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1937 New York City department store strikes

During the 1937 New York City department store strikes over 100 department store workers participated in a sit-down strike in New York City. In an interview with a worker from the Federal Writers' Project, department store clerk Irving Fajans talked about the sit-in strikers – with demands of a forty-hour work week and higher hourly wages -- and their twelve-day occupation of five New York City chain department stores. “Arrangements had been made for food and bedding to be brought in, the workers notified their families by phone that they would be away from home indefinitely. We had cots brought in and blankets, electric burners for coffee, plenty of eats. Although there was food and other things we might have used in the store, none of our people touched any sort of merchandise during the strike. Two engagements were announced during the time we sat in, we held parties. We held a marriage ceremony there for a couple who decided to get married during the strike; the girls dressed up the bride, the fellows groomed the groom, we had a priest sent for, married them.

It was pretty cold, being early spring, the blankets we had were not enough, so we had to huddle together at nights. Some of the fellows slept on the counters. There were some canary cages in the store, we kept the birds fed... They wake us up early in the morning. We had games like checkers and cards, we had a radio, danced to the music; the strike held out over Easter week, it happened that some of our people were Italians and Irish Catholics. After nearly two weeks and numerous arrests of supporting picketers, the occupying workers gained higher wages and union recognition; the goal of a forty-hour workweek wasn’t met yet, though a forty-eight-hour work week was negotiated

A28 autoroute

Autoroute 28 is a French mainland motorway linking Abbeville in the Somme to Tours in Indre-et-Loire. It is 405 km long; the motorway starts at Abbeville, splitting from the A16 and, after merging with the A13 near Rouen, ends at Tours, merging with the A10. The motorway between Rouen and Tours was added to the Schéma Directeur Routier National in 1987. Between Abbeville and Rouen, the first part, the motorway was built by the Ministry of the Equipment and Transports. 97 km long, this portion of the motorway is toll-free. Between Rouen and Alençon, the second part, the motorway is operated by Alis and is the first autoroute of France to have had offers by European companies following the withdrawal of the SAPN in 1998 despite its contract initiated in 1995; the second stretch of road, opened on 27 October 2005, is 125 km long and passes over two large viaducts. The third and final stretch of road, between Alençon and the A10 near Tours, is operated by Cofiroute. A portion of road between Écommoy and Tours was prevented from being built due to the presence of a protected species of beetle, Osmoderma Eremita, or the Pique Prune.

Construction began only in 2004, the stretch was opened on 14 December. A28 autoroute in Saratlas

Clock gating

Clock gating is a popular technique used in many synchronous circuits for reducing dynamic power dissipation, by removing the clock signal when the circuit is not in use. Clock gating saves power by pruning the clock tree, at the cost of adding more logic to a circuit. Pruning the clock disables portions of the circuitry so that the flip-flops in them do not have to switch states. Switching states consumes power; when not being switched, the switching power consumption goes to zero, only leakage currents are incurred. Clock gating works by taking the enable conditions attached to registers, uses them to gate the clocks. A design must contain these enable conditions in order to benefit from clock gating; this clock gating process can save significant die area as well as power, since it removes large numbers of muxes and replaces them with clock gating logic. This clock gating logic is in the form of "integrated clock gating" cells. However, the clock gating logic will change the clock tree structure, since the clock gating logic will sit in the clock tree.

Clock gating logic can be added into a design in a variety of ways: Coded into the register transfer level code as enable conditions that can be automatically translated into clock gating logic by synthesis tools. Inserted into the design manually by the RTL designers by instantiating library specific integrated clock gating cells to gate the clocks of specific modules or registers. Semi-automatically inserted into the RTL by automated clock gating tools; these tools either add enable conditions into the RTL code. These also offer sequential clock gating optimisations. Any RTL modifications to improve clock gating will result in functional changes to the design which need to be verified. Sequential clock gating is the process of extracting/propagating the enable conditions to the upstream/downstream sequential elements, so that additional registers can be clock gated. Although asynchronous circuits by definition do not have a "clock", the term perfect clock gating is used to illustrate how various clock gating techniques are approximations of the data-dependent behavior exhibited by asynchronous circuitry.

