Temptation is a desire to engage in short-term urges for enjoyment, that threatens long-term goals. In the context of some religions, temptation is the inclination to sin. Temptation describes the coaxing or inducing a person into committing such an act, by manipulation or otherwise of curiosity, desire or fear of loss. In the context of self-control and ego depletion, temptation is described as an immediate, pleasurable urge and/or impulse that disrupts an individuals ability to wait for the long-term goals, in which that individual hopes to attain. More informally, temptation may be used to mean "the state of being attracted and enticed" without anything to do with moral, ethical, or ideological valuation. Research suggests. Implicit in all the forms in which temptation can present itself there is a set of options that may facilitate high moral standards in decision-making. Weak or subtle temptations, in comparison to strong or obvious temptations, can lead to a greater loss of self-control.
Supported research states that "available temptations are less valuable and less tempting". Temptations can have effects on long-term goal attainment, it has been found that individuals who experienced temptation and the effects of it found there were benefits to their experiences. A research article was written by Vanchai Ariyabuddhiphongs, a professor at Bangkok University, about the motivational and persuasive negative effects of such temptations such as money, that can push one to disregard religious beliefs whether it be Buddhism, Christianity etc.. He says that when given an opportunity at a large amount of money we have a greater chance of harming, partaking in sexual misconduct, or abusing substances; this idea of money as a negative persuasion tactic in regards to the religions mentioned above, is psychologically proven to affect our cognitive ability to make decisions. Vanchai's article talked on Buddhist practices but it is believed that it could be broadened to all beliefs. Our religious beliefs may define who we are as spiritual people, but this article described how an outside source can push those thoughts away and look to benefit us in a way that may include disregarding religion.
Temptation is used in a loose sense to describe actions which indicate a lack of self control. Temptation is something that allures and seduces someone. Successful endeavors of goal-driven activity is threatened by the tempting nature of immediate pleasure Infatuation can lead to temptation as someone might do something for love in spite of one's better judgement. In advertising, temptation is a theme common to many of the marketing and advertising techniques used to make products more attractive. Temptation is measured through implicit methods. Temptation could be measured using experimental constructs of undesirable situations or through a'self-report' outcome measure of problem behaviors, which leads to the full extent and process of the underlying conflict and the implications that are oftentimes overlooked. Research has found that components of an assessment that would allow for an individual to understand the influence of self-control and other potential or protective variables on the process and resolution of temptation.
Individuals experience temptations in both positive and negative terms. For example, there is an individual who may experience temptation in the form of fearing the potential negative implications and consequences that can arise, whether it is in the context of standards or accountability related to the self, and/or the transcendent, including condemnation from one's conception of deity, higher power, or sense of responsibility to the universe or nature. Another example, an individual may view their experience of temptation as an opportunity for growth, it could be intrapersonal growth, interpersonal growth, and/or transcendent growth, which includes recognizing constructive and/or collaborative interactions with the transcendent. In regards to Spiritual struggle, research argues that the struggle can be looked upon as a gift, as an opportunity for growth, as a means to improve one's life. Positive or negative religious coping and constructive or destructive emotions, "the valenced expression of temptation may lead to the salutary versus deleterious effects of temptation".
There are valenced effects on a variety of outcomes from temptation. Such as the health and well-being of an individual. There is the relief of stress that an individual may be experiencing. For example, undesirable, "illicit, and/or transcendent conflicts underlying the successful or failed resolution of the experience of temptation will have facilitative or debilitative effects on myriad aspects of physical health, mental health, well-being". An individuals experience with temptation may influence a person's future experiences, predict future possibilities, outcomes; when an individual is attempting to address or resolve a complex experience of temptation, including transcendent levels and potential negative and positive expressions. For example, "mindfulness, prayer, reframing, determination,other spiritual and/or positive psychological variables may be facilitators or, or alternatives to, self-control as the primary arbiter of temptation". Self-control is used by an individual to resist temptation.
