Interstate 86 (Pennsylvania–New York)
Interstate 86 is an Interstate Highway that extends for 207 miles through northwestern Pennsylvania and southern New York in the United States. The highway has two segments: the longer of the two begins at an interchange with I-90 east of Erie and ends at the Chemung-Tioga County line, while the second extends from I-81 east of Binghamton to New York State Route 79 in Windsor; when projects to upgrade the existing NY 17 to Interstate Highway standards are completed, I-86 will extend from I-90 near Erie to the New York State Thruway in Woodbury. The current and future alignment of I-86 is known as the Southern Tier Expressway west of I-81 in Binghamton and the Quickway east of I-81. I-86 travels 199.86 miles in New York. Except for a section of about 1.5 miles that dips into Pennsylvania at exit 60 near the New York village of Waverly and the Pennsylvania borough of South Waverly, the rest of I-86 will be in New York. The section of NY 17 through South Waverly is maintained by the New York State Department of Transportation, however.
The Southern Tier Expressway section of I-86 and NY 17 comprises Corridor T of the Appalachian Development Highway System. I-86 connects to U. S. Route 219 in Salamanca, I-390 near Avoca and I-99 / US 15 just west of Corning. Most of the Quickway and the Southern Tier Expressway was built in stages from the 1950s to the 1980s; the I-86 designation was assigned on December 3, 1999, to the entirety of since-decommissioned Pennsylvania Route 17 and to the westernmost 177 miles of NY 17. It has been extended eastward as more sections of the existing NY 17 freeway have been upgraded to Interstate Highway standards, first to NY 14 in Horseheads in 2004, to NY 352 in Elmira in 2008, its current terminus at the Chemung-Tioga County line in 2013; the segment of NY 17 between I-81 and NY 79 was designated as part of I-86 in 2006. By 2015, with the reconstruction of the I-81/NY 17 interchange at Prospect Mountain, I-86 was signed along I-81. I-86 begins at an interchange with I-90 in a flat area of northwestern Pennsylvania.
It heads to the southeast, meeting PA 89 at exit 3 before curving to the east and crossing into New York, where it becomes concurrent to NY 17. The freeway heads east–west across southwest Chautauqua County, serving the hamlet of Findley Lake and the village of Sherman via NY 426 and NY 76 as it proceeds toward Chautauqua Lake. After crossing Chautauqua Lake, I-86 merges into an older section of freeway at exit 10 near Bemus Point. NY 954J runs into NY 430. From Bemus Point to Jamestown, I-86 parallels the old NY 17 – now NY 430 – along the northeast shore of Chautauqua Lake; the Erie Railroad extension to Chicago comes into Jamestown from the southwest, parallels I-86 to its junction with the Erie's original main line to Dunkirk at Salamanca. From Jamestown to Salamanca, the old NY 17, the new I-86 and the railroad run parallel through river valleys; the transportation routes run along the Chadakoin River, Conewango Creek and Little Conewango Creek to Steamburg, cutting east to the Allegheny River at Coldspring there.
The valley of the Allegheny takes the routes to Salamanca, where the railroads merged, beyond to Olean. From Salamanca to Olean, the old NY 17 is now NY 417. At Olean, the Allegheny River and NY 417 continue southeast, while I-86 and the Erie Railroad head northeast. NY 417 does not return to I-86 until exit 44 near Painted Post, the Erie switches between the two alignments several times. I-86 and the old Erie line run northeast along the valleys of the Olean Oil Creek to Cuba. From Cuba to Friendship, they run through a valley and over a summit following the Van Campen Creek northeast to Belvidere. At Belvidere, the Erie turns southeast to meet NY 417 at Wellsville, but I-86 continues northeast through the valleys of the Genesee River and Angelica Creek to Angelica, east along the Angelica Creek, over a summit, the highest point on the Interstate, along the Karr Valley Creek to Almond; this summit, at 2,110 feet above sea level, is the highest point along I-86, located between exits 32 and 33 and marked with a sign.