As the granularity on which you gate the clock of a synchronous circuit approaches zero, the power consumption of that circuit approaches that of an asynchronous circuit: the circuit only generates logic transitions when it is computing. Chip intended to run on batteries or with low power such as those used in the mobile phones, wearable devices, etc. would implement several forms of clock gating together. At one end is the manual gating of clocks by software, where a driver enables or disables the various clocks used by a given idle controller. On the other end is automatic clock gating, where the hardware can be told to detect whether there's any work to do, turn off a given clock if it is not needed; these forms may be part of the same enable tree. For example, an internal bridge or bus might use automatic gating so that it is gated off until the CPU or a DMA engine needs to use it, while several of the peripherals on that bus might be permanently gated off if they are unused on that board.

Power gating Glitch removal Dynamic frequency scaling Autonomous peripheral operation Li, Hai. Deterministic clock gating for microprocessor power reduction; the Ninth International Symposium on High-Performance Computer Architecture, 2003. HPCA-9 2003. Proceedings. IEEE. pp. 113–122. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.79.6234. Doi:10.1109/HPCA.2003.1183529. ISBN 978-0-7695-1871-8. ISSN 1530-0897

Religious violence in Nigeria

Religious violence in Nigeria refers to Christian-Muslim strife in modern Nigeria, which can be traced back to 1953. Today, religious violence in Nigeria is dominated by the Boko Haram insurgency, which aims to establish an Islamic state in Nigeria. Nigeria was amalgamated in 1914, only about a decade after the defeat of the Sokoto Caliphate and other Islamic states by the British, which were to constitute much of Northern Nigeria; the aftermath of the First World War saw Germany lose its colonies, one of, Cameroon, to French and British mandates. Cameroon was divided in French and British parts, the latter of, further subdivided into southern and northern parts. Following a plebiscite in 1961, the Southern Cameroons elected to rejoin French Cameroon, while the Northern Cameroons opted to join Nigeria, a move which added to Nigeria's large Northern Muslim population; the territory comprised much of what is now Northeastern Nigeria, a large part of the areas affected by the present and past insurgencies.

Following the return of democratic government in 1999, the Muslim-dominated northern Nigerian states have introduced Sharia law, including punishments against blasphemy and apostasy. Several incidents have occurred whereby people have been killed for or in response to perceived insults to Islam. Religious conflict in Nigeria goes as far back as 1953, in the case of the town of Tafawa Balewa, to 1948; the Igbo massacre of 1966 in the North that followed the counter-coup of the same year had as a dual cause the Igbo officers' coup and pre-existing tensions between the Igbos and the local Muslims. This was a major factor in the resulting civil war; the 1980s saw an upsurge in violence due to death of Mohammed Marwa. In the same decade, the erstwhile military ruler of Nigeria, General Ibrahim Babangida enrolled Nigeria in the Organisation of the Islamic Conference; this was a move which aggravated religious tensions in the country among the Christian community. In response, some in the Muslim community pointed out that certain other African member states have smaller proportions of Muslims, as well as Nigeria's diplomatic relations with the Holy See.

Since the return of democracy to Nigeria in 1999, Sharia has been instituted as a main body of civil and criminal law in 9 Muslim-majority and in some parts of 3 Muslim-plurality states, when then-Zamfara State governor Ahmad Rufai Sani began the push for the institution of Sharia at the state level of government. In the 1980s, serious outbreaks between Christians and Muslims occurred in Kafanchan in southern Kaduna State in a border area between the two religions, propagated by extreme leaders who were able to rally a young, educated group of individuals who were feared that the nation would not be able to protect their religious group; the leaders were able to polarize their followers through public demonstrations. The activities of some of these sects has in recent times led to the loss of lives and properties as they move about destroying government facilities which they see as legacies or replica of western cultures in their various communities; these religious campaigns has seen an increase in gun battles between the members of these sects and security forces with loss of lives witnessed on both sides.

Although direct conflicts between Christians and Muslims were rare, tensions did flare between the two groups as each group radicalised. There were clashes in October 1982 when Muslim zealots in Kano were able to enforce their power in order to keep the Anglican House Church from expanding its size and power base, they saw it as a threat to the nearby Mosque though the Anglican House Church had been there forty years prior to the building of the Mosque. Additionally, there were two student groups in Nigeria who came into contestation, the Fellowship of Christian Students and the Muslim Student Society. In one instance there was an evangelical campaign organised by the FCS and brought into question why one sect should dominate the campus of the Kafanchan college of education; this quarrel accelerated to the point where the Muslim students organised protests around the city and culminated in the burning of a Mosque at the college. The Christian majority at the college retaliated on March 9. Twelve people died, several Mosques were burnt and a climate of fear was created.