B. F. Skinner stated 9 methods for achieving this. Self-control is considered by some to be a limited resource, depleted by use; some believe that self-control can be replenished and thus that the immediate effects of an individual's depleted s
Batu, East Java
Batu the City of Batu, is a city in the East Java Province of Indonesia. It is about 20 km to the northwest of Malang, it was a part of Malang Regency. With a population of 190,000 people, it lies on the southern slopes of Mount Arjuno-Welirang, its population consists of Javanese. The town used to be a recreation place for the Dutch colonial officers in the Dutch colonial area. Batu means "rock" in Indonesian. Since the 10th century, the area of Batu and its surroundings has been known as a resting place for the royal family, because the region is a mountainous area with comfortable air supported by the beauty of natural scenery as a characteristic of mountainous regions. During the reign of Medang Kingdom under King Sindok, a royal official named Mpu Supo was ordered by the King to build a royal family resting place in the mountains with nearby water springs. With a hard effort Mpu Supo discovered an area, now better known as the tourist area of Songgoriti. With the approval of King Sindok, Mpu Supo began to build the Songgoriti area as a royal family retreat and built a temple named Supo Temple.
From some local community leaders, it has been told that the title Batu comes from the name of a cleric follower of Prince Diponegoro named Abu Ghonaim or referred to as the Kyai Gubug Angin which the local community was familiar with calling it Mbah Wastu. From Javanese cultural habits that shorten and shorten the designation of someone's name, considered too long to make it shorter and faster when calling someone Mbah Wastu is called Mbah Tu to be Mbatu or Batu as a term used for a mild climate city in East Java; the history of Abu Ghonaim's existence as a forerunner and person known as a community leader who started the babad alas and was used as inspiration from the designation of the Batu region, in fact Abu Ghonaim himself was from the Central Java region. Abu Ghonaim as a loyal follower of Prince Diponegoro, intentionally left his native area of Central Java and moved to the hillside of Mount Panderman to avoid the pursuit and arrest of the Dutch soldiers. Abu Ghonaim or Mbah Wastu who started his new life together with the surrounding community.
Many residents and surrounding communities and other communities came around the residence of Mbah Wastu. They lived in a group in the Bumiaji and Temas; the city of Batu lies on the slopes of several mountains. The most prominent are Mount Anjasmoro, Mount Arjuno, Mount Welirang, Mount Banyak, Mount Kawi, Mount Panderman, Mount Semeru, Mount Wukir. In the 19th century, the Dutch East Indies government developed Batu as a mountain resort. Villas and resort facilities were built in Batu during the period. Most of the topography of Batu city is dominated by highland and hilly terrain with valleys running down mountain slopes. In northern Batu, there is a dense forest, Raden Soerjo Forest Park, a protected forest area. Most soils in Batu city are andosols, sequentially present with cambisol and alluvial; these form mechanical soils which contain substantial amounts of minerals coming from volcanic eruptions. These soils tend to be fertile. Batu is a near-exact antipode to the city of San Fernando de Venezuela.
The climate in Batu city at lower elevation features tropical monsoon climate, at higher elevation, the city's climate is classified by Köppen as subtropical highland climate. The driest month is August with precipitation total 35 mm, while the wettest month is January with precipitation total 406 mm; the temperature is moderated by the altitude, as the city is located at average 953 meters above sea level. The hottest month is October with average 22.2 °C, while the coolest month is August with average 11.4 °C. The city is divided into three districts: Batu and Junrejo; the districts are further subdivided into 24 villages. The names of the villages are: The economy of Batu City is dependent on tourism and agriculture; the location of Batu City, in the mountainous region and rapid tourism development makes most of the GDP growth in Batu depended by this sector. In agriculture, Batu is one of the largest apple-producing regions in Indonesia, which makes it dubbed "The City of Apples". Apple agriculture in Batu has four varieties, there are "Manalagi", "Rome Beauty", "Anna", "Wangling".
