Monochrom is an international art-technology-philosophy group, publishing house and film production company. Monochrom was founded in 1993, defines itself as "an unpeculiar mixture of proto-aesthetic fringe work, pop attitude, subcultural science and political activism", its main office is located at Museumsquartier/Vienna. The group's members are: Johannes Grenzfurthner, Evelyn Fürlinger, Harald Homolka-List, Anika Kronberger, Franz Ablinger, Frank Apunkt Schneider, Daniel Fabry, Günther Friesinger and Roland Gratzer; the group is known for working with different media and entertainment formats, although many projects are performative and have a strong focus on a critical and educational narrative. Johannes Grenzfurthner calls this "looking for the best weapon of mass distribution of an idea". Monochrom is left-wing and tries to encourage public debate, sometimes using subversive affirmation or over-affirmation as a tactic; the group popularized the concept of "context hacking". On the occasion of monochrom's 20th birthday in 2013, several Austrian high-profile media outlets paid tribute to the group's pioneering contributions within the field of contemporary art and discourse.
In the early 1990s, Johannes Grenzfurthner was an active member of several BBS message boards. He used his online connections to create a zine or alternative magazine that dealt with art and subversive cultures, was influenced by US magazines like Mondo 2000. Grenzfurthner's motivation was to react to the emerging conservativism in cyber-cultures of the early 1990s, to combine his political background in the Austrian punk and antifa movement with discussion of new technologies and the cultures they create. Franz Ablinger joined; the first issue was released in 1993. Over the years the publication featured many interviews and essays, for example by Bruce Sterling, HR Giger, Richard Kadrey, Arthur Kroker, Kathy Acker, Michael Marrak, DJ Spooky, Geert Lovink, Lars Gustafsson, Tony Serra, Friedrich Kittler, Jörg Buttgereit, Eric Drexler, Terry Pratchett, Jack Sargeant and Bob Black, in its specific experimental layout style. In 1995 the group decided to cover new artistic practices and started experimenting with different media: performances, computer games, puppet theater, short films, conferences, online activism.
In 1995 we decided. We knew that we wanted create viral information. So a quest for the best "Weapon of Mass Distribution" started, a search for the best transportation mode for a certain politics of philosophical ideas; this was the Cambrian Explosion of monochrom. We wanted to experiment, find new forms of telling our stories. But, to be clear, it was not about keeping the pace, of staying up-to-date, or staying "fresh"; the emergence of new media formats is interesting. But etching information into copper plates is just as exciting. We think that the perpetual return of'the new', to cite Walter Benjamin, is nothing to write home about - except for the slave-drivers in the fashion industry. We've never been interested in the new just in the accidental occurrence. In the moment where things don't tally, where productive confusion arises. All the other core team members joined between 1995 and 2006. Grenzfurthner is the group's artistic director, he defines monochrom's artistic and activist approach as'Context hacking' or'Urban Hacking'.
The group monochrom refers to its working method as »Context Hacking,« thus referencing the hacker culture, which propagates a creative and emancipatory approach to the technologies of the digital age, in this way turns against the continuation into the digital age of a centuries-old technological enslavement perpetrated through knowledge and hierarchies of experts.... Context hacking transfers the hackers' objectives and methods to the network of social relationships in which artistic production occurs, upon which it is dependent.... One of context hackers' central ambitions is to bring the factions of counterculture, which have veered off along diverging trajectories, back together again. From its foundation, the group defined itself as a movement, culture and "open field of experimentation". Monochrom supported and supports various artists, activists and communities with an online publishing platform, a print publishing service, organizes in-person meetings, radio shows, debate circles, online platforms.
