House Urns culture
The House Urns culture was an early Iron Age culture of the 7th century BC in central Germany, in the Region between Harz Mountains and the junction of river Saale to river Elbe. It was the periphery of the bronze and Iron Age Lusatian culture. Urns in the shape of house models were its characteristical sign and they were set in gravefields that had already been used for centuries. But sometimes in these gravefields they were deposited in stone cists that were an innovation, so it is considered that religious beliefs changed in that time, though the bias was not as great as in the Mediterranean region and in the area of Hallstatt culture. Archeologists see a connection to the Pomeranian culture of the same age. The relation to the pre-Etruscan Villanovan culture, which had its summit about 1 ½ centuries before, is questioned, Die Altertümer im Museum für Vor- und Frühgeschichte, Bd
Lippe is a Kreis in the east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Neighboring districts are Herford, Minden-Lübbecke, Höxter, Paderborn, Gütersloh, and district-free Bielefeld, the district of Lippe is named after the Lords of Lippe and their Principality of Lippe. It was a state within the Holy Roman Empire and retained statehood until 1947, the Lippe district nearly covers the same area as the historic county of Lippe. The first mention of this country was in 1123, it grew in power slowly in the following centuries, in 1528 it became a county, in 1789 it was elevated to a principality. Unlike many other countries of the Holy Roman Empire in the area, Lippe kept its independence in the Napoleonic era and it was one of the smaller member states of the German empire. After the death of Prince Woldemar in 1895, the two lines of the House of Lippe fought over the regency for over a decade. The last prince of Lippe was forced to abdicate in 1918 after the end of World War I when Germany became a republic, in 1932 the Free State of Lippe was subdivided into two districts and Lemgo.
In 1969/70 the 168 cities and municipalities were merged to 16, the Lippe district covers the northern part of the Teutoburg Forest, which contain the highest elevation of the district, the 496 meter high Köterberg near Lügde. The lowest elevation is at the Weser river with 45.5 m, the main river is the Werre, and at the northern border of the district the Weser. The Lippe River, which shares the name, does not flow through Lippe. The small territories of Lippstadt and Cappel that belonged to Lippe until the mid 19th century, the most famous dish served in Lippe is the Pickert. In the past it was known as a meal for poor people, the main ingredients are potatoes and raisins. - Religious history of Lippe from the Reformation until the twentieth century
The Cherusci were a Germanic tribe that inhabited parts of the plains and forests of northwestern Germany, in the area possibly near present-day Hanover, during the 1st century BC and 1st century AD. They led an important war against the Roman Empire, subsequently they were probably absorbed into the tribal confederations such as the Franks and Allemanni. The etymological origin of the name Cherusci is not known with certainty, according to the dominant opinion in scholarship, the name may derive from the ancient Germanic word *herut. The tribe may have named after the deer because it had a totemistic significance in Germanic symbolism. A different hypothesis, proposed in the 19th century by Jacob Grimm and others, derives the name from *heru-, hans Kuhn has argued that the derivational suffix -sk-, involved in both explanations, is otherwise not common in Germanic. He suggested that the name may therefore be a compound of ultimately non-Germanic origin, the first historical mention of the Cherusci occurs in Book 6.10 of Julius Caesars De Bello Gallico, which recounts events of 53 BC.
Caesar relates that he crossed the Rhine again to punish the Suebi for sending reinforcements to the Treveri and he mentions that the Bacenis forest separated the territory of the Cherusci from that of the Suebi. In 12 BC, the Cherusci and other Germanic tribes were subjugated by the Romans and they appear to have been living in the same homeland when Tacitus wrote,150 years later, describing them as living east of the Chauci and Chatti. This is generally interpreted to be an area between the rivers Weser and Elbe, as Rome tried to expand in northern Europe beyond the Rhine, it exploited divisions within the Cherusci, and for some time the tribe was considered a Roman ally. At this time the tribe was split between Arminius and Segestes, Arminius advocated breaking allegiance to Rome and declaring independence, while Segestes wanted to remain loyal. By about 8 AD, Arminius had gained the upper hand, Segestes repeatedly warned Publius Quinctilius Varus, the governor of Gaul, that rebellion was being planned, but Varus declined to act until the rebellion had broken out.
