Rose Tyler is a fictional character portrayed by Billie Piper in the British science fiction television series Doctor Who, was created by series producer Russell T Davies. With the revival of Doctor Who in 2005, Rose was introduced as a new travelling companion of the series protagonist, the Doctor, in his ninth and tenth incarnations; the companion character, intended to act as an audience surrogate, was key in the first series to introduce new viewers to the mythos of Doctor Who, which had not aired since 1989. Piper received top billing alongside Christopher Eccleston and David Tennant for the duration of her time as a regular cast member. A regular for all of series one and series two, Piper returned for three episodes of the programme's fourth series and appeared in feature-length specials in both 2010 and 2013. In the series' narrative, Rose is introduced in the eponymous series one premiere as a teenage working class shop assistant from London, alongside her own supporting cast in the form of her mother Jackie Tyler and her boyfriend Mickey Smith.
Over the course of the first series Rose's human actions and responses contrast with the Doctor's alien perspectives. Rose grows trusting of the Doctor and comes to realise she has fallen in love with him, he sacrifices his Ninth incarnation for her. Rose forms a similar bond with the new Doctor, but the two appear to be forever separated in the series two finale, although Rose's temporary return in the fourth series gives her relationship with the Doctor a resolution. In promoting the series, both Piper and Eccleston stressed Rose's heroic characteristics whilst Davies highlighted her down-to-earth qualities and quintessential Britishness. Critical reaction noted that the character was more developed and equal to the Doctor than previous companions had been, whilst the character's overall role in the narrative of the first two series was praised. However, reaction to the character's 2008 return was more mixed. Piper won numerous awards for her portrayal of Rose —including two National Television Awards —and since her initial role in the series, the character has ranked in numerous'best companion' polls.
After leaving as a series regular, Piper experienced success in other high-profile roles as an actress, attributed to her performances in Doctor Who. Rose is introduced in the eponymous premiere episode of the 2005 series. There, she is saved from an Auton attack by the mysterious alien Time Lord known as the Doctor, assists him in preventing an invasion of Earth. Subsequently, the Doctor invites Rose to be his travelling companion, taking her to the end of the world and giving her a "superphone" so she can remain in contact with her mother Jackie, boyfriend Mickey. In their travels through time and space, Rose learns the importance of not tampering with history, when she attempts to save the life of her father Pete Tyler, who had died when she was a baby. Throughout these journeys and the Doctor are haunted by two mysterious recurring words:'Bad Wolf'. Rose, the Doctor, new companion Captain Jack come to understand the meaning of this phrase when they encounter an unstoppable army of evil alien Daleks on the space station Satellite 5.
To return to the Doctor after he sends her home to Earth in series finale "The Parting of the Ways", Rose tears open the console of the Doctor's time machine, the TARDIS, becomes suffused with the power of the time vortex. Returning, she uses her power over the infinity of time and space to spread the words "Bad Wolf" over its entirety saving the universe from the Dalek invasion. Rose resurrects Jack, who died from Dalek fire, destroys the Dalek fleet before the Doctor drains the energy out of her—by kissing her—to save her life from its harmful effects. Rose is horrified as the Doctor appears to die and regenerates into a new man, who proceeds to take the TARDIS and a terrified Rose to Earth, abandoning Jack on Satellite 5; the new Doctor and Rose arrive on Earth on Christmas Day, where he passes out from the strain of regeneration in the midst of a Sycorax invasion in the 2005 Christmas special "The Christmas Invasion". Having woken up and saved Earth, the Doctor enjoys Christmas dinner with Rose before the two once again depart to parts unknown.
