The Vietnam War known as the Second Indochina War, in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America or the American War, was an undeclared war in Vietnam and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. It was the second of the Indochina Wars and was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union and other communist allies; the war is considered a Cold War-era proxy war from some US perspectives. It lasted some 19 years with direct U. S. involvement ending in 1973 following the Paris Peace Accords, included the Laotian Civil War and the Cambodian Civil War, resulting in all three countries becoming communist states in 1975. American military advisors began arriving in what was French Indochina in 1950 to support the French in the First Indochina War against the communist-led Viet Minh. Most of the funding for the French war effort was provided by the U. S. After the French quit Indochina in 1954, the US assumed financial and military responsibility for the South Vietnamese state.
The Việt Cộng known as Front national de libération du Sud-Viêt Nam or NLF, a South Vietnamese communist common front aided by the North, initiated a guerrilla war against the South Vietnamese government in 1959. U. S. involvement escalated in 1960, continued in 1961 under President John F. Kennedy, with troop levels surging under the MAAG program from just under a thousand in 1959 to 16,000 in 1963. By 1964, there were 23,000 U. S. troops in Vietnam, but this escalated further following the 1964 Gulf of Tonkin incident, in which a U. S. destroyer was alleged to have clashed with North Vietnamese fast attack craft. In response, the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution gave President Lyndon B. Johnson broad authorization to increase U. S. military presence, deploying ground combat units for the first time and increasing troop levels to 184,000. Past this point, the People's Army of Vietnam known as the North Vietnamese Army engaged in more conventional warfare with US and South Vietnamese forces; every year onward there was significant build-up of US forces despite little progress, with Robert McNamara, one of the principal architects of the war, beginning to express doubts of victory by the end of 1966.
U. S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces and airstrikes. The U. S. conducted a large-scale strategic bombing campaign against North Vietnam. The Tet Offensive of 1968, proved to be the turning point of the war; the Tet Offensive showed that the end of US involvement was not in sight, increasing domestic skepticism of the war. The unconventional and conventional capabilities of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam increased following a period of neglect and became modeled on heavy firepower-focused doctrines like US forces. Operations crossed international borders. S. forces. Gradual withdrawal of U. S. ground forces began as part of "Vietnamization", which aimed to end American involvement in the war while transferring the task of fighting the communists to the South Vietnamese themselves and began the task of modernizing their armed forces. Direct U. S. military involvement ended on 15 August 1973 as a result of the Case–Church Amendment passed by the U.
S. Congress; the capture of Saigon by the NVA in April 1975 marked the end of the war, North and South Vietnam were reunified the following year. The war exacted a huge human cost in terms of fatalities. Estimates of the number of Vietnamese soldiers and civilians killed vary from 966,000 to 3.8 million. Some 275,000–310,000 Cambodians, 20,000–62,000 Laotians, 58,220 U. S. service members died in the conflict, a further 1,626 remain missing in action. The Sino-Soviet split re-emerged following the lull during the Vietnam War and confllict between North Vietnam and its Cambodian allies in the Royal Government of the National Union of Kampuchea, the newly-formed Democratic Kampuchea begun immediately in a series of border raids by the Khmer Rouge and erupted into the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, with Chinese forces directly intervening in the Sino-Vietnamese War; the end of the war and resumption of the Third Indochina War would precipitate the Vietnamese boat people and the bigger Indochina refugee crisis, which saw an estimated 250,000 people perish at sea.
Within the US the war gave rise to what was referred to as Vietnam Syndrome, a public aversion to American overseas military involvements, which together with Watergate contributed to the crisis of confidence that affected America throughout the 1970s. Various names have been applied to the conflict. Vietnam War is the most used name in English, it has been called the Second Indochina War and the Vietnam Conflict. As there have been several conflicts in Indochina, this particular conflict is known by the names of its primary protagonists to distinguish it from others. In Vietnamese, the war is known as Kháng chiến chống Mỹ, but less formally as'Cuộc chiến tranh Mỹ', it is called Chiến tranh Việt Nam. The primary military organizations involved in the war were as follows: One side consisted of th
Military gliders have been used by the military of various countries for carrying troops and heavy equipment to a combat zone during the Second World War. These engineless aircraft were towed into the air and most of the way to their target by military transport planes, e.g. C-47 Skytrain or Dakota, or bombers relegated to secondary activities, e.g. Short Stirling. Most military gliders do not soar, although there were attempts to build military sailplanes as well, such as the DFS 228. Once released from the tow craft near the front, they were to land on any convenient open terrain close to target with as little damage to the cargo and crew as possible as most landing zones were far from ideal; the one-way nature of the missions meant that they were treated as semi-expendable leading to construction from common and inexpensive materials such as wood. Most nations attempted to recover as many as possible, to re-use them, so they were not intended to be disposable, although resource-rich nations like the US sometimes used them as if they were, since it was easier than recovering them.