The city produces a lot of vegetables, garlic. Besides that, Batu is an artist city where there are many painting and art galleries in this city; the Batu has several shopping centers ranging from modern shopping centers to modern and traditional markets. Among the most famous modern shopping centers in Batu are Lippo Plaza Batu and Plaza Batu, while the famous traditional market in Batu is Pasar Batu. In addition, there is a floating market in Batu called the Nusantara Floating Market which makes it the first floating market in East Java; the Nusantara Floating Market Complex is a unit of the Museum Angkut tourism complex in Batu. Batu is well known for its tourism sites; some are: There is a historic colonial-style hotel, the Kartika Wijaya, founded in 1891 by the Sarkies Brothers, prominent Armenian immigrants best known for founding a chain of luxury hotels throughout Southeast Asia Dutch East Indies. It was built as a vacation villa for the Sarkies family and was turned into a hotel. Official website Batu travel guide
The Doge's Palace is a palace built in Venetian Gothic style, one of the main landmarks of the city of Venice in northern Italy. The palace was the residence of the Doge of Venice, the supreme authority of the former Venetian Republic, opening as a museum in 1923. Today, it is one of the 11 museums run by the Fondazione Musei Civici di Venezia. In 810, Doge Agnello Participazio moved the seat of government from the island of Malamocco to the area of the present-day Rialto, when it was decided a palatium duci should be built. However, no trace remains of that 9th-century building as the palace was destroyed in the 10th century by a fire; the following reconstruction works were undertaken at the behest of Doge Sebastiano Ziani. A great reformer, he would drastically change the entire layout of the St. Mark's Square; the new palace was built out of fortresses, one façade to the Piazzetta, the other overlooking the St. Mark's Basin. Although only few traces remain of that palace, some Byzantine-Venetian architecture characteristics can still be seen at the ground floor, with the wall base in Istrian stone and some herring-bone pattern brick paving.
Political changes in the mid-13th century led to the need to re-think the palace's structure due to the considerable increase in the number of the Great Council's members. The new Gothic palace's constructions started around 1340, focusing on the side of the building facing the lagoon. Only in 1424 did Doge Francesco Foscari decide to extend the rebuilding works to the wing overlooking the Piazzetta, serving as law-courts, with a ground floor arcade on the outside, open first floor loggias running along the façade, the internal courtyard side of the wing, completed with the construction of the Porta della Carta. In 1483, a violent fire broke out in the side of the palace overlooking the canal, where the Doge's Apartments were. Once again, an important reconstruction became necessary and was commissioned from Antonio Rizzo, who would introduce the new Renaissance language to the building's architecture. An entire new structure was raised alongside the canal, stretching from the ponte della Canonica to the Ponte della Paglia, with the official rooms of the government decorated with works commissioned from Vittore Carpaccio, Alvise Vivarini and Giovanni Bellini.
Another huge fire in 1547 destroyed some of the rooms on the second floor, but without undermining the structure as a whole. Refurbishment works were being held at the palace when on 1577 a third fire destroyed the Scrutinio Room and the Great Council Chamber, together with works by Gentile da Fabriano, Alvise Vivarini, Vittore Carpaccio, Giovanni Bellini and Titian. In the subsequent rebuilding work it was decided to respect the original Gothic style, despite the submission of a neo-classical alternative designs by the influential Renaissance architect Andrea Palladio. However, there are some classical features — for example, since the 16th century, the palace has been linked to the prison by the Bridge of Sighs; as well as being the ducal residence, the palace housed political institutions of the Republic of Venice until the Napoleonic occupation of the city in 1797, when its role changed. Venice was subjected first to French rule to Austrian, in 1866 it became part of Italy. Over this period, the palace was occupied by various administrative offices as well as housing the Biblioteca Marciana and other important cultural institutions within the city.
By the end of the 19th century, the structure was showing clear signs of decay, the Italian government set aside significant funds for its restoration and all public offices were moved elsewhere, with the exception of the State Office for the protection of historical Monuments, still housed at the palace's loggia floor. In 1923, the Italian State, owner of the building, entrusted the management to the Venetian municipality to be run as a museum. Since 1996, the Doge’s Palace has been part of the Venetian museums network, under the management of the Fondazione Musei Civici di Venezia since 2008; the oldest part of the palace is the wing overlooking the lagoon, the corners of which are decorated with 14th-century sculptures, thought to be by Filippo Calendario and various Lombard artists such as Matteo Raverti and Antonio Bregno. The ground floor arcade and the loggia above are decorated with 14th- and 15th-century capitals, some of which were replaced with copies during the 19th century. In 1438–1442, Giovanni Bon and Bartolomeo Bon built and adorned the Porta della Carta, which served as the ceremonial entrance to the building.