Over the second series and the Doctor grow close to one another. After defeating a werewolf, they are knighted by Queen Victoria, who banishes them as threats to the Empire whilst setting up the Torchwood Institute, which aims to track the Doctor and other aliens, their relationship proves a source of tension once Mickey joins the pair in their travels, at the suggestion of the Doctor's former companion Sarah Jane Smith. Whilst stranded in a parallel universe, Rose meets a rich, entrepreneur version of her father who never died. Mickey decides to stay behind on this world to battle the Cybermen—emotionless cyborgs which seek to convert humans to their ranks—as he no longer wants to feel like a spare part. Alone with the Doctor again, Rose faces the mythical Beast, who prophesies that Rose will soon die in battle; this day comes when, in the present day, the Torchwood Institute's director Yvonne Hartman accidentally allows the Cybermen army and Dalek Cult of Skaro into Rose's reality, where they begin a war.
In sealing the Cybermen and Daleks back into the "void" through which they came, Rose is transported to the parallel universe by Pete, to save her from being pulled into the void. Rose becomes trapped in the parallel universe with Jackie and the alternate univer
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, it employs over 20,950 staff in total. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed-contract staff are included; the BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Digital, Culture and Sport. Its work is funded principally by an annual television licence fee, charged to all British households and organisations using any type of equipment to receive or record live television broadcasts and iPlayer catch-up; the fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, used to fund the BBC's radio, TV, online services covering the nations and regions of the UK. Since 1 April 2014, it has funded the BBC World Service, which broadcasts in 28 languages and provides comprehensive TV, online services in Arabic and Persian.
Around a quarter of BBC revenues come from its commercial arm BBC Studios Ltd, which sells BBC programmes and services internationally and distributes the BBC's international 24-hour English-language news services BBC World News, from BBC.com, provided by BBC Global News Ltd. From its inception, through the Second World War, to the 21st century, the BBC has played a prominent role in British culture, it is known colloquially as "The Beeb", "Auntie", or a combination of both. Britain's first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920, it was sponsored by the Daily Mail's Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian soprano Dame Nellie Melba. The Melba broadcast caught the people's imagination and marked a turning point in the British public's attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications. By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts.
But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests and moved to rescind its ban in the wake of a petition by 63 wireless societies with over 3,000 members. Anxious to avoid the same chaotic expansion experienced in the United States, the GPO proposed that it would issue a single broadcasting licence to a company jointly owned by a consortium of leading wireless receiver manufactures, to be known as the British Broadcasting Company Ltd. John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast; the company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved domestic manufacturers. To this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to "inform and entertain"; the financial arrangements soon proved inadequate. Set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee.
The Committee recommended a short term reorganisation of licence fees with improved enforcement in order to address the BBC's immediate financial distress, an increased share of the licence revenue split between it and the GPO. This was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired; the BBC's broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, as was the prohibition on advertising. The BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00 and was required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee. By now, the BBC, under Reith's leadership, had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a public service rather than a commercial enterprise.
The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production, with restrictions on news bulletins waived, the BBC became the primary source of news for the duration of the crisis; the crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position. On one hand Reith was acutely aware that the Government might exercise its right to commandeer the BBC at any time as a mouthpiece of the Government if the BBC were to step out of line, but on the other he was anxious to maintain public trust by appearing to be acting independently; the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PM's own. Thus the BBC was granted sufficient leeway to pursue the Government's objectives in a manner of its own choosing; the resulting coverage of both striker and government viewpoints impressed millions of listeners who were unaware that the PM had broadcast to the nation from Reith's home, using one of Reith's sound bites inserted at the last moment
New Earth (Doctor Who)
"New Earth" is the first episode of the second series of the British science fiction television series Doctor Who. It was first broadcast on BBC One on 15 April 2006; the episode is set five billion years in the future on the planet New Earth, a planet humanity settled on following the destruction of the Earth in the 2005 episode "The End of the World". In the episode, the alien time traveller the Tenth Doctor, his travelling companion Rose Tyler, their old enemy Lady Cassandra uncover many artificially-grown humans having been infected with every disease in a hospital by a group of humanoid cat nuns as a way of finding cures for the diseases; the Tenth Doctor takes Rose to the year 5,000,000,023 to a world humanity settled on after the destruction of the Earth called "New Earth". The Face of Boe summons the Doctor to Ward 26 in a hospital in New New York through the Doctor's psychic paper. In the ward, the Doctor notices humanoid feline nuns of the Sisters of Plenitude have been curing incurable diseases.