In the year 9, in the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest, the legions eagle standards, of great symbolic importance to the Romans, were lost. The numbers of three legions, Legio XVII, Legio XVIII, and Legio XIX, were never used again. After the mutinies of the German legions in the year 14, Germanicus decided, at the urging of his men, to march into Germany to restore their lost honor. In 15, after a raid on the Chatti, invaded the lands of the Marsi in 14 AD with 12,000 legionnaires,26 cohorts of auxiliaries. According to Tacitus, an area 50 Roman miles wide was laid to waste with fire and sword, No sex, a Legion eagle from Varuss defeat, either from the XVII or XVIII, was recovered. Then he began a campaign against the Cherusci and he received an appeal to rescue Segestes, who was besieged by Arminius. Segestes was rescued along with a group of relatives and dependents, including Thusnelda, Segestes daughter, Germanicus spared them and gave them land in Gaul
Tiberius was a Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD. Born Tiberius Claudius Nero, a Claudian, Tiberius was the son of Tiberius Claudius Nero and his mother divorced Nero and married Octavian, known as Augustus, in 39 BC, making him a step-son of Octavian. Tiberius would marry Augustus daughter, Julia the Elder, and even be adopted by Augustus, by which act he officially became a Julian, bearing the name Tiberius Julius Caesar. The subsequent emperors after Tiberius would continue this blended dynasty of both families for the thirty years, historians have named it the Julio-Claudian dynasty. In relations to the emperors of this dynasty, Tiberius was the stepson of Augustus, grand-uncle of Caligula, paternal uncle of Claudius. Tiberius was one of Romes greatest generals, his conquest of Pannonia, Dalmatia and temporarily, parts of Germania, laid the foundations for the northern frontier. But he came to be remembered as a dark and sombre ruler who never really desired to be emperor, Pliny the Elder called him tristissimus hominum, after the death of Tiberius’ son Drusus Julius Caesar in 23 AD, he became more reclusive and aloof.
In 26 AD Tiberius removed himself from Rome and left largely in the hands of his unscrupulous Praetorian Prefects Lucius Aelius Sejanus and Quintus Naevius Sutorius Macro. Caligula, Tiberius grand-nephew and adopted grandson, succeeded Tiberius upon his death, Tiberius was born in Rome on 16 November 42 BC to Tiberius Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. In 39 BC his mother divorced his father and remarried Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus shortly thereafter. In 38 BC his brother, Nero Claudius Drusus, was born, little is recorded of Tiberiuss early life. In 32 BC Tiberius at the age of nine, delivered the eulogy for his father at the rostra. In 29 BC, both he rode in the chariot along with their adoptive father Octavian in celebration of the defeat of Antony. In 23 BC Emperor Augustus became gravely ill and his possible death threatened to plunge the Roman world into chaos again, in response, a series of potential heirs seem to have been selected, among them Tiberius and his brother Drusus. Similar provisions were made for Drusus, shortly thereafter Tiberius began appearing in court as an advocate, and it is presumably here that his interest in Greek rhetoric began.
In 20 BC, Tiberius was sent East under Marcus Agrippa, the Parthians had captured the standards of the legions under the command of Marcus Licinius Crassus, Decidius Saxa, and Marc Antony. Augustus was able to reach a compromise whereby the standards were returned, Tiberius married Vipsania Agrippina, the daughter of Augustus’s close friend and greatest general, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa. He was appointed to the position of praetor, and sent with his legions to assist his brother Drusus in campaigns in the west
The Geats, and sometimes Goths) were a North Germanic tribe inhabiting what is now Götaland in southern Sweden. The name of the Geats lives on in the Swedish provinces of Västergötland and Östergötland, the Western and Eastern lands of the Geats, the earliest known surviving mention of the Geats appears in Ptolemy, who refers to them as Goutai. In the 6th century, Jordanes writes of the Gautigoths and Ostrogoths, the Norse Sagas knows them as Gautar and Widsith as Gēatas. The etymology of the name Geat is similar, although not identical, to that of Goths, the names are derived from different ablaut grades of the Proto-Germanic word *geutaną, meaning to pour. They are generally accepted to have originated as heiti for men, a more specific theory about the word Gautigoths is that it means the Goths who live near the river Gaut, todays Göta älv. It might have been a conflation of the word Gauti with a gloss of Goths, in the 17th century the name Göta älv, River of the Geats, replaced the earlier names Götälven and Gautelfr.