At Almond, I-86 rejoins the Erie Railroad, passing through the Canacadea Creek valley about halfway to Hornellsville. However, where the railroad turns southeast to Hornellsville, I-86 continues northeast across a summit and into the wide Canisteo River valley, it leaves the valley along the Carrington Creek, but turns east across a summit to follow the Big Creek and cross another summit to Howard. I-86 runs alongside Goff Creek from Howard to the wide Cohocton River valley, where it meets the south end of I-390 near Avoca and turns southeast through that valley, parallel to the Erie's Rochester–Painted Post line. I-86, NY 415 and the Erie branch all run southeast along the Cohocton River past Bath to Painted Post, now the north end of Interstate 99 and US 15. NY 417 – old NY 17 – ends at exit 44, while NY 415 continues east into Corning. From Painted Post through Corning to Big Flats, I-86, NY 352 and the Erie Railroad run through the Chemung River valley. NY 352 begins at exit 45, west of downtown Corning, is a bypassed fou
New York State Route 17
New York State Route 17 is a major state highway that extends for 397 miles through the Southern Tier and Downstate regions of New York in the United States. It begins at the Pennsylvania state line in Mina and follows the Southern Tier Expressway and Quickway east through Corning and Binghamton to Woodbury, where it turns south to follow the Orange Turnpike to the New Jersey state line near Suffern, where it connects to New Jersey Route 17. From the Pennsylvania border to the city of Elmira and from Binghamton to Windsor, NY 17 is concurrent with Interstate 86; the entire east–west portion of NY 17 from the Pennsylvania border to Woodbury will become I-86 as projects to upgrade the route to Interstate Highway standards are completed. At 397 miles, NY 17 is the longest state route in New York, its second-longest highway of any kind besides the Thruway, it serves 11 counties, passes through the cities of Salamanca, Corning and Binghamton, enters the vicinity of several others, including Jamestown and Middletown.
As it proceeds across the state, it intersects many of New York's Interstate and U. S. Highways, including U. S. Route 219 in Salamanca, I-99 and U. S. Route 15 near Corning, I-81 in Binghamton, I-84 near Middletown; the portion of NY 17 in the vicinity of Waverly is located in Pennsylvania. The route was assigned in 1924, it was moved onto the Quickway and the Southern Tier Expressway as sections of both were completed from the 1950s to the 1980s. Two of NY 17's suffixed routes, NY 17C and NY 17M, follow substantial portions of NY 17's pre-freeway alignment. In 1998, all of NY 17 between the Pennsylvania state line and Harriman was designated as "Future I-86"; the westernmost 177 miles of the route was designated as I-86 one year and the designation has been extended eastward as sections of NY 17 are improved to Interstate Highway standards. Prior to the I-86 designation, NY-17 was part of a 3-state Route 17, with PA-17 existing on today's I-86 in Pennsylvania, it continues into New Jersey. NY 17 begins at the point where Interstate 86 crosses the New York–Pennsylvania border in Mina, Chautauqua County.
I-86 heads westward from there to its western terminus at I-90. I-86 and NY 17 continue eastward through the Southern Tier, encountering NY 426 a short distance from the state line prior to meeting NY 76 south of Sherman. East of exit 8, I-86 and NY 17 cross Chautauqua Lake and follow the lake shore eastward to Jamestown, where it connects to NY 60 at exit 12 due north of the city. East of the city, the expressway meets U. S. Route 62 at exit 14 and is joined by the old Erie Railroad line, which parallels the expressway as it heads across southern New York. Between exits 17 and 18, I-86 and NY 17 cross the Allegheny Reservoir near its northernmost extent. Past NY 280, the freeway runs adjacent to the northern extent of the Allegany State Park and follows the reservoir and the connecting Allegheny River eastward to Salamanca. Near downtown Salamanca, I-86 and NY 17 meet US 219. US 219 joins the expressway east to exit 23 near Carrollton, where it splits from I-86 and NY 17 and heads toward Bradford, forming the eastern edge of the state park as it heads south.