It is fundamental for the group's core members to combine artistic and educational endeavors with community work. Some collaborations have been rather short-lived, some have been going for many years and decades, Michael Zeltner, Anouk Wipprecht, VSL Lindabrunn). Monochrom supports initiatives like the Radius Festival, Play:Vienna, the Buckminster Fuller Institute Austria, RE/Search, the Semantic Web Company and the Vienna hackerspace Metalab. For a couple of years, monochrom was running the DIY project "Hackbus" in cooperation with David "Daddy D" Dempsey Since 2007, monochrom is the European correspondent for Boing Boing Video. Monochrom offers a collaborative art resi
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,748,148 inhabitants make it the second most populous city proper of the European Union after London; the city is one of Germany's 16 federal states. It is surrounded by the state of Brandenburg, contiguous with its capital, Potsdam; the two cities are at the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg capital region, which is, with about six million inhabitants and an area of more than 30,000 km², Germany's third-largest metropolitan region after the Rhine-Ruhr and Rhine-Main regions. Berlin straddles the banks of the River Spree, which flows into the River Havel in the western borough of Spandau. Among the city's main topographical features are the many lakes in the western and southeastern boroughs formed by the Spree and Dahme rivers. Due to its location in the European Plain, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. About one-third of the city's area is composed of forests, gardens, rivers and lakes; the city lies in the Central German dialect area, the Berlin dialect being a variant of the Lusatian-New Marchian dialects.
First documented in the 13th century and situated at the crossing of two important historic trade routes, Berlin became the capital of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Kingdom of Prussia, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich. Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II and its subsequent occupation by the victorious countries, the city was divided. East Berlin was declared capital of East Germany. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the capital of all of Germany. Berlin is a world city of culture, politics and science, its economy is based on high-tech firms and the service sector, encompassing a diverse range of creative industries, research facilities, media corporations and convention venues. Berlin serves as a continental hub for air and rail traffic and has a complex public transportation network; the metropolis is a popular tourist destination. Significant industries include IT, biomedical engineering, clean tech, biotechnology and electronics.
Berlin is home to world-renowned universities, orchestras and entertainment venues, is host to many sporting events. Its Zoological Garden is one of the most popular worldwide. With the world's oldest large-scale movie studio complex, Berlin is an popular location for international film productions; the city is well known for its festivals, diverse architecture, contemporary arts and a high quality of living. Since the 2000s Berlin has seen the emergence of a cosmopolitan entrepreneurial scene. Berlin lies in northeastern Germany, east of the River Saale, that once constituted, together with the River Elbe, the eastern border of the Frankish Realm. While the Frankish Realm was inhabited by Germanic tribes like the Franks and the Saxons, the regions east of the border rivers were inhabited by Slavic tribes; this is why most of the villages in northeastern Germany bear Slavic-derived names. Typical Germanised place name suffixes of Slavic origin are -ow, -itz, -vitz, -witz, -itzsch and -in, prefixes are Windisch and Wendisch.
The name Berlin has its roots in the language of West Slavic inhabitants of the area of today's Berlin, may be related to the Old Polabian stem berl-/birl-. Since the Ber- at the beginning sounds like the German word Bär, a bear appears in the coat of arms of the city, it is therefore a canting arm. Of Berlin's twelve boroughs, five bear a Slavic-derived name: Pankow, Steglitz-Zehlendorf, Marzahn-Hellersdorf, Treptow-Köpenick and Spandau. Of its ninety-six neighborhoods, twenty-two bear a Slavic-derived name: Altglienicke, Alt-Treptow, Buch, Gatow, Kladow, Köpenick, Lankwitz, Lübars, Marzahn, Prenzlauer Berg, Schmöckwitz, Stadtrandsiedlung Malchow, Steglitz and Zehlendorf; the neighborhood of Moabit bears a French-derived name, Französisch Buchholz is named after the Huguenots. The earliest evidence of settlements in the area of today's Berlin are a wooden beam dated from 1192, remnants of a house foundation dated to 1174, found in excavations in Berlin Mitte; the first written records of towns in the area of present-day Berlin date from the late 12th century.