These sources concern a raid into Frisia, ca 516, which is described in Beowulf. Some decades after the events related in this epic, Jordanes described the Geats as a nation which was bold, before the consolidation of Sweden, the Geats were politically independent of the Swedes or Svear, whose old name was Sweonas in Old English. When written sources emerge, the Geatish lands are described as part of the still very shaky Swedish kingdom, the actual story in Beowulf, however, is that the Geatish king helps a Swede to gain the throne. What historians today think is that this realm could just as well be the force behind the creation of the kingdom of Sweden. The historians make a distinction between history and the emergence of a common Swedish ethnicity. The Hervarar saga is believed to contain such traditions handed down from the 4th century, according to Curt Weibull, the Geats would have been finally integrated in the Swedish kingdom c. 1000, but according to others, it most likely took place before the 9th century, the fact that some sources are silent about the Geats indicates that any independent Geatish kingdom no longer existed in the 9th century.
However, the oldest medieval Swedish sources present the Swedish kingdom as having remaining legal differences between Swedes and Geats for example in weights and measurements in miles, marks etc. They tell us there were kings, ruling by the title of Rex Gothorum as late as in the 12th century. In the Heimskringla, Snorri Sturluson writes about battles between Norwegians and Geats. The Geats were traditionally divided into petty kingdoms, or districts. The largest one of districts was Västergötland, and it was in Västergötland that the Thing of all Geats was held every year
Northern Europe is the northern part or region of Europe. However, narrower definitions may be used based on geographical factors, such as climate. Greenland, geographically a part of North America, is politically a part of the Kingdom of Denmark, while Northern Europe overlaps with most of Northwestern Europe, north-Central Europe, and Northeastern Europe, it does not border Southern Europe. Countries which are central-western, central-central, or central-eastern are generally considered part of neither Northern Europe or Southern Europe. Historically, when Europe was dominated by the Mediterranean region, everything not near this sea was termed Northern Europe, including southern Germany, all of the Low Countries and this meaning is still used today in some contexts, such as in discussions of the Northern Renaissance. In medieval times, the term Thule was used to mean a place in the extreme northern reaches of the continent. The region has a south west extreme of around 50 degrees north, the entire regions climate is mildly affected by the Gulf Stream.
From the west climates vary from maritime and maritime subarctic climates, in the north and central climates are generally subarctic or Arctic and to the east climates are mostly subarctic and temperate/continental. With the exception of the United Kingdom and Ireland, Northern European countries are known for harsh winters with temperatures reaching as low as minus 50 degrees Celsius in some parts. Countries in Northern Europe have large, developed economies and some of the highest standards of living in the world and they often score highly on surveys measuring quality of life, such as the Human Development Index
The Angles were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period. They founded several of the kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England, and their name is the root of the name England, the name comes from the district of Angeln, an area located on the Baltic shore of what is now Schleswig-Holstein. The name of the Angles may have been first recorded in Latinised form, as Anglii and it is thought to derive from the name of the area they originally inhabited, Angeln in modern German, Angel in Danish. This name has been hypothesised to originate from the Germanic root for narrow, meaning the Narrow, i. e. the Schlei estuary, the root would be angh, tight. Another theory is that the name meant hook, as in angling for fish, Julius Pokorny, Gregory the Great in an epistle simplified the Latinised name Anglii to Angli, the latter form developing into the preferred form of the word. The country remained Anglia in Latin, the earliest recorded mention of the Angles may be in chapter 40 of Tacituss Germania written around AD98.