Meanwhile, Rose is separated from the Doctor and is tricked by Lady Cassandra into having Cassandra's mind implanted in Rose's body. The Doctor is suspicious of Cassandra's actions after she kisses him and displays knowledge of advanced computer systems, they discover that the hospital houses thousands of pods containing artificially grown humans in what is the intensive care unit. The artificial humans are forcibly infected with every disease in the galaxy so that the Sisters can discover the cures as a way of dealing with the influx of settlers and the diseases they brought with them. Cassandra reveals she is in Rose's body and knocks the Doctor out with a perfume gas, locking him in a pod. Cassandra approaches Sister Jatt and demands payment in exchange for keeping the human test subjects secret; the Sisters refuse, Cassandra releases the Doctor and some of the humans as a distraction. The infected humans release others from their pods and soon a zombie-like attack begins, with those infected trying to attack others in the hospital.
The Doctor and Cassandra reach Ward 26 and grab all the intravenous medical solutions, emptying them into a disinfectant shower. They spray the mixture onto a group of the infected humans, who within moments become cured of their diseases; the Doctor encourages them to go and spread the cure to the other infected people, soon the attack is over. The police arrest the surviving Sisters, while the Face of Boe tells the Doctor that the message for him can wait until they meet for the third and final time; the Doctor orders Cassandra out of Rose's body. Cassandra's servant Chip volunteers to accept her consciousness. Chip's cloned body begins to fail, Cassandra accepts her death; the Doctor takes Cassandra back to see herself on the last night someone. Cassandra approaches the younger Cassandra at a party and tells her that she is beautiful before collapsing and dying in her arms. Russell T Davies said of the episode ``. So episode one of the new series is much based around comedy for Billie."The exterior scenes on New Earth were shot at Worm's Head on the Gower Peninsula on 26 September 2005.
The hospital basement scenes were recorded at Tredegar House in Newport. The location for the pods containing the human specimens was a disused paper mill used as the base of the Nestene Consciousness in "Rose"; the hospital scenes were filmed inside the Wales Millennium Centre. When the Doctor asks about the shop and points to where he would put it, he points to the location of the centre's own Portmeirion shop; the nightclub the Doctor and Rose take Cassandra to at the end was filmed at the restaurant Ba Orient in Cardiff Bay. As it was filmed during the day, the building was covered with black drapes; the exterior shots of the lift car as Rose descends to the basement are reused footage from "Rose". Cassandra's face and body was put in during post-production by The Mill; the producer's and director's credits have been amended since "The Christmas Invasion", so that now the credit is in lower case and the name of the crewmember is in capitals. This was the result of a suggestion from a Doctor Who Magazine editor, who felt the previous arrangement had made the job seem more important than the crewmember.
This episode is set twenty-three years after the events of the 2005 episode "The End of the World", thirty years prior to the events of the 2007 episode "Gridlock". Davies intended the Face of Boe to impart his message upon the Doctor in this episode. According to Russell T Davies on the episode commentary, Cassandra's earlier self bases Chip on the man who had praised her beauty at the party — Chip himself. Where the "pattern" for Chip comes from in the first instance is thus unclear, creating an ontological paradox. In the commentary, Tennant noted that the TARDIS has moved since "The Christmas Invasion", he speculates that there might have been many off-screen adventures, or that the Doctor "lived there for a bit". Adjoa Andoh returned to Doctor Who in five episodes of Series 3 and the final two episodes of Series 4, as Francine Jones, mother of Martha Jones, she played Nurse Albertine in the audio play Year of the Pig. Cassandra uses the UK slang term chav, although she is unable to mimic Rose's accent properly, instead making attempts at Cockney rhyming slang.