Meanwhile, the expressway continues east to Olean, where it meets NY 417 at exit 24 west of town and NY 16 north of the area. Past Olean, the route drifts northward away from Pennsylvania toward Hornell, where I-86 and NY 17 intersect NY 36. To the east in Avoca, the Southern Tier Expressway meets I-390 at exit 36. I-86 and NY 17 southeast from the junction, passing through Bath on its way an interchange with I-99 and US 15 in Painted Post. Here, I-99 and US 15 begin and head south toward Pennsylvania, while I-86 and NY 17 continue east through Corning to the city of Elmira. At exit 56, I-86 temporarily terminates. From Elmira to Binghamton, NY 17, the Erie Railroad, its old alignments stay close together, they follow the Chemung River to exit 60 and the Susquehanna River from east of exit 61 to Binghamton. Between the two rivers, which intersect in Pennsylvania, the general corridor runs just north of the state line in New York. However, NY 17 itself crosses into Pennsylvania for 1 mile between a point west of exit 60 and a point west of exit 61.
Despite being in Pennsylvania, it is still signed as NY-17, these roadways are still maintained by the New York State Department of Transportation. Near downtown Binghamton, NY 17 goes around the side of Prospect Mountain at what is locally known as "Kamikaze Curve". Heading eastbound, the freeway curves left around the hillside, splits into ramps to I-81 north and south, curves right to merge into I-81 south as it passes over the Chenango River. From that point east and southeast about 5 miles, I-81 and NY 17 run concurrently. NY 17 splits from the Erie Railroad and the Susquehanna River to the east into Stilson Hollow. At the end of Stilson Hol
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe
New York State Route 5
New York State Route 5 is a state highway that extends for 370.80 miles across the state of New York in the United States. It begins at the Pennsylvania state line in the Chautauqua County town of Ripley and passes through Buffalo, Utica and several other smaller cities and communities on its way to downtown Albany in Albany County, where it terminates at U. S. Route 9, here routed along the service roads for Interstate 787. Prior to the construction of the New York State Thruway, it was one of two main east–west highways traversing upstate New York, the other being US 20. West of New York, NY 5 continues as Pennsylvania Route 5 to Erie. NY 5 overlaps with US 20 twice along its routing; the second, a 68-mile overlap through western and central New York, is the second-longest concurrency in the state, stretching from Avon east to the city of Auburn in Cayuga County. The concurrency is known locally as "Routes 5 and 20"; as the route proceeds across the state, it directly or indirectly meets every major north–south highway in upstate New York, including all three north–south Interstate Highways.
NY 5 was assigned in 1924 as a true cross-state highway, extending from the Pennsylvania state line in the west to the Massachusetts state line in the east by way of modern US 20. At the time, modern NY 5 between Buffalo and Albany was designated as New York State Route 5A. By 1926, NY 5 was moved onto the routing of NY 5A while the old routing of NY 5 became NY 7, it was truncated in 1927 to Athol Springs in the west and Albany in the east following the assignment of US 20, again in 1930 to downtown Buffalo. NY 5 was reextended to the Pennsylvania state line c. 1932 by way of its old routing to Athol Springs, an old alignment of US 20, a lakeside spur route of US 20, assigned in 1930. Only local realignments have occurred since. Although it is no longer used for long distance travel, NY 5 is still regionally important. NY 5 is named Main Street in Buffalo, Erie Boulevard and West Genesee Street in Syracuse, State Street in Schenectady, Central Avenue in Albany, the state capital, it is a major local road in many other locations along its path.
NY 5 runs concurrent to US 20 twice between its endpoints: for three miles between Silver Creek and Irving and for 68 miles across western and central New York. At 67.6 miles in length, the eastern overlap between US 20 and NY 5 is the longest surface-road concurrency in New York state, behind only the concurrency of I-86 and NY 17 in the Southern Tier. Maintenance of the majority of NY 5's 371 miles is performed by the New York State Department of Transportation. However, locally owned and maintained sections exist in six cities; the city-maintained sections of NY 5 are in Buffalo from NY 16 north to the city line. At the New York–Pennsylvania border in Ripley, PA 5 becomes NY 5 upon entering New York, it closely follows the shore of Lake Erie through all of Chautauqua County. Once reaching the village of Silver Creek it overlaps US 20 until entering Erie County at the Cattaraugus Reservation and NY 438 where the roads once again split. Once in Erie County it pulls inward from the lake shore from Brant to the hamlet of Wanakah.