Troops landing by glider were referred to as air-landing as opposed to paratroops. Landing by parachute caused the troops to be spread over a large drop-zone and separated from other airdropped equipment, such as vehicles and anti-tank guns. Gliders, on the other hand, could land troops and ancillaries in greater concentrations at the target landing area. Furthermore, the glider, once released at some distance from the actual target, was silent and difficult for the enemy to identify. Larger gliders were developed to land heavy equipment like anti-tank guns, anti-aircraft guns, small vehicles, such as jeeps, light tanks; this heavier equipment made otherwise armed paratroop forces a much more capable force. The Soviets experimented with ways to deliver light tanks by air, including the Antonov A-40, a gliding tank with detachable wings. By the time of the Korean War, helicopters had replaced gliders. Helicopters have the advantage of being able to extract soldiers, in addition to delivering them to the battlefield with more precision.
Advances in powered transport aircraft had been made, to the extent that light tanks could be dropped by parachute. The development of modern gliders was spurred by the Versailles Treaty following World War I, under the terms of which Germany was prohibited from constructing certain high powered airplanes; as a result, German aircraft designers turned their attention toward the practical development of unpowered aircraft, with a pilot remaining in the air in a glider for more than 20 minutes and a national glider competition emerging by 1922. The early sporting objectives of gliders were overtaken in the Soviet Union and in Germany by military applications the training of pilots. By 1934, the Soviet Union had ten gliding schools and 57,000 glider pilots had gained licences. In 1932, the Soviet Union demonstrated the TsK Komsula, a four-place glider, designed by GF Groschev that could be used for cargo. Larger gliders were developed culminating in an 18-seater at the military institute in Leningrad in 1935.
Luftwaffe Colonel Kurt Student visited Moscow as part of the military collaboration programme with the Soviet Union. He reported back to his superiors in Berlin details of a 1,500 man parachute drop and the large transport gliders that he had seen; the Luftwaffe opened a parachute school as a result in 1937. Further field testing convinced Student that a vehicle was needed to deliver the heavy weapons for the armed parachute troops; this idea was dismissed until October 1938 by which time Student had risen to major-general and was appointed Inspector of Airborne Forces. Development of a troop-carrying glider was assigned to Hans Jacobs of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt für Segelflug to develop the DFS 230 which could carry 9–10 equipped troops or 1,200 kg; the Germans were the first to use gliders in warfare, most famously during the assault of the Eben Emael fortress and the capture of the bridges over the Albert Canal at Veldwezelt and Kanne on May 10, 1940 in which 41 DFS 230 gliders carrying 10 soldiers each were launched behind Junkers Ju 52s.
Ten gliders landed on the grassed roof of the fortress. Only twenty minutes after landing the force had neutralized the fortress at a cost of six dead and twenty wounded. Hitler was anxious to gain maximum publicity and so several foreign attachés were given guided tours of the fortress; the British and Japanese became aware of the methods, used. By mid-1940, both Japan and Britain had active glider programs. Development began of larger gliders such as the Gotha Go 242 and Messerschmitt Me 321 to transport heavy armaments in anticipation of Operation Sea Lion and Operation Barbarossa. Gliders were used by Germany in Greece in 1941. On April 26, 1941, the troops from six DFS 230 gliders captured the bridge over the Corinth Canal accompanied by 40 plane-loads of German paratroopers. Next, General Student convinced Hitler that Crete could be captured using only airborne troops. On May 20, 1941, 500 German transport aircraft carrying paratroopers and 74 DFS 230 gliders took off from the Greek mainland.