The name of the gateway derives either from the fact that this was the area where public scribes set up their desks, or from the nearby location of the cartabum, the archives of state documents. Flanked by Gothic pinnacles, with two figures of the Cardinal Virtues per side, the gateway is crowned by a bust of Mark the Evangelist over which rises a statue of Justice with her traditional symbols of sword and scales. In the space above the cornice, there is a sculptural portrait of the Doge Francesco Foscari kneeling before the Lion of Saint Mark; this is, however, a 19th-century work by Luigi Ferrari, created to replace the original destroyed in 1797. Nowadays, the public entrance to the Doge's Palace is via the Porta del Frumento, on the waterfront side of the building; the north side of the courtyard is closed by the junction between the palace and St. Mark’s Basilica, which used to be the Doge’s chapel. At the center of the courtyard stand two well-heads dating from the mid-16th century. In 1485, the Great Council decided that a ceremonial staircase should be built within the courtyar
Nuremberg is the second-largest city of the German federal state of Bavaria after its capital Munich, its 511,628 inhabitants make it the 14th largest city in Germany. On the Pegnitz River and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it lies in the Bavarian administrative region of Middle Franconia, is the largest city and the unofficial capital of Franconia. Nuremberg forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring cities of Fürth and Schwabach with a total population of 787,976, while the larger Nuremberg Metropolitan Region has 3.5 million inhabitants. The city lies about 170 kilometres north of Munich, it is the largest city in the East Franconian dialect area. There are many institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, with 39,780 students Bavaria's third and Germany's 11th largest university with campuses in Erlangen and Nuremberg and a university hospital in Erlangen. Nuremberg Airport is the second-busiest airport of Bavaria after Munich Airport, the tenth-busiest airport of Germany.
Staatstheater Nürnberg is one of the five Bavarian state theatres, showing operas, operettas and ballets, plays, as well as concerts. Its orchestra, Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg, is Bavaria's second-largest opera orchestra after the Bavarian State Opera's Bavarian State Orchestra in Munich. Nuremberg is the birthplace of Johann Pachelbel. Nuremberg was the site of major Nazi rallies, it provided the site for the Nuremberg trials, which held to account many major Nazi officials; the first documentary mention of the city, in 1050, mentions Nuremberg as the location of an Imperial castle between the East Franks and the Bavarian March of the Nordgau. From 1050 to 1571 the city expanded and rose in importance due to its location on key trade-routes. King Conrad III established the Burgraviate of Nuremberg, with the first burgraves coming from the Austrian House of Raab. With the extinction of their male line around 1190, the last Raabs count's son-in-law, Frederick I from the House of Hohenzollern, inherited the burgraviate in 1192.
From the late 12th century to the Interregnum, the power of the burgraves diminished as the Hohenstaufen emperors transferred most non-military powers to a castellan, with the city administration and the municipal courts handed over to an Imperial mayor from 1173/74. The strained relations between the burgraves and the castellans, with gradual transferral of powers to the latter in the late 14th and early 15th centuries broke out into open enmity, which influenced the history of the city. Nuremberg is referred to as the "unofficial capital" of the Holy Roman Empire because the Imperial Diet and courts met at Nuremberg Castle; the Diets of Nuremberg played an important role in the administration of the empire. The increasing demands of the Imperial court and the increasing importance of the city attracted increased trade and commerce in Nuremberg. In 1219 Emperor Frederick II granted the Großen Freiheitsbrief, including town rights, Imperial immediacy, the privilege to mint coins, an independent customs policy - wholly removing the city from the purview of the burgraves.
Nuremberg soon became, with Augsburg, one of the two great trade-centers on the route from Italy to Northern Europe. In 1298 the Jews of the town were falsely accused of having desecrated the host, 698 of them were killed in one of the many Rintfleisch massacres. Behind the massacre of 1298 was the desire to combine the northern and southern parts of the city, which were divided by the Pegnitz; the Jews of the German lands suffered many massacres during the plague years of the mid-14th century. In 1349 Nuremberg's Jews suffered a pogrom, they were burned at the stake or expelled, a marketplace was built over the former Jewish quarter. The plague returned to the city in 1405, 1435, 1437, 1482, 1494, 1520 and 1534; the largest growth of Nuremberg occurred in the 14th century. Charles IV's Golden Bull of 1356, naming Nuremberg as the city where newly elected kings of Germany must hold their first Imperial Diet, made Nuremberg one of the three most important cities of the Empire. Charles was the patron of the Frauenkirche, built between 1352 and 1362, where the Imperial court worshipped during its stays in Nuremberg.
