Chatham, Kent

Chatham is one of the Medway towns located within the Medway unitary authority, in North Kent, in South East England. The town developed around Chatham Dockyard and several Army barracks, together with 19th-century forts which provided a defensive shield for the dockyard; the Corps of Royal Engineers is still based in Chatham at Brompton Barracks. The Dockyard closed in 1984, but major naval buildings remain as the focus for a flourishing tourist industry. Following closure, part of the site became a commercial port, other parts were redeveloped for business and residential use, part became the Chatham Historic Dockyard museum, which features the submarine HMS Ocelot among a good many other attractions; the town has important road links and the railway and bus stations are the main interchanges for the area. It is the administrative headquarters of Medway unitary authority, as well as its principal shopping centre; the name Chatham was first recorded as Cetham in 880. The Domesday Book records the place as Ceteham.

Most books explain this name as a British root ceto plus Old English ham, thus meaning a forest settlement. The river-valley situation of Chatham is, more consistent with cet being an Old English survival of the element catu, common in Roman-era names and meant'basin' or'valley'. Chatham stands on the A2 road along the line of the ancient Celtic route, paved by the Romans, named Watling Street by the Anglo-Saxons. Among finds have been the remains of a Roman cemetery, it long remained a small village on the banks of the river, but by the 16th century warships were being moored at Jillingham water, because of its strategic sheltered location between London and the Continent. It was established as a Royal Dockyard by Queen Elizabeth I in 1568 and most of the dockyard lies within Gillingham. A refitting base, it became a shipbuilding yard. In its time, many thousands of men were employed at the dockyard, many hundreds of vessels were launched there, including HMS Victory, built there in the 1760s.

After World War I many submarines were built in Chatham Dockyard. In addition to the dockyard itself, defensive fortifications were built to protect it from attack. Upnor Castle had proved ineffectual; the fortifications, which became more elaborate as the threat of invasion grew, were begun in 1756 as a complex across the neck of the peninsula formed by the bend in the River Medway, included Fort Amherst. The threat of a land-based attack from the south during the 19th century led to the construction of more forts; the second phase of fort-building included Fort Pitt. The 1859 Royal Commission on the Defence of the United Kingdom ordered, inter alia, a third outer ring of forts: these included Fort Luton, Fort Bridgewood, Fort Borstal; these fortifications all required military personnel to man them and Army barracks to house those men. These included Kitchener Barracks, the Royal Marine Barracks, Brompton Artillery Barracks and Melville Barracks. H. M. S. Collingwood and H. M. S. Pembroke were both naval barracks.

In response to the huge manpower needs, the village of Chatham and other nearby villages and towns grew commensurately. Trams, buses, linked those places to bring in the workforce; the area between the High Street and Luton village illustrates part of that growth, with its many streets of Victorian terraces. The importance of Chatham dockyard declined as Britain's naval resources were reduced or moved to other locations, in 1984, it was closed completely; the dockyard buildings were preserved as the historic site Chatham Historic Dockyard, under consideration as a World Heritage Site the site is being used for other purposes. Part of the St Mary's Island section is now used as a marina, the remainder is being developed for housing and other uses, branded as "Chatham Maritime". Chatham lost its independence as a borough under the Local Government Act 1972, by which, on 1 April 1974, it became part of the Borough of Medway, a non-metropolitan district of the county of Kent. Under the most recent change, in 1998, with the addition of the Borough of Gillingham, the Borough of Medway became a unitary authority area, administratively separate from Kent.

It remains part of the county of Kent for ceremonial purposes. Medway Council has relocated its main administration building to Gun Wharf, the site of the earliest part of the Dockyard, a former Lloyd's office building. Chatham is part of the parliamentary constituency of Chatham and Aylesford. Prior to 1997, Chatham had been included in the constituencies of Mid Kent and Chatham and Chatham. Chatham has proven to be a marginal parliamentary seat. Since 1945, the members of parliament for Chatham have been as follows: Chatham is situated where the lower part of the dip slope of the North Downs meets the River Medway which at this point is flowing in a south-north direction; this gives the right bank, where the town stands, considerable advantages from the point of view of river use. Compared with opposite bank, the river is deep; the town lies below at river level, c

Taylor v Connex South Eastern Ltd

Taylor v Connex South Eastern Ltd Appeal No: EAT/1243/99, is a UK labour law case, concerning the TUPE Regulations. Mr Taylor was a chartered accountant, employed as an administrator by the SouthEastern Train Company, a division of British Rail, it was privatised and sold to Connex South Eastern in 1996. In 1997 he got a new job as Deputy Company Secretary, but on his new contract he made amendments, amounting to a counter offer in contract, according to the EAT, remaining employed under the terms of his old agreement. In 1998 he was given, according to ongoing changes throughout the company, another new contract, which contained clauses that were to his detriment, he complained. They insisted he have three weeks notice; the tribunal found that he was redundant, but that he was dismissed not for this but for'some other substantial reason' under s 98 of the Employment Rights Act 1996. He therefore lost his claim for unfair dismissal, he appealed. The Employment Appeal Tribunal held that under r 8 of the Transfer of Undertakings Regulations Mr Taylor was dismissed in connection with the transfer of the railway from public to private hands.

This was so despite the fact. UK labour law

Close-bodied gown

A close-bodied gown, English nightgown, or robe à l'anglaise was a women's fashion of the 18th century. Like the earlier mantua, from which it evolved, the back of the gown featured pleats from the shoulder, stitched down to mould the gown to the body until the fullness was released into the skirt. Through the 1770s, the back pleats became narrower and closer to the center back, by the 1780s these pleats had disappeared and the skirt and bodice were cut separately; the gown was open in front, to reveal a matching or contrasting petticoat, featured elbow-length sleeves, which were finished with separate frills called engageantes. 1700–1750 in fashion 1750–1795 in fashion Ribeiro, Aileen: The Art of Dress: Fashion in England and France 1750–1820, Yale University Press, 1995, ISBN 0-300-06287-7 Freshman, Dorothy J. Schuler, Barbara Einzig, eds. An Elegant Art: Fashion & Fantasy in the Eighteenth Century, Abrams/Los Angeles County Museum of Art, ISBN 0-87587-111-9 Takeda, Sharon Sadako, Kaye Durland Spilker.

Fashioning Fashion: European Dress in Detail, 1700 - 1915, LACMA/Prestel USA, ISBN 978-3-7913-5062-2 Waugh, The Cut of Women's Clothes: 1600-1930, New York, Routledge, 1968, ISBN 0-87830-026-0