During the capture of the island, 5,140 German airborne troops were either killed or wounded out of the 13,000 sent. Among the 350 German planes destroyed in the operation, half had been Ju 52s, which depleted the force needed for the invasion of the Soviet Union shortly after; as a result, Hit
Chase YC-122 Avitruc
The Chase XCG-18A and YC-122 Avitruc was a military transport aircraft designed by Chase Aircraft and produced in limited numbers in the United States in the late 1940s as a glider, but definitively in powered form. The design was based on the CG-14 cargo glider but was larger and featured all-metal construction, it was a high-wing cantilever monoplane. The fuselage featured a loading ramp at its rear; the main undercarriage units were carried at the sides of the fuselage and were fixed, while the nosewheel was retractable. In its powered form, two radial engines were fitted in nacelles in the wings; the USAAF's experiences with cargo gliders during World War II indicated a role for a similar aircraft in the post-war inventory, but one capable of carrying a heavier load and with greater recoverability than the expendable wartime wooden assault gliders. Chase's CG-14 was selected as a starting point, in January 1947, the USAAF placed an order for an enlarged, metal version of this aircraft designated XCG-14B but redesignated to XCG-18A to reflect the all-new nature of the aircraft.
When the prototype flew that December, it was the world's first all-metal transport glider. One of the major improvements was the use of a thinner wing section which allowed high tow speeds and small aircraft like the P-47 fighter being able to tow it into the air and to its release point. In March 1948, the service ordered four more aircraft under the new designation XG-18A and a fifth to be fitted with engines as the YC-122; the air force lost interest in purchasing assault gliders, but continued with the development of the powered variant, purchasing two more examples for evaluation as the YC-122A and redesignating the second of these as the YC-122B when the original Pratt & Whitney engines were swapped for Wright units. This aircraft would form the basis for the definitive service trials version, the YC-122C. Nine of these aircraft were ordered and although they performed well in evaluation, the USAF no longer saw a need for a small transport aircraft and cancelled the project. Despite the short-lived history of the aircraft, it was used extensively at Ardmore AFB.
By February 1955, at least one pilot, Captain Phillip C. Gromley of the 16th Troop Carrier Squadron, 463rd Troop Carrier Wing, achieved 1,000 hours in piloting the aircraft. All aircraft were replaced by Fairchild C-123B Providers by July 1955; the last YC-122C assault transport was flown to Tucson, Arizona, on 30 August 1955, for storage at Davis-Monthan AFB. Captain Gromely is recorded as making the final flight of a YC-122C to Tucson; the remaining machines served on in utility roles until 1957. Following their retirement, the fuselage of one of the YC-122s was used in the construction of the Hiller X-18. Chase MS.7 Company designation for the XCG-14B / XCG-18A XCG-18A XCG-14B re-designated XG-18A revised glider version YC-122 prototype powered version, an XG-18A with Pratt & Whitney R-2000-11 engines YC-122A refined version of the YC-122 YC-122B YC-122A re-engined with Wright R-1820-101 engines YC-122C definitive service trials version United StatesUnited States Air Force 16th Troop Carrier Squadron 316th Troop Carrier Group Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1951–52General characteristics Crew: Two pilots Capacity: 30 troops or 24 stretchers or cargo Length: 61 ft 8 in Wingspan: 95 ft 8 in Height: 24 ft 8 in Wing area: 812.8 sq ft Aspect ratio: 11.25:1 Empty weight: 19,000 lb Max takeoff weight: 40,000 lb Powerplant: 2 × Wright R-1820-101 9-cylinder air-cooled radial piston engine, 1,425 hp eachPerformance Maximum speed: 240 mph Cruise speed: 200 mph Stall speed: 75 mph Range: 1,000 mi with maximum cargo Service ceiling: 29,100 ft Rate of climb: 1,340 ft/min Related development Chase YCG-14 Hiller X-18Aircraft of comparable role and era Chase XCG-20 Fairchild C-123 Provider Related lists List of military aircraft of the United States
The Chase XC-123A was an experimental transport aircraft developed by Chase Aircraft. The first jet-powered transport built for the United States Air Force, it was intended for use as a high-speed transport for high-priority cargo and personnel; the XC-123A was determined to have insufficient advantages over existing types in service, did not go into production. The sole prototype was converted into the piston-powered Stroukoff YC-123D to evaluate boundary layer control systems. In the late 1940s, Chase Aircraft had developed the XG-20, the largest glider built in the United States. By the time it was ready for operations, however, U. S. military doctrine had been altered to remove the requirement for the use of transport gliders in combat. However, the XG-20's aircraft had been designed to allow for the easy installation of power plants, Chase modified the two prototypes into powered aircraft, one becoming the XC-123, with twin piston engines; the second XG-20, was taken in hand for a more radical reconfiguration, being fitted with two twin-jet engine pods, of the type used by the Convair B-36 and Boeing B-47 bombers, to become the XC-123A.