The retaliation was pre-planned. Exploitation of the media used to propagate the ideas of the conflict, thereby radicalising each force more. Media was biased on each side so while places like the Federal Radio Corporation discussed the idea of defending Islam during this brief moment of terror, it did not report the deaths and damage caused by Muslims, galvanising the Muslim population; the Christian papers did not report the damage and deaths caused by Christians but rather focused on the Islamic terror. Other individuals leading these religious movements use the media to spread messages which became more intolerant of other religions, because of these religious divisions radical Islam continues to be a problem in Nigeria today. In the late 1970s and early 1980s, there was a major Islamic uprising led by Maitatsine and his followers, Yan Tatsine that led to several thousand deaths. After Maitatsine's death in 1980, the movement continued some five years more. In 1991, the German evangelist Reinhard Bonnke attempted a crusade in Kano, causing a religious riot leading to the deaths of about a dozen people.

Since the restoration of democracy in 1999, Christian governments have dominated the country at the federal level, while the Muslim-dominated Northern Nigerian states have implemented strict Sharia law. Religious conflict between Muslims and Christians has erupted several times since 2000 for various reasons

John Christopher Muran

John Christopher Muran is an American clinical psychologist and psychotherapy researcher. John Christopher Muran graduated cum laude from The Hotchkiss School in 1980 and Hamilton College in 1984, he completed a doctorate in combined professional-scientific psychology at Hofstra University in 1989. He completed postdoctoral training in cognitive therapy at the Clarke Institute of Psychiatry in 1990 and in psychoanalysis at the New York University Postdoctoral Program in 1998, he is a Full Professor at the Gordon F. Derner School of Psychology, Adelphi University, where he holds the appointment of Associate Dean and serves as training director for the doctoral program in clinical psychology, he is Principal Investigator and Director of the Brief Psychotherapy Research Program at Mount Sinai Beth Israel, supported by grants from the National Institute of Mental Health, is on faculty at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Muran's work has concentrated on the following topics: psychotherapy integration and difference, therapeutic relationship and alliance, therapist position and experience, treatment impasse and failure, performance under pressure, theories on self, identity politics and intersubjectivity.

He has published over 130 papers and 8 books, including The Therapeutic Alliance, Dialogues on Difference, Self-Relations in the Psychotherapy Process, Negotiating the Therapeutic Alliance. Muran is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and serves on its Advisory Steering Committee for Clinical Treatment Guidelines, he is past-president of the Society for Psychotherapy Research and past-editor of its international journal Psychotherapy Research. He has served on several editorial boards, including Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology and Clinical Psychology: Science & Practice, he has received other honors and recognition for his accomplishments. Muran married clinical psychologist Elisa Denise Ventur in 1992 with whom he has a son Andrew Christopher Muran. Castonguay, L. G. & Muran, J. C. eds.. Practice-Oriented Research in Psychotherapy. Oxford, United Kingdom: Routledge. Wolf, A. W. Goldfried, M. R. & Muran, J. C. eds.. Transforming Negative Reactions to Clients. Washington, DC: APA Books.

Muran, J. C. & Barber, J. P. eds.. The Therapeutic Alliance: An Evidence-Based Guide to Practice. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Castonguay, L. G. Muran, J. C. et al. eds.. Bringing Psychotherapy Research to Life. Washington, DC: APA Books. Muran, J. C. ed.. Dialogues on Difference: Diversity Studies on the Therapeutic Relationship. Washington, DC: APA Books. Muran, J. C. ed.. Self-Relations in the Psychotherapy Process. Washington, DC: APA Books. Safran, J. D. & Muran, J. C.. Negotiating the Therapeutic Alliance: A Relational Treatment Guide. New York, NY: Guilford Press. Safran, J. D. & Muran, J. C. ed.. The Therapeutic Alliance in Brief Psychotherapy. Washington, DC: APA Books