Tacitus describes the Anglii as one of the more remote Suebic tribes compared to the Semnones and Langobardi and he grouped the Angles with several other tribes in that region, the Reudigni, Varini, Eudoses and Nuitones. These were all living behind ramparts of rivers and woods and therefore inaccessible to attack, the Eudoses are the Jutes, these names probably refer to localities in Jutland or on the Baltic coast. The majority of scholars believe that the Anglii lived on the coasts of the Baltic Sea and these Suevi Angili would have been in Lower Saxony or near it, but they are not coastal. The three Suebic peoples are separated from the coastal Chauci, and Saxones, by a series of tribes including, Ptolemy describes the coast to the east of the Saxons as inhabited by the Farodini, a name not known from any other sources. Owing to the uncertainty of this passage, there has been speculation regarding the original home of the Anglii. The ethnic names of Frisians and Warines are attested in these Saxon districts, a second possible solution is that these Angles of Ptolemy are not those of Schleswig at all.
According to Julius Pokorny the Angri- in Angrivarii, the -angr in Hardanger and the Angl- in Anglii all come from the root meaning bend. In other words, the similarity of the names is strictly coincidental, on the other hand, Gudmund Schütte, in his analysis of Ptolemy, believes that the Angles have simply been moved by an error coming from Ptolemys use of imperfect sources. Bede states that the Anglii, before coming to Great Britain, dwelt in a land called Angulus, similar evidence is given by the Historia Brittonum. Danish tradition has preserved record of two governors of Schleswig and son, in their service and Wigo, from whom the royal family of Wessex claimed descent. During the 5th century, the Anglii invaded Great Britain, after which time their name does not recur on the continent except in the title of Suevi Angili. The Angles are the subject of a legend about Pope Gregory I, as the story would be told by the Anglo-Saxon monk and historian Bede, Gregory was struck by the unusual appearance of the slaves and asked about their background
He rode in a four-horse chariot through the streets of Rome in unarmed procession with his army and the spoils of his war. At Jupiters temple on the Capitoline Hill, he offered sacrifice, the triumph offered extraordinary opportunities for self-publicity, besides its religious and military dimensions. From the Principate onwards, the reflected the Imperial order. The triumph was consciously imitated by medieval and states in the royal entry, in Republican Rome, truly exceptional military achievement merited the highest possible honours, which connected the vir triumphalis to Romes mythical and semi-mythical past. In effect, the general was close to being king for a day and he was drawn in procession through the city in a four-horse chariot, under the gaze of his peers and an applauding crowd, to the temple of Capitoline Jupiter. The spoils and captives of his victory led the way, his armies followed behind, once at the Capitoline temple, he sacrificed two white oxen to Jupiter and laid tokens of his victory at Jupiters feet, dedicating his victory to the Roman Senate and gods.
Triumphs were tied to no particular day, season, or religious festival of the Roman calendar, most seem to have been celebrated at the earliest practicable opportunity, probably on days that were deemed auspicious for the occasion. Tradition required that, for the duration of a triumph, every temple was open, the ceremony was thus, in some sense, shared by the whole community of Roman gods, but overlaps were inevitable with specific festivals and anniversaries. Some may have been coincidental, others were designed, Pompey postponed his third and most magnificent triumph for several months to make it coincide with his own dies natalis. Religious dimensions aside, the focus of the triumph was the general himself, the ceremony promoted him – however temporarily – above every mortal Roman. This was an opportunity granted to very few, from the time of Scipio Africanus, the triumphal general was linked to Alexander and the demi-god Hercules, who had laboured selflessly for the benefit of all mankind.
