompasses the western three-fourths of the state. It includes Grand Island, Hastings, North Platte and Scottsbluff. Additionally, it encompasses a large majority of the Platte River. Nebraska has had at least three congressional districts since 1883; the district's current configuration dates from 1963, when Nebraska lost a seat as a result of the 1960 United States Census. At that time, most of the old 3rd and 4th districts were merged to form the new 3rd District; the district is one of the most Republican districts in the nation. Democrats have only come close to winning this district three times as drawn, in 1974, 1990, 2006, all years where the incumbent was not running for reelection. Republican presidential and gubernatorial candidates carry the district with margins of 40 percent or more, while Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1936 was the last Democratic presidential candidate to win a plurality within the current district boundaries. Excepting Democratic Saline County on the district’s eastern boundary and Dakota County which has only been within this district since 2013, the last Democrat to carry any county within the district at a presidential level was Jimmy Carter in 1976.
Although Nebraska's state legislature is elected on a nonpartisan basis, all but two state senators representing significant portions of the district are known to be Republicans. With a Cook PVI of R+27, it is the most Republican Congressional District in the country outside the South, it is held by Republican Adrian Smith. The previous congressman, Tom Osborne, did not seek reelection in order to wage an unsuccessful campaign for the Republican nomination for governor of Nebraska. Nebraska's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present
German Americans are Americans who have full or partial German ancestry. With an estimated size of 44 million in 2016, German Americans are the largest of the ancestry groups reported by the US Census Bureau in its American Community Survey; the group accounts for about one third of the total ethnic German population in the world. None of the German states had American colonies. In the 1670s, the first significant groups of German immigrants arrived in the British colonies, settling in Pennsylvania, New York, Virginia. Immigration continued in large numbers during the 19th century, with eight million arrivals from Germany. Between 1820 and 1870 over seven and a half million German immigrants came to the United States. By 2010, their population grew to 49.8 million immigrants, reflecting a jump of 6 million people since 2000. There is a "German belt" that extends all the way across the United States, from eastern Pennsylvania to the Oregon coast. Pennsylvania has the largest population of German-Americans in the U.
S. and is home to one of the group's original settlements, founded in 1683 and the birthplace of the American antislavery movement in 1688, as well as the revolutionary Battle of Germantown. The state of Pennsylvania has 3.5 million people of German ancestry. They were pulled by the attractions of land and religious freedom, pushed out of Germany by shortages of land and religious or political oppression. Many arrived seeking religious or political freedom, others for economic opportunities greater than those in Europe, others for the chance to start fresh in the New World; the arrivals before 1850 were farmers who sought out the most productive land, where their intensive farming techniques would pay off. After 1840, many came to cities. German Americans established the first kindergartens in the United States, introduced the Christmas tree tradition, introduced popular foods such as hot dogs and hamburgers to America; the great majority of people with some German ancestry have become Americanized and can hardly be distinguished by the untrained eye.
German-American societies abound, as do celebrations that are held throughout the country to celebrate German heritage of which the German-American Steuben Parade in New York City is one of the most well-known and is held every third Saturday in September. Oktoberfest celebrations and the German-American Day are popular festivities. There are major annual events in cities with German heritage including Chicago, Milwaukee, San Antonio, St. Louis; the Germans included many quite distinct subgroups with differing cultural values. Lutherans and Catholics opposed Yankee moralizing programs such as the prohibition of beer, favored paternalistic families with the husband deciding the family position on public affairs, they opposed women's suffrage but this was used as argument in favor of suffrage when German Americans became pariahs during World War I. On the other hand, there were Protestant groups that emerged from European pietism such as the German Methodist and United Brethren; the first English settlers arrived at Jamestown, Virginia in 1607, were accompanied by the first German American, Dr. Johannes Fleischer.
He was followed in 1608 by three carpenters or house builders. The first permanent German settlement in what became the United States was Germantown, founded near Philadelphia on October 6, 1683. Large numbers of Germans migrated from the 1680s to 1760s, with Pennsylvania the favored destination, they migrated to America for a variety of reasons. Push factors involved worsening opportunities for farm ownership in central Europe, persecution of some religious groups, military conscription. Immigrants paid for their passage by selling their labor for a period of years as indentured servants. Large sections of Pennsylvania, Upstate New York, the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia attracted Germans. Most were German Reformed. German Catholics did not arrive in number until after the War of 1812. In 1709, Protestant Germans from the Pfalz or Palatine region of Germany escaped conditions of poverty, traveling first to Rotterdam and to London. Anne, Queen of Great Britain, helped; the trip was long and difficult to survive because of the poor quality of food and water aboard ships and the infectious disease typhus.
Many immigrants children, died before reaching America in June 1710. The Palatine immigration of about 2100 people who survived was the largest single immigration to America in the colonial period. Most were first settled along the Hudson River in work camps. By 1711, seven villages had been established in New York on the Robert Livingston manor. In 1723 Germans became the first Europeans allowed to buy land in the Mohawk Valley west of Little Falls. One hundred homesteads were allocated in the Burnetsfield Patent. By 1750, the Germans occupied a strip some 12 miles long along both sides of the Mohawk River; the soil was excellent. Herkimer was the best-known of the German settlements in a region long known as the "German Flats", they kept to themselves, married their own, spoke German, attended Lutheran churches, retained their own customs and foods. They emphasized farm owner
Vehicle registration plates of Nebraska
The U. S. state of Nebraska first required its residents to register their motor vehicles in 1905. Registrants provided their own license plates for display until 1915, when the state began to issue plates. All state-issued plates were made of steel until 1947. With the exception of 1945, all plates have been issued in pairs since 1922. In 1956, the United States and Mexico came to an agreement with the American Association of Motor Vehicle Administrators, the Automobile Manufacturers Association and the National Safety Council that standardized the size for license plates for vehicles at 6 inches in height by 12 inches in width, with standardized mounting holes; the 1955 issue was the first Nebraska license plate. Nebraska established a county-code system for its passenger and motorcycle plates in 1922, with one- or two-digit codes assigned to each county in order of the number of registered vehicles in the county at that time; these codes remained constant through 1950. For 1951, letter codes were used.
One-letter codes were assigned to the first counties whose names began with those letters, while all other counties were assigned two-letter codes consisting of the initial letter and the next available letter in their names. There were three exceptions: Douglas County, the most populous in the state, was assigned single-letter X to increase capacity; the numeric code system was reintroduced with the codes the same as before. It remains in use to this day, except in Douglas and Sarpy Counties, which adopted an uncoded ABC 123 serial format in 2002. Nebraska license plates 1969-present