The royal and Imperial connection grew stronger in 1423 when the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg granted the Imperial regalia to be kept permanently in Nuremberg, where they remained until 1796, when the advance of French troops required their removal to Regensburg and thence to Vienna. In 1349 the members of the guilds unsuccessfully rebelled against the patricians in a Handwerkeraufstand, supported by merchants and some by councillors, leading to a ban on any self-organisation of the artisans in the city, abolishing the guilds that were customary elsewhere in Europe.
Eric John Dingwall was a British anthropologist and psychical researcher. Born in British Ceylon he moved to England where he was educated at Pembroke College and the University of London, he wrote popular books on sexology. He became interested in paranormal phenomena in 1921 and served from 1922 to 1927 as a research officer for the Society for Psychical Research. Dingwall was described as an eccentric by those. From 1947 he worked as an assistant keeper in the British Museum, cataloguing private case material of erotica, he co-edited. The set was well written, his book Racial Pride and Prejudice received positive reviews. His books on artificial cranial deformation and infibulation received positive reviews. Dingwall was nicknamed "Dirty Ding" due to his interests in erotica and sexual customs, he was the Honorary vice-president for The Magic Circle and a founding member of its Occult Committee. He was married twice. In the 1920s and 1930s Dingwall travelled in Europe and the United States to investigate mediums.
He has been described as a "sceptical enquirer" and a psychical investigator who "spent many years exposing fraud and unscientific practices among psychical researchers."He co-wrote the skeptical book Four Modern Ghosts with Trevor H. Hall which gave rationalistic explanations for alleged supernatural phenomena such as the Yorkshire Museum Ghost and Harry Price's Rosalie materialization séance. In his book Critics Dilemma, Dingwall supported Hall's criticism of the spiritualist William Crookes and the medium Florence Cook, he investigated the mediumship of Eusapia Palladino and came to the conclusion she was "vital, amorous and a cheat." In 1920, Dingwall with V. J. Woolley tested the medium Eva Carrière in London; the results were negative and it was discovered that her ectoplasm was made from chewed paper. Dingwall investigated the medium Mina Crandon, he suspected that she did not come to any definite conclusion. His suspicion was confirmed by the gynecologist Florence Willey. In his years Dingwall became a critic of psychical research.
In an essay in 1971 he summed up his extensive experience in parapsychological research and came to the conclusion: His essay The Need for Responsibility in Parapsychology: My Sixty Years in Psychical Research was reprinted in A Skeptic's Handbook of Parapsychology by the CSICOP founder Paul Kurtz. The skeptic Gordon Stein dedicated the book The Encyclopedia of the Paranormal to Dingwall. According to authors William Kalush and Larry Sloman. Crandon would sometimes sprinkle luminous powder on her breasts and because of such activities William McDougall and other psychical researchers criticised Dingwall for having improper relations with Crandon; the American Women: An Historical Study Abnormal Hypnotic Phenomena four-volumes The Critics' Dilemma: Further Comments on Some Nineteenth Century Investigations Very Peculiar People Four Modern Ghosts The Unknown, is it Nearer? The Haunting of Borley Rectory: A Critical Survey of the Evidence with Very Peculiar People: Portrait Studies in the Queer, the Abnormal and the Uncanny Racial Pride and Prejudice Woman: An Historical and Anthropological Compendium The Girdle of Chastity Artificial Cranial Deformation Ghosts and Spirits in the Ancient World How to Go to a Medium: A Manual of Instruction Studies in the Sexual Life of Ancient and Medieval Peoples Male Infibulation Eric Dingwall papers at the University of London
Anne of Austria
Anne of Austria, a Spanish princess of the House of Habsburg, was queen of France as the wife of Louis XIII, regent of France during the minority of her son, Louis XIV, from 1643 to 1651. During her regency, Cardinal Mazarin served as France's chief minister. Accounts of French court life of her era emphasize her difficult marital relations with her husband, her closeness to her son Louis XIV, her disapproval of her son's marital infidelity to her niece and daughter-in-law Maria Theresa. Born at the Palace of the Counts of Benavente in Valladolid and baptised Ana María Mauricia, she was the eldest daughter of King Philip III of Spain and his wife Margaret of Austria, she held the titles of of Portugal and Archduchess of Austria. Despite her Spanish birth, she was referred to as Anne of Austria because the rulers of Spain belonged to the senior branch of the House of Austria, known as the House of Habsburg; this designation was uncommon before the 19th century. Anne was raised at the Royal Alcazar of Madrid.
