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Chasseur

Chasseur, a French term for "hunter", is the designation given to certain regiments of French and Belgian light infantry or light cavalry to denote troops trained for rapid action. This branch of the French Army originated during the War of the Austrian Succession when, in 1743, Jean Chrétien Fischer was authorized by the Marshal de Belle-Isle to raise a six hundred strong mixed force of infantry and cavalry, it was called Fischer's chasseurs. During the remainder of the 18th century various types of light troops were employed within the French army, either as independent units or as companies within existing regiments; the chasseurs à pied were the light infantrymen of the French Imperial army. They were armed the same as their counterparts in the regular line infantry battalions, but were trained to excel in marksmanship and in executing manoeuvres at high speed. From 1840, they wore a long-skirted frock coat. After 1850, however the chasseurs adopted a uniform consisting of a short frock coat with slits in the sides on the bottom edge to allow for better freedom of movement than the previous design.

They wore light blue baggy trousers tucked into jambières. The other light infantry unit type, the voltigeurs, specialised as skirmishers and for advance screening of the main force; the chasseurs could be called upon to form advance guards and scouting parties alongside the voltigeurs. Following the Napoleonic Wars the chasseurs à pied continued to exist as a separate corps within the infantry. A specially trained elite, their tactical role came to match that of the ordinary lignards. By the late 19th century the differences between the two branches were confined to uniform and insignia, although the chasseurs retained a strong esprit de corps. After the Franco-Prussian War it was argued that the continued existence of an elite class of infantry, armed and trained to the same standards as the ordinary soldier, was contrary to both military utility and the egalitarian principles of the new republic; however public opinion, influenced by the occasions on which the chasseurs had distinguished themselves during the war was opposed to the disbanding of this distinctive corps.

Under the Third Republic the chasseurs à pied were increased from 20 to 30 battalions. Of these, four saw active service in Tunisia, one in Indochina and one in Madagascar during the period 1880-1896. Twelve of the chasseur battalions were re-designated as mountain infantry; the remaining chasseur battalions were deployed near the frontier with Germany as part of the troupes de couverture, charged with covering the bulk of the army during mobilization. During World War I the French Army maintained 31 battalions of infantry chasseurs plus a varying number of reserve and territorial units; each infantry division was expected to include at least one battalion of either chasseurs à pied or chasseurs alpine. Each battalion had an establishment of 1300 to 1500 men, they were nicknamed schwarze Teufel by their German opponents, in reference to their dark colored uniforms. The chasseurs served on the Western Front but detachments were sent to reinforce the Italian front in 1917; the chasseurs à cheval, a type of French light cavalry, date from 1743 when an independent unit was raised during the War of the Austrian Succession to counter Trenck's Pandurs and Croats employed as irregulars by the Austrian army.

A mixed corps of light infantry and horsemen, this force proved sufficiently effective to warrant the creation of a single corps: Dragoons-chasseurs de Conflans. In 1776 this and other volunteer "legions" had their mounted elements converted into 24 squadrons of chasseurs à cheval, each of, attached to one of the existing dragoon regiments of the royal cavalry. In 1779 these squadrons were amalgamated into six regiments, each of, given a regional title. In 1788 six dragoon regiments were converted to chasseurs à cheval and during the period of the Revolutionary Wars the number was again increased, to twenty-five. During their earlier history these regiments lacked the higher profile of the identically-armed hussars. Distinguished by dark green uniforms and a bugle-horn badge, they were used as advance scouting units providing valuable information on enemy movements. Both Napoleon's Imperial Guard and the Royal Guard of the Restoration each included a regiment of chasseurs à cheval. In addition Napoleon added a further five line regiments to those inherited from the Revolutionary period.

At the beginning of the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, the French Army had twelve regiments of chasseurs à cheval, grouped with eight hussar regiments to form the light branch of the cavalry and tasked with reconnaissance duties. This intended role continued through World War I and the chasseurs à cheval remained horse mounted until the 1er RCh was motorised in June 1940. Disbanded after the Battle of France, these units were reconstituted in 1944–45 as light armor. During the French occupation of Algeria, regiments of chasseurs d'Afrique were raised; these were light cavalry recruited from French volunteers and subsequently from the French settlers in North Africa doing their military service. As such they were the mounted equivalent of the zouaves. In preparation for the invasion of Russia, Napoleon ordered the creation of additional units for the Guard that included the Régiment de Flanqueurs-Chasseurs de la Garde. Along with the regiment of Flanqueues-Grenadiers

36 Hours to Kill

36 Hours to Kill is a 1936 American drama film directed by Eugene Forde, written by Lou Breslow and John Patrick, starring Brian Donlevy, Gloria Stuart, Douglas Fowley, Isabel Jewell, Stepin Fetchit and Julius Tannen. It is based on the short story "Across the Aisle" by W. R. Burnett; the film was released on July 1936, by 20th Century Fox. Duke and Jeanie Benson, an outlaw couple hiding out under assumed names in a calm, suburban community, read a newspaper article about a sweepstakes winner who has not yet claimed his prize. Duke realizes that he has the winning ticket and will win $150,000 if he can cash it in without getting apprehended. Fed up with suburban life, Duke decides to board a train to Kansas City, where he bought the ticket, while Jeanie plans to fly there and get a "stooge" to cash in the ticket. At the train station, reporter Frank Evers boards the train and starts a conversation with Duke, who calls himself "Downey." At San Bernardino, Anne Marvis boards the train, followed by a process server.