Rose refers to Cassandra as "Michael Jackson" as she did in "The End of the World". She refers to Chip as "Gollum". Overnight ratings for the episode peaked at 8.3 million viewers in
A baseball cap is a type of soft cap with a rounded crown and a stiff peak projecting in front. The front of the cap contains a design or a logo of sports team; the back of the cap may be "fitted" to the wearer's head size or it may have a plastic, Velcro, or elastic and zipper strip, adjuster so that it can be adjusted to fit different wearers. The baseball cap is a part of the traditional baseball uniform worn by players, with the brim pointing forward to shield the eyes from the sun. Since the 1980s varieties of the cap have become a common fashion accessory in the United States. In 1860, the Brooklyn Excelsiors wore the ancestor of the modern rounded-top baseball cap, which featured a long peak and a button on top, by 1900, the "Brooklyn style" cap became popular. During the 1940s, latex rubber became the stiffening material inside the hat and the modern baseball cap was born; the peak known in certain areas as the "bill" or "brim", was designed to protect a player's eyes from the sun. The peak was much shorter in the earlier days of the baseball hat.
The hat has become more structured, versus the overall "floppy" cap of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The baseball cap still is an important means by which to identify a team; the logo, mascot, or team's initial was placed on the cap. The cap was fashioned in the official colors of a particular team; the basic shape, including curved peak, is similar to some styles of 19th century sun bonnets. Fitted baseball caps — those without an adjuster — are sewn in six sections, may be topped with a matching fabric-covered button on the crown. Metal grommets or fabric eyelets are sewn or attached near the top of each of the six sections of fabric to provide ventilation. In some cases, the rear sections of the crown are made of net-like mesh material for extra ventilation; the peak is stiffened by a sewn-in piece of paperboard or stiff plastic. Baseball caps are made of many types of material and shaped in various styles for different purposes. Major and minor league baseball players wear classic-style caps made of wool with their team's simple logo and colors.
More there are brands that are using uncommon materials for snapback hats as for example wood brims. Baseball caps only came in standard hat sizes. Since the early 70's, they have been available in a one-size-fits-all form, with an adjustment strap in the back; the style called snapback, has become popular as fashion accessories. Advances in textiles have led to the "stretch-fit" hat, which uses Lycra or rubber to allow a hat to have a fitted style while still being "adjustable" within sizes; the front may be stiffened by buckram to display a logo more clearly. Another version of the baseball cap is a plastic mesh cap with a foam front imprinted with a company logo; this style is sometimes called a trucker cap or a "gimme cap" because it is given away for free as a promotional item. Dad hats are unstructured caps with low profile, curved brim, stripe on the back. There are high profile, adjustable. Adjustable hat - unstructured, low profile, curved brim, adjustable. Fitted hat - curved or flat brim, structured cap, high profile, unadjustable.
"Flexfit" hat - curved or flat brim, structured cap, high profile, adjustable by the use of elastic materials. Beginning with the 2014 season, MLB pitchers are permitted to wear a special reinforced cap to protect their heads from line drives. Athletes in other sports wear caps with their team's logo and colors as "sideline" caps. Other caps may have a maker's logo, such as Reebok, Nike or Carhartt. Golfers tend to prefer the sports visor form which does not cover the head but keeps the sun out of their eyes; some armed forces use baseball caps as part of their uniforms, including the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard. Used with the utility uniform and coveralls, the baseball cap has a command logo on the front to denote command affiliation. Baseball caps of a particular color are worn to denote a specific function of a person or particular job. For example, in the United States submarine force, red baseball caps are worn by drill monitors who facilitate and critique members of the boat's crew during drills.