As there was no provision for housing fuel in the former glider's wings, fuel tanks were installed underneath the cabin floor. Dubbed "Avitruc" by its manufacturer, the XC-123A conducted its maiden flight on April 21, 1951, becoming the first jet-powered transport aircraft to fly in the United States, it was considered "excellent" in flight trials, with the aircraft showing few vices, demonstrating reasonably good short-field capability. Despite this as the XC-123 proved successful, the XC-123A failed to win sufficient favor in flight testing to receive a production order. Although the aircraft's short-field performance was good, on rough, unimproved fields the low-slung jet pods would suck debris into the intakes, damaging the engines. In addition, the aircraft's design was mismatched to its engines, resulting in the XC-123A being incapable of providing sufficient cargo capacity compared to the amount of fuel its jet engines required; as a result, the XC-123A project was abandoned without additional aircraft being built.
Following the conclusion of trials, the XC-123A was converted to be powered by two Pratt & Whitney R-2800 radial engines, was used for boundary layer control trials as the Stroukoff YC-123D, receiving serial number 53-8068. Data from Gunston and AdcockGeneral characteristics Crew: 3 Length: 77 ft 1 in Wingspan: 110 ft 0 in Height: 33 ft 10 in Wing area: 1,222.78 sq ft Airfoil: NACA 23017 Empty weight: 25,000 lb Max takeoff weight: 60,000 lb Powerplant: 4 × General Electric J47-GE-11 turbojets, 5,200 lbf thrust eachPerformance Maximum speed: 500 mph Cruise speed: 400 mph Related development Chase XCG-20 Fairchild C-123 Provider Stroukoff YC-134Aircraft of comparable role and era Avro Ashton Avro Canada C102 Jetliner Vickers Type 618 Nene-Viking Related lists List of military aircraft of the United States Notes Bibliography "Jet Power Troop Transport." Popular Science, July 1951, bottom of page 81
The Ilyushin Il-32 was a Soviet heavy military glider developed after World War II to deliver 7,000 kg of cargo. To facilitate loading and unloading, the glider's nose and tail sections were hinged to swing sideways; the Il-32 required a four-engined aircraft to tow it safely. After the end of World War II, the Soviets devoted a considerable amount of effort to developing heavy transport gliders to deliver troops during an airborne assault; as part of this effort, the Council of Ministers ordered the Ilyushin design bureau on 20 September 1947 to begin work on a glider capable of carrying 7,000 kg of cargo, including 60 troops or a 122 mm cannon with its prime mover and crew. Its intended tug was the Tupolev Tu-75, a four-engined transport derived from the Tupolev Tu-4; the Il-32 was an aluminum-bodied, high-wing cantilever monoplane with a fixed tricycle undercarriage whose fuselage was square in cross-section to fit as much cargo as possible. The two-spar wings had a moderate aspect ratio, it was regarded as expendable and was built simply to facilitate large-scale manufacture.
The nose and tail sections swung up to 95° to starboard to facilitate loading. The Il-32 made its first flight on 20 August 1948, towed by a twin-engined Ilyushin Il-12, but the Il-12 was not powerful enough to tow a loaded glider and the four-engined Il-18 airliner prototype was adapted to tow it from 20 September. During these flight tests it reached a cruising speed of 323 km/h at an altitude of 3,000 metres and a weight of 16,000 kg; the flight tests were satisfactory and preparations were made to begin series production, but the lack of suitable tugs was a problem. None of the Soviet four-engined aircraft that could be used were either in production or available. Both the Tupolev Tu-70 and Il-18 airliners had been canceled, as had the Tu-75 transport, the Tu-4 was dedicated to the strategic bombing mission. Experiments were made with a pair of Il-12s towing the Il-32, but this was both difficult and risky for all involved; the Il-32 was therefore canceled for lack of a proper tug. Data from OKB Ilyushin: A History of the Design Bureau and its AircraftGeneral characteristics Capacity: 60 troops or 7,000 kg of cargo Length: 24.84 m Wingspan: 35.8 m Wing area: 159.5 m2 Empty weight: 9600 kg Gross weight: 16,600 kg Performance Cruising speed: 327 km/h Service ceiling: 4000 m Armament Aircraft of comparable role and era Messerschmitt Me 321 General Aircraft Hamilcar Junkers Ju 322 Gordon, Yefim.
