The Chattooga River is the main tributary of the Tugaloo River. Its headwaters are located southwest of Cashiers, North Carolina, it stretches 57 miles to where it has its confluence with the Tallulah River within Lake Tugalo, held back by the Tugalo Dam; the Chattooga and the Tallulah combine to make the Tugaloo River starting at the outlet of Lake Tugalo. The Chattooga begins in southern Jackson County, North Carolina flows southwestward between northwestern Oconee County, South Carolina, eastern Rabun County, Georgia; the "Chattooga" spelling was approved by the US Board on Geographic Names in 1897. The Chattooga River flows into Tugalo Lake. After flowing through Tugalo Dam the combined rivers become the Tugaloo River which, along with the Seneca River, becomes the Savannah River below Lake Hartwell. Downstream from that point, the water flows into the Atlantic Ocean near Georgia; the Chattooga was used as a setting for the fictional Cahulawassee River in the book and film Deliverance. The Chattooga River serves as part of the boundary between Georgia and South Carolina near latitude 35°N.
The Chattooga River was not the original boundary line between South Georgia. A treaty of 1816 extended the South Carolina boundary to its current location. Prior to 1816, the Chattooga was on the lands of the Cherokee Indian Nation; the Blue Ridge Mountains, where the Chattooga starts, are considered to be ancient by geological standards. The rock is granite. Geologists believe, it flowed southwesterly into the Chattahoochee riverbed and on to the Gulf of Mexico, but at some point, the Savannah River eroded its northern headland until it intersected the Chattooga and diverted it to the Atlantic. The rocks in the riverbed fell from the ridge above, but those rocks do not remain where they fall. In times of great downpours, high water, fast currents, rocks can become dislodged and move downstream, taking other rocks and debris with them. During Hurricane Ivan in 2004, the wind force and waters knocked down big boulders off the sides; the hurricane released enough water in the Chattooga watershed to bring the river to its highest recorded flow rate, around 26,000 cu ft/s to 28,000 cu ft/s, rivaling the typical flow of the Grand Canyon.
Since May 10, 1974, the Chattooga River has been protected along a 15,432-acre corridor as a national Wild and Scenic River. 39.8 miles of the river have been designated “wild”, about 2.5 miles “scenic”, 14.6 miles “recreational” for a total of about 57 miles. On the commercially rafted sections there is a 1/4 mile protected corridor of National Forest on both sides of the river, allowing no roads to the river or development of any kind. There are a few areas on the river where access has been made more accessible on Section III, but much of Section IV is remote; the Chattooga bisects the Ellicott Rock Wilderness which straddles three states and three National Forests. Much of the Georgia portion of the river is within the Chattooga River Ranger District of the Chattahoochee National Forest. Known as the "Crown Jewel" of the southeast, the Chattooga was the first river east of the Mississippi to be granted the Wild & Scenic designation, is still the only one, commercially rafted; the river is split into three forks.
The Chattooga River is the main fork. The East Fork Chattooga River runs in from Jackson County, North Carolina and Oconee County, South Carolina, is 7.4 miles long. The West Fork Chattooga River runs 6.0 miles in from Rabun County, is a variant name for that county's Holcomb Creek, one of its own tributaries. One of the largest tributaries in the Chattooga basin that flows through private lands is Stekoa Creek, which flows southeast for 18 miles from its headwaters in Mountain City, through Clayton, Georgia, to its mouth at the Chattooga River. Stekoa Creek has been the single greatest threat to the Chattooga's water quality for over 40 years, due to raw sewage leaking from the City of Clayton, GA's old sewage collection system, storm drains overflowing, sediment-laden runoff, poor agricultural practices, failing septic systems, dumping from apathetic individuals; the Chattooga Conservancy, a non-profit organization dedicated to the protection and restoration of the Chattooga River watershed, has made the neglected issue of improving water quality in Stekoa Creek a top priority.