In the United States Army, parachute riggers wear red baseball caps and parachute instructors wear black baseball caps as part of their uniform. In various squadrons of the United States Air Force's civilian auxiliary, squadron-distinctive baseball caps have been issued as headgear for the Battle Dress Uniform displaying squadron colors, squadron number, and/or squadron patch. Although the BDUs have their own cover, a patrol cap in M81 Woodland, some squadrons have opted for more distinctive covers. In many United States police forces, the baseball cap is worn as a more practical alternative to the traditional peaked cap or campaign hat, the latter of, used by Sheriff's departments and state police forces; this is more common on the West Coast, whereas in eastern states the traditional peaked cap is more prominent. A notable exception is the San Francisco Police Department, where peaked caps
Owen Jones (writer)
Owen Peter Jones is an English newspaper columnist, political commentator, left-wing political activist. He contributes to the New Statesman and Tribune. Jones was born in Sheffield, South Yorkshire and grew up in Stockport, Greater Manchester, in Falkirk, Scotland, his father was a local authority worker and trade union shop steward, his mother was an IT lecturer at the University of Salford. He describes himself as a'fourth-generation socialist', he attended Bramhall High School and Ridge Danyers Sixth Form College before studying History at University College, graduating with a BA in 2005 and a Master of Studies in US History in 2007. Before entering journalism, Jones worked as a trade union lobbyist and was a parliamentary researcher for the Labour Party MP John McDonnell a backbencher, who became Shadow Chancellor in 2015. Jones is a weekly columnist for The Guardian after switching from The Independent in March 2014, his work has appeared in the New Statesman, the Sunday Mirror, Le Monde diplomatique and several publications with lower circulations.
He writes from a left-wing perspective. In 2011, Jones' first book, Chavs: The Demonization of the Working Class, he discusses stereotypes of sections of the British working class and the use of the pejorative term "chav"; the book was selected by critic Dwight Garner of The New York Times as one of his top 10 non-fiction books of 2011, it was long-listed for the Guardian First Book Award. The Independent on Sunday named Jones as one of its top 50 Britons of 2011, for the manner in which his book raised the profile of class-based issues. In November 2012, Jones was awarded Journalist of the Year at the Stonewall Awards, along with The Times journalist Hugo Rifkind. Jones' second book, The Establishment: And How They Get Away With It, was published in September 2014; the Daily Telegraph placing Jones 7th in its 2013 list of Britain's most influential left-wingers. In February 2013 when Jones was awarded the Young Writer of the Year prize at the Political Book Award, he donated half the £3,000 prize money to support the campaign of Lisa Forbes, a Labour parliamentary candidate, the other half to Disabled People Against Cuts.
In an interview with The Student Journals, Jones commented that some have accused him of using politics only to raise his own profile and that he risks being seen as a "lefty rent-a-gob". Jones spoke at a press conference to launch the People's Assembly Against Austerity on 26 March 2013, regional public meetings in the lead-up to a national meeting at Central Hall Westminster on 22 June 2013. In November 2013 he delivered the Royal Television Society's Huw Wheldon Memorial Lecture, Totally Shameless: How TV Portrays the Working Class. Jones self-identifies as a feminist, a republican, a humanist. Jones is gay, opposes gay conversion therapy. Shortly after the publication of his first book, Jones asserted that he "was one of the few commentators" during the 2011 England riots, "asked to challenge the dominant narrative that this was mindless criminality, end of story", criticised how the aftermath was used to demonise working-class youth unjustly. Owen Jones was awarded the Honorary Degree of Doctor of the University by Staffordshire University in 2015.
Articles in The Guardian Articles in the New Statesman Articles in The Independent YouTube channel
Sportswear or activewear is clothing, including footwear, worn for sport or physical exercise. Sport-specific clothing is worn for most sports and physical exercise, for practical, comfort or safety reasons. Typical sport-specific garments include shorts, T-shirts and polo shirts. Specialized garments include wet suits, ski suits and leotards. Sports footwear include trainers, football boots, riding boots, ice skates. Sportswear includes bikini and some crop tops and undergarments, such as the jockstrap and sports bra. Sportswear is at times worn as casual fashion clothing. For most sports the athletes wear a combination of different items of clothing, e.g. sport shoes and shirts. In some sports, protective gear may need to be worn, such as helmets or American football body armour. Sports fabrics are technical materials; the type of fabric required will depend upon the intensity of the activity. Yoga clothing should use fabrics with good stretch ability for easy movement which will require the fabric to be of a knitted construction.