Unusual for a royal princess, Anne grew up close to her parents, who were religious. She was raised to be religious too, was taken to visit monasteries during her childhood. In 1611, she lost her mother. Despite her grief, Anne did her best to take care of her younger siblings, who referred to her with affection as their mother. At age eleven, Anne was betrothed to King Louis XIII of France, her father gave her a dowry of many beautiful jewels. For fear that Louis XIII would die early, the Spanish court stipulated that she would return to Spain with her dowry and wardrobe if he did die. Prior to the marriage, Anne renounced all succession rights she had for herself and her descendants by Louis, with a provision that she would resume her rights should she be left a childless widow. On 24 November 1615, Louis and Anne were married by proxy in Burgos while Louis's sister, Elisabeth of France, Anne's brother, Philip IV of Spain, were married by proxy in Bordeaux; these marriages followed the tradition of cementing military and political alliances between France and Spain that began with the marriage of Philip II of Spain to Elisabeth of Valois in 1559 as part of the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis.
Anne and Elisabeth were exchanged on the Isle of Pheasants between Fuenterrabía. She was beautiful during her youth, she was a noted equestrian, a taste her son, would inherit. At the time, Anne had many admirers, including the handsome Duke of Buckingham, although her intimates believed their flirtations remained chaste. Anne and Louis, both fourteen years old, were pressured to consummate their marriage in order to forestall any possibility of future annulment, but Louis ignored his bride. Louis's mother, Marie de' Medici, continued to conduct herself as queen of France, without showing any deference to her daughter-in-law. Anne, surrounded by her entourage of high-born Spanish ladies-in-waiting headed by Inés de la Torre, continued to live according to Spanish etiquette and failed to improve her French. In 1617, Louis conspired with Charles d'Albert, Duke of Luynes, to dispense with the influence of his mother in a palace coup d'état and had her favorite Concino Concini assassinated on 26 April of that year.
During the years he was in the ascendancy, the Duke of Luynes attempted to remedy the formal distance between Louis and his queen. He sent away Inés de la Torre and the other Spanish ladies and replaced them with French ones, notably the Princesse of Conti and his wife Marie de Rohan-Montbazon, with whom he organized court events that would bring the couple together under amiable circumstances. Anne began to dress in the French manner, in 1619 Luynes pressed the king to bed his queen; some affection developed, to the point where it was noted that Louis was distracted during a serious illness of the queen. A series of stillbirths served to chill their relations. On 14 March 1622, while playing with her ladies, Anne fell on a staircase and suffered her second stillbirth. Louis blamed her for the incident and was angry with the Duchess of Luynes for having encouraged the queen in what was seen as negligence. Henceforth, the king had less tolerance for the influence that the duchess had over Anne, the situation deteriorated after the death of her husband Luynes in December 1621.
The king's attention was monopolized by his war against the Protestants, while the queen defended the remarriage of her inseparable companion Marie de Rohan-Montbazon, center of all court intrigue, to her lover Claude, Duke of Chevreuse, in 1622. Louis turned now to Cardinal Richelieu as his advisor, who served as his first minister from 1624 until his death in 1642. Richelieu's foreign policy of struggle against the Habsburgs, who surrounded France on two fronts created tension between Louis and Anne, who remained childless for another sixteen years. Under the influence of Marie de Rohan-Montbazon, the queen let herself be drawn into political opposition to Richelieu and became embroiled in several intrigues against his policies. Vague rumors of betrayal circulated in the court, notably her supposed involvement, with the conspiracies of the Count of Chalais that Marie organized in 1626, those of the king's treacherous favorite, Cinq-Mars, introduced to him by Richelieu. In 1626, the Cardinal placed Madeleine du Fargis as Dame d'atour in the household of the queen to act as a spy, but she was instead to become a trusted confidant and favorite of the queen.