Spandau is first mentioned in 1197 and Köpenick in 1209, although these areas did not join Berlin until 1920. The central part of Berlin can be traced back to two towns. Cölln on the Fischerinsel is first mentioned in a 1237 document, Berlin, across the Spree in what is now called the Nikolaiviertel, is referenced in a document from 1244. 1237 is considered the founding date of the city. The two towns over time formed close economic and social ties, profited from the staple right on the two important trade routes Via Imperii and from Bruges to Novgorod. In 1307, they formed an alliance with a common external policy, their internal administrations still being separated. In 1415, Frederick I became the elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, which he ruled until 1440. During the 15th century, his successors established Berlin-Cölln as capital of the margraviate, subsequent members of the Hohenzol
Science fiction convention
Science fiction conventions are gatherings of fans of the speculative fiction genre, science fiction. Science fiction conventions had focused on literature, but the purview of many extends to such other avenues of expression as films, comics and games; the format can vary but will tend to have a few similar features such as a guest of honour, discussion panels and large special events such as opening/closing ceremonies and some form of party or entertainment. Science fiction conventions started off in the UK and US but have now spread further and several countries have their own individual conventions as well as playing host to rotating international conventions; the precise time and place of the first science fiction convention is a matter of some dispute. Sometime in 1936, a group of British fans made plans to have an organized gathering, with a planned program of events in a public venue in early 1937. However, on October 22, 1936, a group of six or seven fans from New York City, including David Kyle and Frederik Pohl, traveled by train to Philadelphia, PA, for several hours they visited a similar number of local fans at the house of Milton A. Rothman.
They subsequently declared that event to be the first "science fiction convention." This small get-together set the stage for a follow-up event held in New York, in February, 1937, where "30 or 40" fans gathered at Bohemian Hall in Astoria, Queens. Attendees at this event included James Blish, Charles D. Hornig, Julius Schwartz, Willis Conover; this event came to be known as the "Second Eastern" and set the stage for the successful Third Eastern held in Philadelphia on October 30, 1937 and the subsequent Fourth Eastern held on May 29, 1938, which attracted over 100 attendees to a meeting hall in Newark, NJ and designated itself as "The First National Science Fiction Convention." It was at this event that a committee was named to arrange the first World Science Fiction Convention in New York in 1939. The "First National", which included the participation of a number of well-known New York editors and professionals from outside fan circles, was a milestone in the evolution of science-fiction conventions as a place for science-fiction professionals, as well as fans, to meet their colleagues in person.
On January 3, 1937, the British fans held their long-planned event at the Theosophical Hall in Leeds. Around twenty fans, including Eric Frank Russell and Arthur C. Clarke, attended. To this day, many fan historians those in the United Kingdom, contend that the Philadelphia meeting was a convention in name only, whereas other fan historians point out that many similar gatherings since have been called "conventions" without eliciting any disagreement. By 1939, American fans had organized sufficiently to hold, in conjunction with the 1939 World's Fair, the first "World Science Fiction Convention," in New York City. Subsequent conventions were held in Chicago in 1940 and Denver in 1941. Like many cultural events, it was suspended during World War II. Conventions resumed in 1946 with the hosting of the World Science Fiction Convention in Los Angeles, California; the first Worldcon held outside the United States was Torcon I in Toronto in 1948. Since the first conventions in the late 1930s, such as the first Worldcon, hundreds of local and regional science fiction conventions have sprung up around the world either as one-time or annual events.
At these conventions, fans of science fiction come together with the professional writers and filmmakers in the genre to discuss its many aspects. Some cities have a number of science-fiction conventions, as well as a number of special interest conventions for anime, media, or other related groups; some conventions move from city to city, serving region, or special interest. Nearly every weekend of the year now has at least one convention somewhere and some conventions are held on holiday weekends where four or more days can be devoted to events. Worldcon, or more formally The World Science Fiction Convention, is a science fiction convention, held each year since 1939, it is the annual convention of the World Science Fiction Society, an unincorporated body whose members are defined as "all people who have paid membership dues to the Committee of the current Worldcon". These members of WSFS vote both to select the site of the Worldcon two years in advance and to select the winners of the Hugo Awards, which are presented at the convention.