The Stekoa Creek Basin is 45 square miles in size. In the late spring, the river is lined with white mountain laurel. Early spring is a great time to go rafting, kayaking, or canoeing because of the higher flows and cooler temperatures; the Chattooga is a free-flowing river which responds to rainfall or drought conditions. As a drop-pool style river, rapids are followed by calm pools for swimming; the Chattooga headwaters start near Cashiers as a small stream, but Green Creek is the start of the boatable section. Section I is ideal for tubing and class II float trips. Section II starting at Highway 28 is a class. Section III has Class II-IV rapids which kayakers frequent; the final rapid in Section III is Bull Sluice. Section IV inc
Floyd County, Georgia
Floyd County is a county located in the northwestern part of the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 96,317; the county seat is Rome. Floyd County comprises GA Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county was established on December 3, 1832, by an act of the Georgia General Assembly and was created from land, part of Cherokee County at the time. The county is named after United States Congressman John Floyd. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 518 square miles, of which 510 square miles is land and 8.6 square miles is water. The northern third of Floyd County is located in the Oostanaula River sub-basin of the ACT River Basin; the eastern third of the county is located in the Etowah River sub-basin of the larger ACT River Basin, while the western third of Floyd County is located in the Upper Coosa River sub-basin of the same ACT River Basin. Walker County – north Gordon County – northeast Bartow County – east Polk County – south Cherokee County, Alabama – west Chattooga County – northwest Chattahoochee National Forest As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 90,565 people, 34,028 households, 24,227 families residing in the county.
The population density was 176 people per square mile. There were 36,615 housing units at an average density of 71 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 81.34% White, 13.31% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.93% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 2.88% from other races, 1.14% from two or more races. 5.50% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 34,028 households out of which 32.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.60% were married couples living together, 13.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.80% were non-families. 24.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.60% under the age of 18, 10.80% from 18 to 24, 28.50% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, 13.90% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years.
For every 100 females there were 93.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,615, the median income for a family was $42,302. Males had a median income of $31,659 versus $23,244 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,808. About 10.80% of families and 14.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.40% of those under age 18 and 13.80% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 96,317 people, 35,930 households, 24,916 families residing in the county; the population density was 188.9 inhabitants per square mile. There were 40,551 housing units at an average density of 79.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 76.9% white, 14.2% black or African American, 1.3% Asian, 0.4% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 5.3% from other races, 1.9% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 9.3% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 16.2% were English, 13.3% were American, 12.4% were Irish, 6.8% were German.
Of the 35,930 households, 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.4% were married couples living together, 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.7% were non-families, 26.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.09. The median age was 37.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $41,066 and the median income for a family was $49,310. Males had a median income of $40,269 versus $29,587 for females; the per capita income for the county was $20,640. About 13.3% of families and 18.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.5% of those under age 18 and 11.0% of those age 65 or over. The county government is housed in the Floyd County Administration Building in Rome, the county seat; this was Courthouse. The county has a council-manager form of government, with five county council members elected at-large. Two members must reside there; the at-large voting tends to reward candidates who can muster majority votes from across the whole county, which requires more money and organization for campaigns.
The council hires a professional county manager to manage daily operations. Armuchee High School Coosa High School Model High School Pepperell High School Armuchee Middle School Coosa Middle School Model Middle School Pepperell Middle School Armuchee Elementary School Alto Park Elementary School Garden Lakes Elementary School Cave Spring Elementary School Johnson Elementary School Model Elementary School Pepperell Elementary School Glenwood Primary McHenry Primary Pepperell Primary Floyd County College & Career Academy Rome High School Rome Middle School Anna K. Davie Elementary School East Central Elementary School Elm Street Elementary School North Heights Elementary School West Central Elementary School West End Elementary School Darlington School Unity Christian School St. Mary's Catholic School Berry College Elementary & Middle School Montessori School of Rome Bob Richards Youth Detention Center Cave Spring Rome Lindale Shannon Armuchee Coosa Floyd Springs Livingston Mount Berry Rosedale Silver Creek National Register of Historic Places listings in Floyd County, Georgia Berry College Floyd County
Henry Wager Halleck was a United States Army officer and lawyer. A noted expert in military studies, he was known by a nickname that became derogatory: "Old Brains." He was an important participant in the admission of California as a state and became a successful lawyer and land developer. Halleck served as General-in-Chief of all Union armies during the American Civil War. Early in the Civil War, Halleck was a senior Union Army commander in the Western Theater, he commanded operations in the Western Theater from 1861 until 1862, during which time, while the Union armies in the east were defeated and held back, the troops under Halleck's command won many important victories. However, Halleck was not present at the battles, his subordinates earned most of the recognition; the only operation in which Halleck exercised field command was the Siege of Corinth in the spring of 1862, a Union victory which he conducted with extreme caution. Halleck developed rivalries with many of his subordinate generals, such as Ulysses S. Grant and Don Carlos Buell.