Apparel for long distance running will keep the wearer in good comfort if it has excellent moisture wicking properties to enable sweat to transfer from the inside to the outside for the garment. Performance clothing for outdoor sports in the winter or snow sports ought to use breathable fabrics with good insulating properties. Sportswear is designed to be lightweight so as not to encumber the wearer; the best athletic wear for some forms of exercise, for example cycling, should not create drag or be too bulky. On the other hand, sportswear should be loose enough; some sports have specific style requirements, for example the keikogi used in karate. Various physically dangerous sports require protective gear, e.g. for fencing, American football, or ice hockey. Standardized sportswear may function as a uniform. In team sports the opposing sides are identified by the colors of their clothing, while individual team members can be recognized by a back number on a shirt. In some sports, specific items of clothing are worn to differentiate roles within a team.
For example, in volleyball, the libero wears a different colour to that of their teammates. In sports such as soccer and GAA codes, a contrasting colour or pattern is worn by the goalkeeper. In other sports, clothing may indicate past achievements of a participant. In cycling disciplines, the rainbow jersey indicates the current world champion, in major road cycling races, jerseys of particular colours are worn by the race leader and leaders of auxiliary classifications. Spandex is the preferred material for form-fitting sportswear, such as used in wrestling, track & field, gymnastics, speed skating, swimming. Sportswear is used as a means for the promotion of sponsors of a sportsperson or team. In some sports, there are regulations limiting the size or design of sponsorship brand names and logos on items of clothing. Sportswear design must consider the thermal insulation needs of the wearer. In hot situations, sportswear should allow the wearer to stay cool. Sportswear should be able to transfer sweat away from the skin, for example, moisture transferring fabric.
Spandex is a popular material used as base layers to soak up sweat. For example, in activities such as skiing and mountain climbing this is achieved by using layering: moisture transferring materials are worn next to the skin, followed by an insulating layer, wind and water resistant shell garments. Moisture-wicking fabrics are a class of hi-tech fabrics that provide moisture control for an athlete's skin, they move perspiration away from the body to the fabric's outer surface. These fabrics are soft and stretchy—in other words, they are suited for making activewear. Moisture-wicking means that the fabric is absorbent and this can leave a barrier of wet fabric on your skin. Drywicking is the newest variation of moisture wicking, it is a smart two tier fabric that breaks the surface tension of sweat and propels it through the hydrophobic layer into a natural wicking outer layer like cotton where it is assisted by evaporative cooling leaving your skin dry. Besides the fact that your body can perform better, it will chemically free prevent odors because a bacteria microclimate cannot grow on dry skin.
This broad category of fabrics is used to make garments like T-shirts, sports bras and cycling jerseys, socks and polo-style shirts for any physical activity where the goal is to keep your skin as cool and dry as possible. Moisture-wicking fabrics are used to make apparel for outdoor activities such as hiking, mountain biking, snow skiing, mountain climbing. Due to the popularity of garments made from these fabrics, more variations are being introduced to the market. Golf has a long tradition of specialized attire—attire that reflects the tradition of Scottish aristocrats taking in fresh air while walking around the golf course, swinging their golf clubs, exercising in a refined, genteel sort of way. Golf attire though, is being influenced by modern fabrics and trends that stress function and durability. Golfers, like athletes in other sports, are athletes first, public figures second. Athletes in all sports are showing a preference for moisture-wicking fabrics, crisp details, modern fashionable colors.