The rules for venue selection are deliberately drafted to ensure the convention occurs in a different city each year. Fantasy is considered alongside science fiction at conventions. Conventions that are nominally science-fiction conventions such as Worldcon, are fantasy conventions in all but name. World Fantasy Convention was begun in 1975, has since been held on an annual basis; the World Fantasy Convention, however, is less oriented toward the fan community, is a professional gathering. Many of those who attend "World Fantasy" attend Worldcon. However, this convention is more focused on authors and publishing, with a much higher proportion of authors in attendance.
Yesterday Was a Lie
Yesterday Was a Lie is a 2008 neo-noir film written and directed by James Kerwin and starring Kipleigh Brown, Chase Masterson, John Newton, Mik Scriba. In publicity materials, the film has been described as a combination of science fantasy and film noir. A hard-drinking female investigator named Hoyle sets out to locate a reclusive genius who may be able to distort reality. Instead she finds her life becoming more fragmented and surreal. Trusting only her partner and a sexy lounge singer, she is shadowed by a dangerous man. Kipleigh Brown as Hoyle Chase Masterson as Singer John Newton as Dudas Mik Scriba as Trench Coat Man Nathan Mobley as Lab Assistant Warren Davis as Psychiatrist Megan Henning as Student Jennifer Slimko as Nurse Robert Siegel as Radio Interviewer Peter Mayhew as Dead Man Yesterday Was a Lie was in production from August 13 to September 15, 2006. In March 2007, a trailer of the film premièred at San Francisco Wondercon. In August 2007, the film's official blog announced the completion of a test cut of the motion picture.
Festival runThe early cut of the film began a series of film festival screenings on January 17, 2008 at the Park City Film Music Festival, where it received a Director's Choice Award. The film went on to receive Best Feature awards at numerous festivals, including the ShockerFest International Film Festival, as well as a bronze Telly Award and the Best of Show Accolade Award, it was awarded the Best Director, Best Screenplay, Best Cinematography trophies at Visionfest, the Best Actress prize at ShockerFest, the Best Producer prize at the LA Femme Film Festival. In early July 2008, San Diego Comic-Con announced that the test cut of Yesterday Was a Lie would be presented as the closing film of its 2008 convention. In October 2008, the film's official blog announced that a newer cut of the film would be shown at the St. Louis International Film Festival. In December 2008, the Beverly Hills Hi-Def Film Festival announced the new cut of the film would have its theatrical première at the closing night film of its 2009 festival.
Theatrical release In August 2009, Yesterday Was a Lie. According to the film's official blog, a new cut of the movie, featuring an updated soundtrack and other changes, was created for the formal release. Yesterday Was a Lie was released theatrically in the U. S. on December 11, 2009. Home video The film was released on DVD on April 6, 2010. In a review published after the film's U. S. theatrical opening, Variety praised the film's "stunning black-and-white HD cinematography" and "impressively atmospheric tone" and its recreation of the "classical Hollywood aesthetic". The film's "sultry jazz score" was singled out for mention. However, the review criticized the casting of the film—calling the acting "stiff" and "hopelessly amateurish"—as well as the plot, which it described as a "clunky David Lynchian cosmic mystery" leading to "grand revelations about the nature of reality."Other mainstream reviewers were critical of the film as well. Kevin Thomas in the Los Angeles Times wrote that "The film seems like an atmospheric shampoo commercial in which glamorous models pose in gritty back alleys with fog machines going full force....