OKB Ilyushin: A History of the Design Bureau and its Aircraft. London: Ian Allan. ISBN 1-85780-187-3. Zaloga, Steve. Inside the Blue Berets: A Combat History of Soviet and Russian Airborne Forces, 1930–1995. Presidio. ISBN 0-89141-399-5
Pope Field is a U. S. military facility located 12 miles northwest of the central business district of Fayetteville, in Cumberland County, North Carolina, United States. Known as Pope Air Force Base, the facility continues to be used by the United States Air Force but is now operated by the U. S. Army as part of Fort Bragg; the United States Army Fort Bragg Garrison is the host organization at Pope Field. The garrison provides airfield support and protection to include emergency medical and fire response, aircraft security, transient alert support, it provides installation support and is responsible to execute the Inter-Service Support Agreement in providing support to United States Air Force tenants to include services, facility maintenance, morale and recreation support. The United States Air Force 43d Airlift Group was activated at Pope on March 1, 2011, redesignated the 43d Air Mobility Operations Group in 2016; the unit performs en route operations support to include mission command and control, aircrew management, aircraft maintenance, aircraft loading, aircraft fueling and supply, air traffic control, aircraft landing systems maintenance.
Furthermore, the 43 AMOG has responsibility supporting training missions for Fort Bragg's XVIII Airborne Corps and 82nd Airborne Division paratroopers. In addition, the USAF 18th Air Support Operations Group, 427th Special Operations Squadron, 21st Special Tactics Squadron, 24th Special Tactics Squadron, Air Force Combat Control School operate from Pope Field. In 1918, Congress established Camp Bragg, an Army field artillery site named for the Confederate General Braxton Bragg. An aviation landing field was added a year later; the War Department established "Pope Field" in 1919, it ranks as one of the oldest installations in the Air Force. Pope AFB is named after First Lieutenant Harley Halbert Pope, killed on January 7, 1919, when the Curtiss JN-4 Jenny he was flying crashed into the Cape Fear River. After five years, Camp Bragg became. Original operations included photographing terrain for mapping, carrying the mail, spotting for artillery and forest fires. Observation planes and observation balloons occupied Pope Field for the first eight years.
In December 1927, Pope Field played a role in the development of tactics that would prove critically important in shortening World War II. The 1930s saw the first major expansion of the facilities at Pope. In 1935, Pope Field hosted 535 aircraft in one day as the United States Army Air Corps practiced large scale operations along the East Coast. In 1940, paved runways replaced dirt open fields. Much of the parking ramp space remained unpaved until after World War II; the tempo of activities at Pope quickened with the outbreak of World War II. During the 1940s, the base swelled as a troop carrier training site, with the institution of paratrooper training at Fort Bragg, Pope began putting the "Air" in "Airborne". Throughout the war and ground crews trained here with Army airborne units in preparation for airborne and aerial resupply missions. Hangars 4 and 5 and the Pope Air Force Base Historic District were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1991. After the war, Pope Field became Pope Air Force Base with the creation of the United States Air Force on 18 September 1947.
The base served as the home of the 10th Tactical Reconnaissance Group, being activated at Pope on December 3, 1947 as the 10th Reconnaissance Group. It was redesignated as the 10th Tactical Reconnaissance Group in June 1948. At Pope, the 10th flew the P/F-51 Mustang, as well as its photo recon variant the F-6 redesignated the RF-51. Operational squadrons were: 1st Photographic Reconnaissance 15th Photographic Reconnaissance The 10th TRG was inactivated on April 1, 1949 and the host unit at Pope was the 4415th Air Base Group; the base primary mission dealt with training Forward Air Controllers for the Korean War This training was conducted by the following operational units: 502d Tactical Control Group 507th Tactical Control Group Headquarters, Ninth Air Force, was located at Pope in August 1950. It was transferred to Shaw Air Force Base, South Carolina, on August 20, 1954. On September 21, 1954, Ninth AF turned Pope over to the 464th Troop Carrier Wing which transferred from Lawson AFB, Georgia.