Once past Wanakah, the road once again borders the lake shore and goes through more developed areas the Ford Stamping Plant and the Bethlehem Steel plant in the city of Lackawanna where the road is called the Hamburg Turnpike and eight wind powered turbines, which pump power into the national grid are visible. Near the northern edge of the city, NY 5 begins to ascend onto an elevated roadway as it connects to Ridge Road and the Buffalo and Erie County Botanical Gardens by way of an interchange. Here, the route becomes the Buffalo Skyway, a limited-access highway with exits for Ohio and Tifft streets and Fuhrmann Boulevard. After a quarter-mile, NY 5 passes seamlessly into the city of Buffalo. A short distance past the city line, NY 5 passes over the Union Ship Canal on a span of the elevated road known as the Father Baker Bridge. North of the waterway, the Skyway gains a frontage road named Fuhrmann Boulevard. Both the service road and the Skyway run parallel to Lake Erie until the northern end of the Buffalo Outer Harbor.
Here, the frontage roads end while NY 5 turns to the northeast, crossing the Buffalo River and entering downtown. On the north bank, the Skyway returns to a northerly routing as it passes KeyBank Center, located directly to the east, Buffalo and Erie County Naval & Military Park, situated to the west, meets I-190 at exit 7. Past the interchange, the Skyway ends and the route descends in elevation, becoming an at-grade roadway once more at Church Street in the shadow of Buffalo City Hall. NY 384 begins here, following Delaware Avenue north into the heart of downtown, while NY 5 turns east onto Church. At Main Street, Church Street splits into a pair of one-way streets and becomes North and South Division Street; the route follows South Division eastward for two blocks to an intersection with Ellicott Street located one block north of Sahlen Field. At the junction, which includes the northern terminus of NY 16, NY 5 turns northward, rejoining NY 5 westbound one block at North Division; the route continues on Ellicott for nine blocks to the unidirectional East Tupper Street, where NY 5 westbound s
Dunkirk, New York
Dunkirk is a city in Chautauqua County, New York, in the United States. It was settled around 1805 and incorporated in 1880; the population was 12,563 as of the 2010 census, with an estimated population of 12,328 in 2013. Dunkirk is bordered on the north by Lake Erie, it shares a border with the village of Fredonia to the south, with the town of Dunkirk to the east and west. Dunkirk is the westernmost city in the state of New York; the Iroquoian languages-speaking Erie people occupied this area of the forested lakefront along the southern shore of Lake Erie well into the 1600s, when Europeans French, started trading around the Great Lakes. They were pushed out by the Seneca people, one of the Five Nations of the powerful Iroquois League, based here and further east in New York; the European-American demarcation and settlement of Chadwick Bay and subsequent naming of Dunkirk - after Dunkirk in France - began in earnest in 1826. The Dunkirk Lighthouse at Point Gratiot was built soon after and still stands.
Dunkirk served as a minor railroad steamship port on Lake Erie into the early 1900s. Both freight and passenger ships traveled the lakes; the city thrived as a steel town for others through the 1950s. In addition, it was a manufacturing leader with Ralston Purina, its coal-burning Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation plant provided power for the region. The plant was mothballed in 2016. NRG Energy acquired the plant and proceeded with plans to convert it from coal-burning to run on natural gas. Since the 1970s, population has declined following a regional drop in manufacturing as the steel industry and other restructured. Overall employment has declined in the area. Beginning in the 1980s, the city refocused its economic efforts on revitalizing its pier and fishing, to improve the quality of life for residents and attract more tourists. In addition, in 2016 it attracted a high-tech drug manufacturing project as part of business related to the state project of area investment called the "Buffalo Billion."