His sumptuous triumphal chariot was bedecked with charms against the possible envy, in some accounts, a companion or public slave would remind him from time to time of his own mortality. This is probably so for the earliest legendary and semi-legendary triumphs of Romes regal era, as Romes population, power and territory increased, so did the scale, length and extravagance of its triumphal processions. The procession mustered in the space of the Campus Martius probably well before first light. Triumphal processions were notoriously long and slow, the longest could last for two or three days, and possibly more, and some may have been of greater length than the route itself, some ancient and modern sources suggest a fairly standard processional order. First came the captive leaders and soldiers walking in chains. Next in line, all on foot, came Romes senators and magistrates, followed by the generals lictors in their red war-robes, their fasces wreathed in laurel, the general in his four-horse chariot. A companion, or a slave, might share the chariot with him or, in some cases
Treaty of Meerssen
Charles of Provence suffered from epilepsy and died heirless in 863, and his kingdom was partitioned between his brothers. Lothair II, his heir, received only the western Lower Burgundian parts which were bordering his western Upper Burgundy, lothair II died in 869 without legitimate children so his heir was his brother, Emperor Louis II of Italy. As Louis was at that time campaigning against the Emirate of Bari, his uncles, Louis the German and Charles the Bald, however, at this time large parts of the Frisian coast were under Viking control and therefore only divided on paper. The borderline ran roughly along the rivers Meuse, Moselle, in the north, Louis received most of Lothairs Austrasia, with his eastern part including both Aachen and Metz, and most of Frisia. The arrangement did not endure more than ten years, upon the death of Louis the German in 876, Charles the Bald, by King of Italy and Emperor, attacked eastern Lotharingia, but was rejected by Louis the Younger in the Battle of Andernach.
In turn, after Charles the Bald had died and his successors struggled to consolidate their rule over West Francia, Charles grandsons were forced to cede the whole Lotharingia to him, sealed by the 880 Treaty of Ribemont, according to which it finally became part of East Francia. Carolingian dynasty Treaty of Verdun Treaty of Prüm Treaty of Ribemont Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Mersen, Treaty of
Hygelac was a king of the Geats according to the poem Beowulf. It is Hygelacs presence in the poem which has allowed scholars to date the setting of the poem as well as to infer that it contains at least some points of historical fact. Hygelac was married to Hygd and they had a son Heardred, the Swedes found refuge at a hill fort but were assaulted by the Geats. In the battle, the Swedish king was slain by Eofor, after the death of his brother Herebeald, Hygelac ascended the Geatish throne. Hygelac went on a Viking raid to Frisia and was killed, Hygelac was succeeded by Heardred, according to Beowulf. Gregory of Tours calls this king Chlochilaicus Danish and he is called the king of Getae in the Liber Monstrorum and king of the Goths in Liber historiae Francorum. After cutting the Geatish danger, the rest of the survivors took to sea in such disordered haste that they left their dead on the field, included their king. There are two theories on how the account of Chlochilaicus raid came to be preserved in the epic Beowulf and it may date to the early 8th century, but some have suggested that it was composed as late as the 10th century, the date of the sole surviving manuscript.
One view considers the account to have kept alive by the tradition of heroic poetry until it was included in the epos. It has suggested that the poem is dependent on Liber historiae Francorum, because it mentions the Attoarii. One scholar considers it to be inconceivable that independent oral tradition would have faithfully transmitted such a detail, walter Goffart estimated that Beowulf could not have been written with these historical details before 923. Hugleik G. Storms, The Significance of Hygelacs Raid in Nottingham Mediaeval Studies,14
Strabo was a Greek geographer and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Strabo was born to an affluent family from Amaseia in Pontus, Strabos life was characterized by extensive travels. He journeyed to Egypt and Kush, as far west as coastal Tuscany and as far south as Ethiopia in addition to his travels in Asia Minor and the time he spent in Rome. Travel throughout the Mediterranean and Near East, especially for scholarly purposes, was popular during this era and was facilitated by the relative peace enjoyed throughout the reign of Augustus. He moved to Rome in 44 BC, and stayed there and writing, in 29 BC, on his way to Corinth, he visited the island of Gyaros in the Aegean Sea. Around 25 BC, he sailed up the Nile until reaching Philae and it is not known precisely when Strabos Geography was written, though comments within the work itself place the finished version within the reign of Emperor Tiberius. Some place its first drafts around 7 BC, others around 17 or 18 AD, the latest passage to which a date can be assigned is his reference to the death in AD23 of Juba II, king of Maurousia, who is said to have died just recently.