In July 1862, following Major General George B. McClellan's failed Peninsula Campaign in the Eastern Theater, Halleck was promoted to general-in-chief of all U. S. armies. Halleck served in this capacity for a half. Halleck was a cautious general who believed in thorough preparations for battle and in the value of defensive fortifications over quick, aggressive action, he was a master of administration and the politics necessary at the top of the military hierarchy, but exerted little effective control over field operations from his post in Washington, D. C, his subordinates criticized him and at times ignored his instructions. President Abraham Lincoln once described him as "little more than a first rate clerk." In March 1864, Grant was promoted to general-in-chief, Halleck was relegated to chief-of-staff. Without the pressure of having to control the movements of the armies, Halleck performed capably in this task, ensuring that the Union armies were well-equipped. Halleck was born on a farm in Westernville, Oneida County, New York, third child of 14 of Joseph Halleck, a lieutenant who served in the War of 1812, Catherine Wager Halleck.
Young Henry detested the thought of an agricultural life and ran away from home at an early age to be raised by an uncle, David Wager of Utica. He attended Hudson Academy and Union College the United States Military Academy, he became a favorite of military theorist Dennis Hart Mahan and was allowed to teach classes while still a cadet. He graduated in 1839, third in his class of 31 cadets, as a second lieutenant of engineers. After spending a few years improving the defenses of New York Harbor, he wrote a report for the United States Senate on seacoast defenses, Report on the Means of National Defence, which pleased General Winfield Scott, who rewarded Halleck with a trip to Europe in 1844 to study European fortifications and the French military. Returning home a first lieutenant, Halleck gave a series of twelve lectures at the Lowell Institute in Boston that were subsequently published in 1846 as Elements of Military Art and Science, his work, one of the first expressions of American military professionalism, was well received by his colleagues and was considered one of the definitive tactical treatises used by officers in the coming Civil War.
His scholarly pursuits earned him the nickname "Old Brains." During the Mexican–American War, Halleck was assigned to duty in California. During his seven-month journey on the transport USS Lexington around Cape Horn, assigned as aide-de-camp to Commodore William Shubrick, he translated Henri Jomini's Vie politique et militaire de Napoleon, which further enhanced his reputation for scholarship, he spent several months in California constructing fortifications was first exposed to combat on November 11, 1847, during Shubrick's capture of the port of Mazatlán. He was awarded a brevet promotion to captain in 1847 for his "gallant and meritorious service" in California and Mexico, he was transferred north to serve under General Bennet Riley, the governor general of the California Territory. Halleck was soon appointed military secretary of state, a position which made him the governor's representative at the 1849 convention in Monterey where the California state constitution was written. Halleck became one of the principal authors of the document.
The California State Military Museum writes that Halleck "was and in a lone measure its brains because he had given more studious thought to the subject than any other, General Riley had instructed him to help frame the new constitution." He was nominated during the convention to be one of two men to represent the new state in the United States Senate, but received only enough votes for third place. During his political activities, he found time to join a law firm in San Francisco, Peachy & Billings, which became so successful that he resigned his commission in 1854; the following year, he married Elizabeth Hamilton, granddaughter of Alexander Hamilton and sister of Union general Schuyler Hamilton. Their only child, Henry Wager Halleck, Jr. was born in 1856, died in 1882. Halleck became a wealthy man as a lawyer and land speculator, a noted collector of "Californiana." He obtained thousands of pages of official documents on the Spanish missions and colonization of California, which were copied and are now maintained by the Bancroft Library of the University of California, the originals having been destroyed in the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire.
He built the Montgomery Block, San Francisco's first fireproof bu
Trail of Tears
The Trail of Tears was a series of forced relocations of Native Americans in the United States from their ancestral homelands in the Southeastern United States, to areas to the west, designated as Indian Territory. The forced relocations were carried out by government authorities following the passage of the Indian Removal Act in 1830; the relocated peoples suffered from exposure and starvation while en route to their new designated reserve, many died before reaching their destinations. The forced removals included members of the Cherokee, Seminole and Choctaw nations, as well as their African slaves; the phrase "Trail of Tears" originates from a description of the removal of many Native American tribes, including the infamous Cherokee Nation relocation in 1838. Between 1830 and 1850, the Chickasaw, Creek and Cherokee people were forcibly removed from their traditional lands in the Southeastern United States, relocated farther west; those Native Americans who were relocated were forced to march to their destinations by state and local militias.