Dunkirk is 45 miles southwest of Buffalo. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 4.6 square miles, of which 4.5 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 1.10%, is water. As of the census of 2010, there were 12,563 people, 5,477 households, 3,690 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,774.6 people per square mile. There were 6,071 housing units at an average density of 1,340.6 per square mile. The city's racial makeup of the city was 65.70% White, 5.1% Black or African American, 0.52% Native American, 0.50 Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 9.14% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 26.40% of the population. There were 5,477 households out of which 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.4% were married couples living together, 16.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.1% were non-families. 33.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 3.02. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.3% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 21.5% from 45 to 64, 17.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $28,313, the median income for a family was $35,058. Males had a median income of $29,462 versus $21,682 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,482. About 18.5% of families and 22.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 38.0% of those under age 18 and 11.1% of those age 65 or over. The city of Dunkirk has its own police force under the leadership of Police Chief David Ortolano, it employs part-time dispatchers for the police department only. Dunkirk has a paid fire department under the leadership of Fire Chief Mike Edwards. There are three stations throughout the city staffed by the cities 24 Firefighter/EMT's.
The firefighters belong to the union for the city's firefighters. As of 2011, Dunkirk Fire started billing accordingly. Alstar Ambulance still has a reduced contract with the city for advanced life support. In recent years, Dunkirk Fire's dispatching merged with the county dispatch center in Mayville but still maintains its FCC ID of KED 653. Alstar Ambulance has its north county satellite station on Monroe Street in Dunkirk just southwest of NY 60. Dispatching is still controlled by the main station in Jamestown via MEDCOM. Several transportable units as well as wheelchair transport vans and one medic fly car are housed here. There is a fenced-in and pre-lit landing pad on the property for Starflight or any other medevac needing to use the landing pad. A branch of Jamestown Community College is in Dunkirk. Dunkirk High School, home of the Marauders, is part of the public Dunkirk City School District. Northern Chautauqua Catholic School is a K-8th grade school under the Roman Catholic Diocese of Buffalo.
The Chautauqua County/Dunkirk Airport, in the town of Dunkirk, provides training facilities and charter services. Railroad service in Dunkirk is provided by Norfolk Southern Railway; the Lake Shore Limited daily Amtrak train passes through the city. As as 1968 the New York Central operated a
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Conewango Creek is a 71-mile-long tributary of the Allegheny River in Pennsylvania and western New York in the United States. The creek's drainage covers much of southeastern Chautauqua County, New York and southwestern Cattaraugus County, New York; the creek's most notable tributary is the Chadakoin River, which supplies the creek water from Chautauqua Lake. Its watershed is bounded by a continental divide. Conewango Creek joins the Allegheny River at the city of Pennsylvania. On September 26, 2009 an obsolete Civil War-era low head dam within the city of Warren on the Conewango Creek was removed. Removal of this dam allowed fish migration from the Allegheny River throughout the upper reaches of the Conewango Creek drainage basin. From August 25 through September 4, 2014, two Civil War-era remnant dams on the Conewango Creek in North Warren, Pennsylvania were removed. One dam was a breached low head dam similar to the dam, removed downriver in Warren in 2009; because it was located in close proximity to the Warren State Hospital, used to provide a water supply to that facility in years past, this dam was known as the Hospital Dam.
The second dam was a remnant rock and crib dam located upriver of the first. With the removal of the Carter Dam in the autumn of 2009, the hospital dams in 2014, the entirety of the 27 miles course of the Conewango Creek mainstream are open and free of dams, improving the ecology of the Conewango Creek watershed. Removing the dam was a public safety service, will reconnect most of the Conewango Creek for freshwater mussel host species. On January 16, 2015 it was announced that Conewango Creek won the 2015 Pennsylvania River of the Year contest, an annual competition conducted by the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources and the Pennsylvania Organization for Watersheds and Rivers since 1983; the general public was invited to vote online for the designation from November 10 through December 15, 2014, choosing from among five waterways across the state, nominated. The winning organization was the Conewango Creek Watershed Association, a non-profit organization based in North Warren, who received a $10,000 grant intended to be used to integrate the "River of the Year" message into a river sojourn focusing on the watershed's history, local fisheries and related topics.
Other planned activities included a poker run, special fall celebration, creek cleanup, photo contest, public water safety courses. The association planned to explore starting a pilot stream ambassador program. List of rivers of New York List of rivers of Pennsylvania List of tributaries of the Allegheny River U. S. Geological Survey: PA stream gaging stations Conewango Creek Watershed Association