There's lots of talk about the'interconnected of consciousness' and'the totality of consciousness' and how those who can plug into it can control reality... film is hard to connect with and is way too vague to inspire the urge to try to do so." While John Wheeler in LA Weekly wrote that the film's "pitch" was "'a metaphysical noir about a beautiful alcoholic detective searching for the key to understanding nonlinear time'" but commented that the "film can't hope to live up to that premise, it doesn't." It comments that "the film jumps around aimlessly, repeating dialogue and images of Hoyle's search while using non sequitur discussions of Dalí and Eliot to justify its impenetrably surreal structure." It praises the film as being in "gorgeous black-and-white and lit by some competent artisans" but concludes that "the film is too disjointed and incomprehensible to be enjoyed as much else besides an exercise in style."The Epoch Times newspaper, Collider.com, Ain't It Cool, KGO resident film critic Dennis Willis all reviewed the film positively, with Willis calling Yesterday "nothing less than the arrival of a major filmmaker."
Author Robert J. Sawyer blogged that the movie was "the most thoughtful and compelling science fiction film of 2009"; the film received a positive review from The Numbers following its DVD release. Yesterday Was a Lie. In February 2011, La-La Land Records announced the February 15 release of the Kristopher Carter score on CD and digital download, including songs performed by Masterson from the film; the physical CD included two bonus tracks, "Can You Help Me?" and "City Talks", not included in the digital download. The album was well received, with Daniel Schweiger of Film Music Magazine calling it "a top notch indie score in all respects." Graphic novelThe film has been adapted into a limited edition graphic novel by artist James Hill, first released as a San Diego Comic-Con Exclusive at 2010's Comic-Con International. Web seriesA seven-episode Yesterday Was a Lie viral web series, based on Nathan Mobley's "Lab Assistant" character from the feature film, debuted on Blip.tv in January 2011, is viewable as an Easter egg on the film's official site.
Notes Official website Yesterday Was a Lie on IMDb Yesterday Was a Lie at the TCM Movie Database Yesterday Was a Lie at AllMovie Yesterday Was a Lie at Rotten Tomatoes Outtakes at Home article on the Wonde
Johannes Grenzfurthner is an Austrian artist, writer, curator, theatre director and lecturer. Grenzfurther is the founder and artistic director of monochrom, an international art and theory group. Most of his artworks are labelled monochrom. Grenzfurther is an outspoken researcher in subversive and underground culture, for example the field of sexuality and technology, one of the founders of'techno-hedonism'. Boing Boing magazine referred to Grenzfurthner as leitnerd, a wordplay with the German term Leitkultur that hints at Grenzfurthner's role in nerd/hacker/art culture. In the early 1990s, Grenzfurthner was a member of several BBS message boards. Grenzfurther used his online connections to create monochrom, a zine or alternative magazine that dealt with art and subversive cultures, his motivation was to react to the emerging conservativism in cyber-cultures of the early 1990s, to combine his political background in the Austrian punk and antifa movement with discussion of new technologies and the cultures they create.
The publication featured interviews and essays, by e.g. Bruce Sterling, HR Giger, Eric Drexler, Terry Pratchett and Bob Black, in its experimental layout style. In 1995 the group decided to cover new artistic practices and started experimenting with different media: computer games, puppet theater, short films, conferences, online activism, which Grenzfurthner calls'Urban Hacking' or more specific:'Context hacking', a term that Grenzfurthner coined. Context hacking transfers the hackers' objectives and methods to the network of social relationships in which artistic production occurs, upon which it is dependent. In a metaphoric sense, these relationships have a source code. Programs run in them, our interaction with them is structured by a user interface; when we know how a space, a niche, a scene, a subculture or a media or political practice functions, we can change it and "recode" it, deconstructing its power relationships and emancipating ourselves from its compulsions and packaging guidelines.