Finding the door to Duke's room open, Anne hides in his bed, when Duke sees Doyle enter in pursuit, he pulls a gun on Doyle, who says that he mistook Duke's "wife" for the woman he was after. Duke is attracted to Anne; when Jeanie gets on the train because her plane was grounded, she suspects that Duke and Anne are having an affair and pulls a gun on them. Anne and Frank go along with the ruse. Sometime Frank accompanies the conductor to a room next to Duke's, where they listen through a surveillance device to Duke and Jeanie bicker about their plans to have the "boys" meet him in Kansas City. Frank, in reality a G-man, decides to hold off arresting Duke. After Jeanie gets off the train at Albuquerque to board a plane to Kansas City, Duke tries to flirt with Anne, but she rejects his advances; that night and Anne agree to be honest with each other, Anne reveals that she is a Los Angeles reporter and has been subpoenaed to testify before a grand jury concerning a political scandal which she had unearthed.

She says. When Frank continues to claim that he is a reporter for The Telegraph, Anne indignantly reveals that she works for the paper and knows that he does not. In Topeka, after Flash, a porter, inadvertently finds the listening device in Duke's room, Duke knocks out the conductor. Anne gets off the train; when Duke sees Frank pursuing him, he gets into Anne's cab. They go to Borden's Sanitarium, where Duke meets Jeanie, unhappy to see him with Anne; when Duke reads in a newspaper that another man has surfaced to claim the lottery prize, he sends his shyster lawyer Rickert to dispute the claim to the insurance company that handles the contest. While Rickert is away, Duke kisses asks her to leave with him after he collects the money. Anne agrees. Jeanie unbolts the shutters of Anne's room to help her escape, Anne hitches a ride on a truck, but the driver works for Duke's gang and brings her back to the sanitarium. Upon deducing that Jeanie let Anne out, Duke slugs Jeanie. Frank, impersonating an insurance agent, accompanies Rickert to the sanitarium.

Duke shoots Frank as a carload of G-men arrive and unlocks Anne's door to take her with him, but Jeanie shoots him and cries over his body. The gang is captured, Anne is pleased to see that Frank is only wounded. On the train to Los Angeles, Flash comments that Frank and Anne have not come out of their cabin in two days, they kiss and it is revealed that they have married. Brian Donlevy as Frank Evers Gloria Stuart as Anne Marvis Douglas Fowley as Duke Benson Isabel Jewell as Jeanie Benson Stepin Fetchit as Flash Julius Tannen as Dr. Borden Warren Hymer as Hazy Romaine Callender as Simpkins James Burke as Doyle Jonathan Hale as Conductor Gloria Mitzi Carpenter as Gertrude Charles Lane as Rickert 36 Hours to Kill on IMDb

Georg Meistermann

Georg Meistermann was a German painter and draftsman, famous for his stained glass windows in the whole of Europe. From 1930, Meistermann studied art at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf under Werner Heuser, Heinrich Nauen and Ewald Mataré, but in 1933 the Nazis condemned this sort of art, he could not continue his studies. Therefore, he worked as an independent art teacher in Solingen for some years. Influenced by late Cubism and Alfred Manessier, he created abstract paintings, but he produced portraits and wall paintings. Beginning in 1937 he made stained glass windows, immersing private and church rooms in colored light in an innovative manner, based on an interaction of color and line, for which he would become famous. "To bring the colour to floating, to detect meditative spaces and to conquer a depth of the painting directed towards transcendence has been his artistic programme." One example, installed in 1957, is to be found in Berlin's Kaiser-Friedrich-Gedächtniskirche. In 1976, he designed four windows for the Collegio Rome.

Another important work is his new design for St. Gereon's Basilica, which he called "my religious testament and climax of my lifework"; the Stained Glass Association of America considers Meistermann "the most versatile German stained glass designer". In 1953 the artist was appointed professor at the Städelschule, Frankfurt am Main. From 1955 to 1959 he hold a professorship at the Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, from 1960 to 1976 he was a professor at the Staatliche Akademie der Bildenden Künste Karlsruhe. Among his students at the Düsseldorf Academy were Gotthard Graubner, Raimund Girke and HA Schult. Among his students at the Karlsruhe Academy were Gerold Bursian, Wolfgang Glöckler, Otto Mindhoff, K. J. Overkott and Hans-Günther van Look. Meistermann participated at II in Kassel. A devout Catholic, Meistermann worked for sacred rooms with great passion. With his art he wanted to praise the grace of God, looking for form-expressing solutions to glorify the Creator. However, he criticized the Church, quarreling with those who thought they were in a position to claim special rights only because they administered the Christian faith: "I make propaganda for the Christian faith," he said, "but quite I do not make propaganda for the Church."From 1967 to 1972, he was President of the German Artists Federation, requesting his colleagues in numerous papers and speeches to contribute their part to a more humane society.

In 1994, the Georg-Meistermann-Museum was opened in Wittlich