As activewear becomes more fashionable and more popular with consumers, sales have increased. Total U. S
The skinhead subculture originated among working class youths in London, England in the 1960s and soon spread to other parts of the United Kingdom, with a second working class skinhead movement emerging worldwide in the 1980s. Motivated by social alienation and working class solidarity, skinheads are defined by their close-cropped or shaven heads and working-class clothing such as Dr. Martens and steel toe work boots, high rise and varying length straight-leg jeans, button-down collar shirts slim fitting in check or plain; the movement reached a peak during the 1960s, experienced a revival in the 1980s, since has endured in multiple contexts worldwide. The rise to prominence of skinheads came in two waves, with the first wave taking place in the late 1960s and the second wave originating in the mid 1970s to early 1980s; the first skinheads were working class youths motivated by an expression of alternative values and working class pride, rejecting both the austerity and conservatism of the 1950s-early 1960s and the more middle class or bourgeois hippie movement and peace and love ethos of the mid to late 1960s.
Skinheads were instead drawn towards more working class outsider subcultures, incorporating elements of mod fashion and black Jamaican music and fashion from Jamaican rude boys. In the earlier stages of the movement, a considerable overlap existed between early skinhead subculture, mod subculture, the rude boy subculture found among Jamaican British and Jamaican immigrant youth, as these three groups interacted and fraternized with each other within the same working class and poor neighborhoods in Britain; as skinheads adopted elements of mod subculture and Jamaican British and Jamaican immigrant rude boy subculture, both first and second generation skins were influenced by the heavy, repetitive rhythms of dub and ska, as well as rocksteady, reggae and African-American soul music. Members of the second generation in the 1980s were ex-punks. Skinhead subculture has remained connected with and has overlapped with punk subculture since. 1980s skins were aligned with first wave punk, working class Oi! and street punk, reggae, 2 Tone ska, ska punk, dub and anarcho-punks, hardcore punk.
Contemporary skinhead fashions range from clean-cut 1960s mod-influenced styles to less-strict punk- and hardcore-influenced styles. During the early 1980s, political affiliations grew in significance and split the subculture, distancing the far right and far left strands, although many skins describe themselves as apolitical; as a pro-working class movement, highly regionalized and excluded by society's moral norms, skinhead culture sometimes attracted some violent and hard-line political elements and was tainted in the mid-1980s by the tabloid hysteria of fringe and violent racial elements representing extreme racism. From the 1990s, Neo-Nazi youths in the former nation of East Germany, Finland and Eastern European countries such as Russia adopted the style. However, many skinheads remain influenced by dissident left-wing and center-left type politics or otherwise independent politics that have been part of the movement since the beginning in the U. K. and the U. S. while others continue to embrace the subculture as an apolitical working class movement.
In the late 1950s the post-war economic boom led to an increase in disposable income among many young people. Some of those youths spent that income on new fashions popularised by American soul groups, British R&B bands, certain film actors, Carnaby Street clothing merchants; these youths became known as mods, a youth subculture noted for its consumerism and devotion to fashion and scooters. Working class mods chose practical clothing styles that suited their lifestyle and employment circumstances: work boots or army boots, straight-leg jeans or Sta-Prest trousers, button-down shirts and braces; when possible, these working class mods spent their money on suits and other sharp outfits to wear at dancehalls, where they enjoyed soul, ska and rocksteady music. Around 1966, a schism developed between the peacock mods, who were less violent and always wore the latest expensive clothes, the hard mods, who were identified by their shorter hair and more working class image. Hardcore mods became known as skinheads by about 1968.
Their short hair may have come about for practical reasons, since long hair could be a liability in industrial jobs and streetfights. Skinheads may have cut their hair short in defiance of the more middle class hippie culture. In addition to retaining many mod influences, early skinheads were interested in Jamaican rude boy styles and culture the music: ska and early reggae. Skinhead culture became so popular by 1969 that the rock band Slade temporarily adopted the look as a marketing strategy; the subculture gained wider notice because of a series of violent and sexually explicit novels by Richard Allen, notably Skinhead and Skinhead Escapes. Due to largescale British migration to Perth, Western Australia, many British youths in that city joined skinhead/sharpies gangs in the late 1960s and developed their own Australian style. By the early 1970s, the skinhead subculture started to fade from popular culture, some o