The group is known for working with different media and entertainment formats. Grenzfurthner calls this "looking for the best weapon of mass distribution of an idea". Grenzfurthner is head of the Arse Elektronika festival in San Francisco, an annual academic and artistic conference and anthology series that focusses on sexuality and technology; the first conference was curated by Grenzfurthner in 2007 to answer questions about the impact of sexuality on technological innovation and adoption. Grenzfurthner is hosting Roboexotica, the international Festival for Cocktail-Robotics which invites researchers and artists to build machines that serve or mix cocktails. V. Vale calls Roboexotica "an ironic attempt to criticize techno-triumphalism and to dissect technological hypes."Grenzfurthner is head of Hedonistika, a festival for artistic food tech. The first installment was presented in Montréal at the 2014'Biennale internationale d'art numérique'; the second installment was presented in Holon, near Tel Aviv, at'Print Screen Festival'.
Grenzfurthner directed theatre plays and pieces of performance and interventionist art. Grenzfurther wrote and directed short films and is the CEO of film production company monochrom Propulsion Systems, he is member of the Austrian Director's Guild and the Association of Austrian Documentary Filmmakers. The first feature film he directed was the independent fantasy comedy Die Gstettensaga: The Rise of Echsenfriedl. Grenzfurther first feature documentary was Traceroute, followed by Glossary of Broken Dreams. Grenzfurther is involved in several feature films and working on Tycho, a farcical film musical about the life and times of eccentric astronomer Tycho Brahe. Grenzfurthner and Juliana Neuhuber are co-directing the upcoming sci-fi feature comedy Je Suis Auto. Grenzfurthner lectures at art institutions and political events, teaches at universities and mentors students, he has published books and articles on contemporary art, communication processes and philosophy including Mind and Matter: Comparative Approaches Towards Complexity, Do androids sleep with electric sheep?, Of Intercourse and Intracourse: Sexuality and the Techno-Social Sphere and Pr0nnovation?: Pornography and Technological Innovation.
Grenzfurthner published the much debated pamphlet "Hacking the Spaces", that dealt with exclusionist tendencies in the hackerspaces movement. Grenzfurther extended his critique through lectures at the 2012 and 2014 Hackers on Planet Earth conferences in New York City. Grenzfurthner has taken a comedic turn and performed at various venues, e.g. Vienna's Rabenhof Theater. Parts of his comedy show "Schicksalsjahre eines Nerds" form the basis of his documentary film Traceroute. Grenzfurther is a presenter and emcee for various industry events, guest performer at events like Goldenes Brett. Grenzfurthner has had lead parts in several theater plays, he performs in Andi Haller's feature film Zero Crash and Michael J. Epstein's and Sophia Cacciola's feature film Clickbait, he portrays one of the two lead charactes in his own film Je Suis Auto. Grenzfurthner was one of the core team members in the development process of netznetz, a new kind of community-based funding system for net culture and net art together with the culture department of the city government of Vienna.
He started the "Hackbus" community. Together with Florian Hufsky, Leo Findeisen and Juxi Leitner, Grenzfurthner co-organized the first international conference of the pirate parties. Grenzfurthner conceptualized and co-built a robot i
University of Texas at Austin
The University of Texas at Austin is a public research university in Austin, Texas. It is the flagship institution of the University of Texas System; the University of Texas was inducted into the Association of American Universities in 1929, becoming only the third university in the American South to be elected. The institution has the nation's eighth-largest single-campus enrollment, with over 50,000 undergraduate and graduate students and over 24,000 faculty and staff. A Public Ivy, it is a major center for academic research, with research expenditures exceeding $615 million for the 2016–2017 school year; the university houses seven museums and seventeen libraries, including the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum and the Blanton Museum of Art, operates various auxiliary research facilities, such as the J. J. Pickle Research Campus and the McDonald Observatory. Among university faculty are recipients of the Nobel Prize, Pulitzer Prize, the Wolf Prize, the Primetime Emmy Award, the Turing Award, the National Medal of Science, as well as many other awards.