In December 1630, Louis XIII reduced Anne's court and purged a great amount of
Catherine de' Medici
Catherine de Medici, daughter of Lorenzo II de' Medici and Madeleine de La Tour d'Auvergne, was an Italian noblewoman, queen of France from 1547 until 1559, by marriage to King Henry II. As the mother of kings Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III, she had extensive, if at times varying, influence in the political life of France. From 1560 to 1563, she ruled France as regent for King of France. In 1533, at the age of fourteen, Catherine married Henry, second son of King Francis I and Queen Claude of France. Throughout his reign, Henry excluded Catherine from participating in state affairs and instead showered favors on his chief mistress, Diane de Poitiers, who wielded much influence over him. Henry's death thrust Catherine into the political arena as mother of the frail fifteen-year-old King Francis II; when he died in 1560, she became regent on behalf of her ten-year-old son King Charles IX and was granted sweeping powers. After Charles died in 1574, Catherine played a key role in the reign of her third son, Henry III.
He dispensed with her advice only in the last months of her life. Catherine's three sons reigned in an age of constant civil and religious war in France; the problems facing the monarchy were complex and daunting but Catherine was able to keep the monarchy and the state institutions functioning at a minimum level. At first, Catherine compromised and made concessions to the rebelling Calvinist Protestants, or Huguenots, as they became known, she failed, however. She resorted, in frustration and anger, to hard-line policies against them. In return, she came to be blamed for the excessive persecutions carried out under her sons' rule, in particular for the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre of 1572, in which thousands of Huguenots were killed in Paris and throughout France; some historians have excused Catherine from blame for the worst decisions of the crown, though evidence for her ruthlessness can be found in her letters. In practice, her authority was always limited by the effects of the civil wars.
Her policies, may be seen as desperate measures to keep the Valois monarchy on the throne at all costs, her patronage of the arts as an attempt to glorify a monarchy whose prestige was in steep decline. Without Catherine, it is unlikely; the years during which they reigned have been called "the age of Catherine de' Medici". According to Mark Strage, one of her biographers, Catherine was the most powerful woman in sixteenth-century Europe. Catherine de Medici was born on 13 April 1519 in Florence, Republic of Florence, the only child of Lorenzo de' Medici, Duke of Urbino, his wife, Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne, the countess of Boulogne; the young couple had been married the year before at Amboise as part of the alliance between King Francis I of France and Lorenzo's uncle Pope Leo X against the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I. According to a contemporary chronicler, when Catherine was born, her parents were "as pleased as if it had been a boy". Within a month of Catherine's birth, both her parents were dead: Madeleine died on 28 April of puerperal fever or plague, Lorenzo died on 4 May, his title over Urbino reverting to Francesco Maria I della Rovere.
King Francis wanted Catherine to be raised at the French court, but Pope Leo had other plans for her. Catherine was first cared for by Alfonsina Orsini. After Alfonsina's death in 1520, Catherine joined her cousins and was raised by her aunt, Clarice de' Medici; the death of Pope Leo in 1521 interrupted Medici power until Cardinal Giulio de' Medici was elected Pope Clement VII in 1523. Clement housed Catherine in the Palazzo Medici Riccardi in Florence; the Florentine people called her duchessina, in deference to her unrecognised claim to the Duchy of Urbino. In 1527, the Medici were overthrown in Florence by a faction opposed to the regime of Clement's representative, Cardinal Silvio Passerini, Catherine was taken hostage and placed in a series of convents; the final one, the Santissima Annuziata delle Murate was her home for three years. Mark Strage described these years as "the happiest of her entire life". Clement had no choice but to crown Charles Holy Roman Emperor in return for his help in retaking the city.
In October 1529, Charles's troops laid siege to Florence. As the siege dragged on, voices called for Catherine to be killed and exposed naked and chained to the city walls; some suggested that she be handed over to the troops to be used for their sexual gratification. The city surrendered on 12 August 1530. Clement summoned Catherine from her beloved convent to join him in Rome where he greeted her with open arms and tears in his eyes, he set about the business of finding her a husband. On her visit to Rome, the Venetian envoy described Catherine as "small of stature, thin, without delicate features, but having the protruding eyes peculiar to the Medici family". Suitors, lined up for her hand, including James V of Scotland who sent the Duke of Albany to Clement to conclude a marriage in April and November 1530; when Francis I of France proposed his second son, Duke of Orléans, in early 1533, Clement jumped at the offer. Henry was a prize catch for Catherine; the wedding, a grand affair marked by extravagant display and gift-giving, took place in the Église Saint-Ferréol les Augustins in Marseille on 28 October 1533.
Prince Henry danced and jousted for Catherine