The Cherokee removal in 1838 was brought on by the discovery of gold near Dahlonega, Georgia in 1828, resulting in the Georgia Gold Rush. 2,000–8,000 of the 16,543 relocated Cherokee perished along the way. In 1830, a group of Indians collectively referred to as the Five Civilized Tribes were living as autonomous nations in what would be called the American Deep South; the process of cultural transformation, as proposed by George Washington and Henry Knox, was gaining momentum among the Cherokee and Choctaw. American settlers had been pressuring the federal government to remove Indians from the Southeast. Although the effort was vehemently opposed by some, including U. S. Congressman Davy Crockett of Tennessee, President Andrew Jackson was able to gain Congressional passage of the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which authorized the government to extinguish Indian title to lands in the Southeast. In 1831, the Choctaw became the first Nation to be removed, their removal served as the model for all future relocations.
After two wars, many Seminoles were removed in 1832. The Creek removal followed in 1834, the Chickasaw in 1837, lastly the Cherokee in 1838; some managed to evade the removals and remained in their ancestral homelands. A small group of Seminole, fewer than 500, evaded forced removal. A small number of non-Native Americans who lived with the tribes, including some of African descent accompanied the Indians on the trek westward. By 1837, 46,000 Indians from the southeastern states had been removed from their homelands, thereby opening 25 million acres for predominantly European settlement. Prior to 1838, the fixed boundaries of these autonomous tribal nations, comprising large areas of the United States, were subject to continual cession and annexation, in part due to pressure from squatters and the threat of military force in the newly declared U. S. territories—federally administered regions whose boundaries supervened upon the Native treaty claims. As these territories became U. S. states, state governments sought to dissolve the boundaries of the Indian nations within their borders, which were independent of state jurisdiction, to expropriate the land therein.
These pressures were exacerbated by U. S. population growth and the expansion of slavery in the South, with the rapid development of cotton cultivation in the uplands following the invention of the cotton gin. Andrew Jackson's support for removal of Native Americans began at least a decade before his presidency. Indian removal was Jackson's top legislative priority upon taking office; the removals, conducted under both Presidents Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, followed the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which provided the president with powers to exchange land with Native tribes and provide infrastructure improvements on the existing lands. The law gave the president power to pay for transportation costs to the West, should tribes choose to relocate; the law did not, allow the president to force tribes to move west without a mutually agreed-upon treaty. Referring to the Indian Removal Act, Martin Van Buren, Jackson's vice president and successor is quoted as saying "There was no measure, in the whole course of administration, of which he was more the author than this."In the years following the Act, the Cherokee filed several lawsuits regarding conflicts with the state of Georgia.
Some of these cases reached the most influential being Worcester v. Georgia. Samuel Worcester and other non-Indians were convicted by Georgia law for residing in Cherokee territory in the state of Georgia without a license. Worcester was sentenced to prison for four years and appealed the ruling, arguing that this sentence violated treaties made between Indian nations and the United States federal government by imposing state laws on Cherokee lands; the Court ruled in Worcester's favor, declaring that the Cherokee Nation was subject only to federal law and that the Supremacy Clause barred legislative interference by the state of Georgia. Chief Justice Marshall argued, "The Cherokee nation
Georgia State Route 100
State Route 100 is a 136.5-mile-long state highway that travels south-to-north through portions of Meriwether, Heard, Haralson, Polk and Chattooga counties in the northwestern part of the U. S. state of Georgia. The route begins at US 27 Alt./SR 18/SR 41/SR 109 in Greenville and ends at US 27/SR 1/SR 114 in Summerville. SR 100 begins at an intersection with US 27 Alt./SR 18/SR 41/SR 109 in Greenville in Meriwether County. Moving north, SR 100 travels concurrent with SR 54 just east of the interchange with Interstate 85 east of Hogansville. Once in Hogansville, SR 100 turns north concurrent with US 29/SR 14 for a short distance before continuing northwest alone. Southeast of Franklin, SR 100 joins US 27/SR 1. Just west of Franklin, SR 100, along with SR 34, continues west. In less than 1 mile, SR 100 continues northwest. SR 100 continues north and travels concurrent with SR 5 for a short distance east of the Georgia–Alabama state line before continuing north; as SR 100 moves toward Tallapoosa, it crosses I-20, where it is the first eastbound exit in the state for that highway.