As of October 2018, 11 Nobel Prize winners, 2 Turing Award winners and 1 Fields medalist have been affiliated with the school as alumni, faculty members or researchers. Student athletes are members of the Big 12 Conference, its Longhorn Network is the only sports network featuring the college sports of a single university. The Longhorns have won four NCAA Division I National Football Championships, six NCAA Division I National Baseball Championships, thirteen NCAA Division I National Men's Swimming and Diving Championships, has claimed more titles in men's and women's sports than any other school in the Big 12 since the league was founded in 1996; the first mention of a public university in Texas can be traced to the 1827 constitution for the Mexican state of Coahuila y Tejas. Although Title 6, Article 217 of the Constitution promised to establish public education in the arts and sciences, no action was taken by the Mexican government. After Texas obtained its independence from Mexico in 1836, the Texas Congress adopted the Constitution of the Republic, under Section 5 of its General Provisions, stated "It shall be the duty of Congress, as soon as circumstances will permit, to provide, by law, a general system of education."On April 18, 1838, "An Act to Establish the University of Texas" was referred to a special committee of the Texas Congress, but was not reported back for further action.
On January 26, 1839, the Texas Congress agreed to set aside fifty leagues of land—approximately 288,000 acres —towards the establishment of a publicly funded university. In addition, 40 acres in the new capital of Austin were reserved and designated "College Hill." In 1845, Texas was annexed into the United States. The state's Constitution of 1845 failed to mention higher education. On February 11, 1858, the Seventh Texas Legislature approved O. B. 102, an act to establish the University of Texas, which set aside $100,000 in United States bonds toward construction of the state's first publicly funded university. The legislature designated land reserved for the encouragement of railroad construction toward the university's endowment. On January 31, 1860, the state legislature, wanting to avoid raising taxes, passed an act authorizing the money set aside for the University of Texas to be used for frontier defense in west Texas to protect settlers from Indian attacks. Texas's secession from the Union and the American Civil War delayed repayment of the borrowed monies.
At the end of the Civil War in 1865, The University of Texas's endowment was just over $16,000 in warrants and nothing substantive had been done to organize the university's operations. This effort to establish a University was again mandated by Article 7, Section 10 of the Texas Constitution of 1876 which directed the legislature to "establish and provide for the maintenance and direction of a university of the first class, to be located by a vote of the people of this State, styled "The University of Texas."Additionally, Article 7, Section 11 of the 1876 Constitution established the Permanent University Fund, a sovereign wealth fund managed by the Board of Regents of the University of Texas and dedicated for the maintenance of the university. Because some state legislators perceived an extravagance in the construction of academic buildings of other universities, Article 7, Section 14 of the Constitution expressly prohibited the legislature from using the state's general revenue to fund construction of university buildings.
Funds for constructing university buildings had to come from the university's endowment or from private gifts to the university, but the university's operating expenses could come from the state's general revenues. The 1876 Constitution revoked the endowment of the railroad lands of the Act of 1858, but dedicated 1,000,000 acres of land, along with other property appropriated for the university, to the Permanent University Fund; this was to the detriment of the university as the lands the Constitution of 1876 granted the university represented less than 5% of the value of the lands granted to the university under the Act of 1858. The more valuable lands reverted to the fund to support general educat
Robotech: The Shadow Chronicles
Robotech: The Shadow Chronicles is the 2006 animated sequel to the 1985 Robotech television series. It was released on DVD on February 6, 2007. At Anime Expo 2004, Harmony Gold USA revealed that Robotech: Shadow Force was in production to celebrate the 20th anniversary of Robotech in 2005; the name of the new story arc was soon changed to Robotech: The Shadow Chronicles, the film was completed on January 27, 2006. This project was met with skepticism from the fan community, due to Harmony Gold's spotty track record of completing Robotech sequels and spin-offs in past decades; the first teaser trailer debuted at Anime Expo 2005. An official trailer was released on The Shadow Chronicles website during the NATPE conference, a broadcast industry trade show. Harmony Gold held a number of film festival showings in 2006, but FUNimation delayed the theatrical and Region 1 DVD release until January 5 and February 6, 2007, respectively; the storyline is a direct continuation from the 85th episode of the original Robotech television series, the first third of the movie runs concurrently with the events at the end of the TV series — albeit from different points of view.