Known operational squadrons of the 464th were: 776th Troop Carrier Squadron 777th Troop Carrier Squadron 778th Troop Carrier Squadron 779th Troop Carrier SquadronThe 464th provided airlift of troops and cargo, participated in joint airborne training with Army forces, took part in tactical exercises in the United States and overseas. The wing flew humanitarian missions as required; until it was inactivated, the 464th had two or more squadrons deployed overseas at any one time, supporting military operations in Central America, the Middle East, the Far East, Southeast Asia. The 464th received the Mackay Trophy for the dramatic RED DRAGON/DRAGON ROUGE and BLACK DRAGON/DRAGON NOIR hostage rescue missions in the Congo in 1964; the wing led the deployment of 82nd Airborne forces to the Dominican Republic, April 1965-September 1966. Beginning in 1966, the 464th was responsible for training C-130E aircrew members for duty in troop carrier units in the United States and overseas. During its time at Pope, a major period of facility expansion occurred.
The main runway, the taxiways, the ramp were all expanded to support the 464th's Fairchild C-119 "Flying Boxcar"s operations. D
The Douglas XCG-17 was an American assault glider, developed by the conversion of a C-47 Skytrain twin-engine transport during World War II. Although the XCG-17 was successful in testing, the requirement for such a large glider had passed, no further examples of the type were built. With the introduction of the Douglas C-54 Skymaster four-engined transport aircraft, the United States Army Air Forces, observing that conventional gliders in service would be an inefficient use of the C-54's power and capacity, determined that a requirement existed for a new, much larger assault glider, it was determined that the best solution to the requirement was the conversion of the Douglas C-47 Skytrain in large-scale production, to meet the requirement. The C-47 could be converted to a glider configuration with minimal alteration to the airframe, would provide the required capacity. Trials conducted using a conventional, powered C-47, first conducting ordinary deadstick landings being towed by another C-47, indicated that the scheme was feasible.
Therefore, a C-47-DL was taken in hand for conversion into a glider, given the designation XCG-17. The aircraft a Northwest Airlines DC-3, impressed into military service at the start of World War II, was modified by the removal of the aircraft's engines. Other equipment, no longer necessary with the conversion to an unpowered configuration, was removed to save weight; the conversion, carried out at Clinton County Army Air Field, was completed on June 12, 1944, with the aircraft undergoing its initial flight test shortly thereafter. The flight testing of the XCG-17 proved. Tow tests were conducted using a variety of aircraft; this configuration was dangerous for the "middle" C-47, it was determined that a single C-54 was the optimal tug aircraft. The XCG-17's cargo hold had a capacity of 15,000 pounds; the XCG-17 was capable of carrying three jeeps in a single load, or alternatively two 105-millimetre howitzers. Regardless of the aircraft's load, no ballast was required to maintain the aircraft's center of gravity, a trait unique among American assault gliders.
Despite the satisfactory results in testing, the aircraft failed the Army's requirement that it be capable of landing on unimproved fields. The primary role for the glider had been intended to increase the amount of supplies that could be carried to China over "The Hump". No further examples of the type were produced. In August 1949, the aircraft was sold to Advance Industries, its engines being reinstalled to return the aircraft to powered status in DC-3C configuration; some sources, indicate that the XCG-17 was reconverted to C-47 configuration in 1946. Following its restoration to powered status, the aircraft was transferred to Mexico, where it remained in civilian service until 1980. Although the XCG-17 failed to lead to any production of a C-47 derived glider type, a single C-47 was converted in the field to glider configuration by the Fifth Air Service Area Command, located at Nichols Field on Luzon in the Philippines, during January 1946. Carried out in much the same manner as the XCG-17, the conversion included octagonally shaped fairings over the engine mountings, with an auxiliary power unit from a B-24 Liberator bomber being installed.
Referred to as "XCG-47" as well as "XCG-17", named "Nez Perce", the aircraft undertook its initial flight following conversion on June 17, 1946, towed by a C-54. The flight tests of the field-converted aircraft proved favorable, an ambitious flight, towing the aircraft from Luzon to Tokyo in Japan, was planned; this flight was intended to prove the suitability of large gliders to act as an "aerial freight train" for regular transport. The flight, conducted in late June 1946, took 11 hours of flight time and included an overnight stay on Okinawa. Despite the success of the flight, the "aerial freight train" concept did not catch on. United StatesUnited States Army Air Forces MexicoPetroleos Mexicanos Data from General characteristics Crew: Two Capacity: 15,000 pounds cargo or 40 troops Length: 63 ft 9 in Wingspan: 95 ft 6 in Height: 17 ft Wing area: 987 sq ft Empty weight: 11,001