He probably worked on the Geography for many years and revised it steadily, on the presumption that recently means within a year, Strabo stopped writing that year or the next, when he died. The first of Strabos major works, Historical Sketches, written while he was in Rome, is completely lost. Strabo studied under several prominent teachers of various specialties throughout his life at different stops along his Mediterranean travels. His first chapter of education took place in Nysa under the master of rhetoric Aristodemus, Strabo was an admirer of Homers poetry, perhaps a consequence of his time spent in Nysa with Aristodemus. At around the age of 21, Strabo moved to Rome, where he studied philosophy with the Peripatetic Xenarchus, despite Xenarchuss Aristotelian leanings, Strabo gives evidence to have formed his own Stoic inclinations. In Rome, he learned grammar under the rich and famous scholar Tyrannion of Amisus. Although Tyrannion was a Peripatetic, he was more relevantly a respected authority on geography, the final noteworthy mentor to Strabo was Athenodorus Cananites, a philosopher who had spent his life since 44 BC in Rome forging relationships with the Roman elite.
Athenodorus endowed to Strabo three important items, his philosophy, his knowledge, and his contacts, from his own first-hand experience, Athenodorus provided Strabo with information about regions of the empire which he would not otherwise have known. Strabo is most notable for his work Geographica, which presented a history of people. Although the Geographica was rarely utilized in its antiquity, a multitude of copies survived throughout the Byzantine Empire. It first appeared in Western Europe in Rome as a Latin translation issued around 1469, the first Greek edition was published in 1516 in Venice
The Funnelbeaker culture, in short TRB or TBK was an archaeological culture in north-central Europe. Especially in the southern and eastern groups, local sequences of variants emerged, the younger TRB in these areas was superseded by the Single Grave culture at about 2800 BC. The north-central European megaliths were built primarily during the TRB era, the Funnelbeaker culture is named for its characteristic ceramics and amphorae with funnel-shaped tops, which were found in dolmen burials. The TRB ranges from the Elbe catchment in Germany and Bohemia with an extension into the Netherlands, to southern Scandinavia in the north. With the exception of some settlements such as Alvastra pile-dwelling. It was characterised by single-family daubed houses c.12 m x 6 m and it was dominated by animal husbandry of sheep, cattle and goats, but there was hunting and fishing. One find assigned to the Funnelbeaker culture is the Bronocice pot from Poland, primitive wheat and barley was grown on small patches that were fast depleted, due to which the population frequently moved small distances.
There was mining and collection of flintstone, which was traded into regions lacking the stone, the culture imported copper from Central Europe, especially daggers and axes. The houses were centered on a grave, a symbol of social cohesion. Burial practices were varied, depending on region and changed over time, inhumation seems to have been the rule. The oldest graves consisted of wooden chambered cairns inside long barrows, the structures were probably covered with a heap of dirt and the entrance was blocked by a stone. The Funnelbeaker culture marks the appearance of megalithic tombs at the coasts of the Baltic and of the North sea, the megalithic structures of Ireland and Portugal are somewhat older and have been connected to earlier archeological cultures of those areas. At graves, the people sacrificed ceramic vessels that contained food along with amber jewelry, flint-axes and vessels were deposed in streams and lakes near the farmlands, and virtually all Swedens 10,000 flint axes that have been found from this culture were probably sacrificed in water.
They constructed large cult centres surrounded by pales, the largest one is found at Sarup on Fyn. It comprises 85,000 m2 and is estimated to have taken 8000 workdays, another cult centre at Stävie near Lund comprises 30,000 m2. Marija Gimbutas postulated that the relationship between the aboriginal and intrusive cultures resulted in quick and smooth cultural morphosis into the Corded Ware culture. By contrast a number of archaeologists in the past have proposed that the Corded Ware culture was a purely local development from Funnel Beaker. Thus the question of continuity versus migration at the cusp of the change was of interest to geneticists specialising in ancient DNA