The plot revolves around the Robotech Expeditionary Force's final battle with the Invid on Earth, the fallout from the events of that battle. An old enemy of the Invid is making its presence known, is determined to wipe out all Protoculture users, including Humanity; the production is a mixture of cel-shaded CG mecha animation. Though the involvement of original Japanese studio Tatsunoko Productions appeared to be limited to early development, the actual digital production of animation was handled by the Korean animation company DR Movie, whose credits include subcontracting on the inbetweens and paint of Macross Plus, the inbetweens of Yukikaze. Co-director Tommy Yune said in a Newtype USA interview that the producers "consulted extensively" with Kenji Terada, a writer on Southern Cross and Mospeada. DC Comics' Wildstorm label released Robotech: Prelude to the Shadow Chronicles, a comic prequel series bridging the end of the aborted Sentinels storyline with The Shadow Chronicles; each of the issues features a "behind-the-scenes" article about the new animation production.
The main characters in the film include Vince Grant, Dr. Jean Grant, Marcus Rush, Maia Sterling, Scott Bernard, Janice Em, Louie Nicols, Alex Romero and General Reinhardt. Rick Hunter is seen at the beginning of the movie at an advanced age. In June 2044, the Robotech Expeditionary Force fleet gathers at Moon Base ALUCE for its final attempt to drive the alien Invid from the Earth; this time, the REF has important technological advantages thanks to the help of the Sentinel races. The REF fleet is led by newly completed SDF-4 Izumo, a Super Dimensional Fortress over 1.3 km long under the command of General Gunther Reinhardt. Resistance forces on Earth, now aided by REF Commando units secretly dispatched in advance, are prepared to launch a simultaneous ground assault against the primary Invid hive at Reflex Point while the Invid's main forces engage the REF fleet. If both of these attacks fail, the REF has been authorized to use the devastating Neutron-S missiles as a last resort - although these missiles are more than capable of destroying the Invid, they will wipe out most life on earth.
Among the REF fighter pilots are Maia Sterling, Marcus Rush and Alex Romero, all of whom were born in space during the REF mission and have never seen Earth. Lieutenant Commander Maia Sterling, a daughter of famed pilots Max Sterling and Miriya Parina Sterling and sister of Dana Sterling, has just been given command of the famed Skull Squadron. Marcus and Alex, both lieutenants, are part of Wolf Squadron under the command of Captain Daryl Taylor; when Marcus first sees Maia, he finds. Marcus, whose sister Marlene was killed in a previous REF assault on Earth two years earlier, harbors a deep hatred of the Invid; as the film opens, General Reinhardt sends Vince Grant, captain of the Icarus, one of the REF's five newly completed Shimakaze-class battlecruisers, on a rescue mission to look for the SDF-3 and Admiral Rick Hunter, chief military commander of all REF forces. In its last transmission to the REF, it seems that the SDF-3 was involved in an accident of some kind while overseeing the test of the Neutron-S missile in the Omicron Sector.
Despite the disadvantage of not having the SDF-3 and its powerful arsenal, General Reinhardt is forced to begin the attack. The assault goes well as the REF capital ships fire their massive Syncro-Cannons, which destroy many Invid Carriers before they can launch their fighters. REF fighter squadrons, armed with advanced weaponry and utilizing the Shadow technology that makes them invisible to the Invid sensors cripple the first wave of the Invid attack. On the ground, the resistance forces and REF commando units push forward and approach within striking distance of Reflex Point. However, the Invid Regis, obsessed with holding on to Earth no matter the cost, launches all of her remaining forces in one final attack wave. All Invid fighters capable of space combat are sent against the REF fleet and all remaining Invid ground forces are ordered to retreat to Reflex Point for a last stand. Wh