Crossing US 78 in Tallapoosa, SR 100 travels concurrent with US 27 south of Cedartown. South of Cedartown, SR 100 turns west following US 278 for a brief distance before resuming a northwestern path. In Cave Spring, SR 100 turns west for a brief distance concurrent with US 411 before turning north once again. SR 100 turns west concurrent with SR 20 for a short distance before resuming its northern course toward Summerville. SR 100 ends at the intersection of US 27/SR 114 in Summerville in Chattooga County. State Route 100 Spur is a 0.9-mile-long spur route that exists within the southwestern part of Haralson County. Its routing is within the city limits of Tallapoosa, it begins at an intersection with the SR 100 mainline. The highway travels to the east-northeast and curves to the northwest. Just past Golf Course Road, the spur curves to the north-northeast and meets its northern terminus, an intersection with US 78/SR 8 in the eastern part of town; the entire route is in Haralson County. Georgia portal U.
S. Roads portal Media related to Georgia State Route 100 at Wikimedia Commons
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Army of Tennessee
The Army of Tennessee was the principal Confederate army operating between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River during the American Civil War. It was formed in late 1862 and fought until the end of the war in 1865, participating in most of the significant battles in the Western Theater, it should not be confused with the Union Army of the Tennessee, named after the Tennessee River. The army was formed on November 20, 1862, when General Braxton Bragg renamed the former Army of Mississippi and was divided into two corps commanded by Leonidas Polk and William J. Hardee. A third corps was formed from troops from the Department of East Tennessee and commanded by Edmund Kirby Smith; the remaining division was assigned to Hardee's corps. The army's cavalry was consolidated into a single command under Joseph Wheeler; the army's first major engagement under its new name took place against the Army of the Cumberland on December 31 along the Stones River. The attacks started at 6 a.m. against the Union right wing and forced the Union flank back towards the Union supply route to Nashville, but the Confederates were unable to capture the road.
Bragg expected Union commander William S. Rosecrans to retreat during the night but Rosecrans decided to remain. No fighting took place on January 1. Bragg halted near the Duck River. Following Stones' River, feuding broke out between Bragg and his corps and division commanders over, responsible for the Confederate defeat; when he learned of the dispute, Confederate President Jefferson Davis sent Joseph Johnston to inspect the army and take command if he thought it necessary to relieve Bragg. Johnston however refused to take command of the army. In the summer of 1863, Rosecrans began an offensive known as the Tullahoma Campaign, a name taken from the location of the Confederate headquarters at the time. Due to the low level of the river, Bragg felt compelled to retreat back to his supply center of Chattanooga, where he established his headquarters; when the Union forces halted following the campaign, Bragg took the opportunity to make several command changes in the army. Hardee was transferred to Mississippi in July and replaced by D.
H. Hill. Bragg's department was reorganized into the Department of Tennessee, which covered Alabama north of the Tennessee River and Georgia north of Atlanta; the cavalry was reorganized into two corps commanded by Forrest. H. T. Walker; the Confederate government agreed to transfer James Longstreet's First Corps, Army of Northern Virginia to the army during this time, but due to the loss of Knoxville, Longstreet had to travel by rail through the Carolinas and Atlanta to northern Georgia. Rosecrans launched the Chickamauga Campaign in late August, staging demonstrations near Chattanooga and upstream of the city along the Tennessee River; this convinced Bragg. This forced Bragg to fall back into northern Georgia, abandoning the important railroad hub of Chattanooga on September 8. Over the course of the next several days, Bragg attempted to launch several attacks on isolated parts of the Union army but each attempt failed. On the evening of September 18, Bragg concentrated the army near Chickamauga Creek.
During September 19 at Chickamauga, both sides fed in reinforcements. Longstreet arrived on the battlefield during the night of the 19 and 20. Polk was ordered to attack at daylight on September 20, with Longstreet attacking afterwards, but Polk didn't launch his attack until midmorning; the left wing failed to dislodge the Union army but Longstreet's wing attacked a gap in the Union army which routed the Union right flank. A portion of the Union army rallied on Horseshoe Ridge and held off multiple Confederate attacks until evening, when it followed the rest of Rosecrans' army into Chattanooga. After Chickamauga, the Army of Tennessee besieged the Union army in Chattanooga, taking up defensive positions on the surrounding hills on Missionary Ridge, which formed the Confederate center, Lookout Mountain on the Confederate left. Bragg considered a direct attack on the city too costly, a lack of supplies and pontoons caused him to reject a plan to cross the river and break the Union supply line to Nashville.
Instead he spread the Confederate army along the Tennessee River, cutting the Union railroad supply line into the city and reducing the amount of supplies the Union army could get into the city. During the next several weeks, Bragg became embroiled with a dispute with the army's corps commanders. Bragg became involved in a personal dispute with Forrest, which led to Forrest being reassigned to Mississippi and West Tennessee, with his cavalry corps merged with Whee