Cheaha State Park
Cheaha State Park is a publicly owned recreation area located in northern Clay and southwestern Cleburne counties in Alabama. The park's 2,799 acres include the highest point in the state; the park adjoins Talladega National Forest and is managed by the Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. It is Alabama's oldest continuously operating state park. Facilities include lodgings, a restaurant and hiking trails. Map Highlighting the Park's Boundaries; the park opened to the public in 1933. From 1933 to 1939, the Civilian Conservation Corps was active in the park creating Cheaha Lake and building numerous structures including a stone bathhouse, eleven stone cabins, two stone pavilions, Bunker Tower, the Bald Rock Group Lodge, several hiking trails. A hotel and five chalets were added to the park in 1973. Day-use: The park has day-use areas for picnicking and fishing. Scenic overlooks: Cheaha Mountain is topped with Bunker Tower, a stone building with an observation deck on top. A wheelchair-accessible wooden walkway on the Bald Rock Trail provides another overlook of the surrounding region.
Hiking: The park features the Cheaha Trailhead of the Pinhoti Trail system which weaves through the Talladega National Forest and connects to the Appalachian Trail. Overnight stays: The park has 73 modern campsites and a smaller number of semi-primitive campsites. Accommodations include a 30-room hotel and cabins; the Bald Rock Group Lodge is used for weddings. Cheaha State Park Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources Cheaha Wilderness
The Sun Belt is a region of the United States considered to stretch across the Southeast and Southwest. Another rough definition of the region is the area south of the 36th parallel. Within the region, desert/semi-desert, humid subtropical, tropical climates can be found; the Sun Belt has seen substantial population growth since the 1960s from an influx of people seeking a warm and sunny climate, a surge in retiring baby boomers, growing economic opportunities. The advent of air conditioning created more comfortable summer conditions and allowed more manufacturing and industry to locate in the sunbelt. Since much of the construction in the sun belt is new or recent, housing styles and design are modern and open. Recreational opportunities in the sun belt are not tied to one season, many tourist and resort cities, such as Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Miami, Myrtle Beach, New Orleans, Palm Springs and San Diego support a tourist industry all year; the Sun Belt comprises the southern tier of the United States, including the states of Alabama, Florida, Louisiana, New Mexico, South Carolina, Texas two-thirds of California, parts of North Carolina and Utah.
Five of the states—Arizona, Florida and Texas—are sometimes collectively called the Sand States because of their abundance of beaches or deserts. First employed by political analyst Kevin Phillips in his 1969 book The Emerging Republican Majority, the term "Sun Belt" became synonymous with the southern third of the nation in the early 1970s. In this period and political prominence shifted from the Midwest and Northeast to the South and West. Factors such as the warmer climate, the migration of workers from Mexico, a boom in the agriculture industry allowed the southern third of the United States to grow economically; the climate spurred not only agricultural growth, but the migration of many retirees to retirement communities in the region in Florida and Arizona. Industries such as aerospace and oil boomed in the Sun Belt as companies took advantage of the low involvement of labor unions in the region and the proximity of military installations that were major consumers of their products; the oil industry helped propel states such as Texas and Louisiana forward, tourism grew in Florida and Southern California.
More high tech and new economy industries have been major drivers of growth in California, Florida and other parts of the Sun Belt. Texas and California rank among the top five states in the nation with the most Fortune 500 companies. In 2005, the U. S. Census Bureau projected that 88% of the nation's population growth between 2000 and 2030 would occur in the Sun Belt. California and Florida were each expected to add more than 12 million people during that time, which would make them by far the most populous states in America. Nevada, Arizona and Texas were expected to be the fastest-growing states. Events leading up to and including the 2008–2009 recession led some to question whether growth projections for the Sun Belt had been overstated; the economic bubble that led to the recession appeared, to some observers, to have been more acute in the Sun Belt than other parts of the country. Additionally, the traditional lure of cheaper labor markets in the region compared with America's older industrial centers has been eroded by overseas outsourcing trends.
One of the greatest threats facing the belt in the coming decades is water shortages. Communities in California are making plans to build multiple desalination plants to supply fresh water and avert near-term crises. Texas and Florida face serious shortages because of their expanding populations. Lingering effects from the Great Recession slowed down, in some places stopped, the migration from the Frost Belt to the Sun Belt, according to data tracking people's movements over the year from July 2012 – 2013. Americans remained cautious about moving to a different state over this period. However, migration to the Sun Belt from the Frost Belt resumed again, according to 2015 Census data estimates, with growing migration to the Sun Belt and out of the Frost Belt and California; the environment in the belt is valuable, not only to local and state governments, but to the federal government. Eight of the ten states have high biodiversity; the Sun Belt has the highest number of distinct ecosystems: chaparral, desert, temperate rainforest, tropical rainforest.
Some endangered species live within the belt, including: American crocodile Black-capped vireo California condor Florida panther Red-cockaded woodpecker Longleaf Pine Red Hills salamander Fraser Fir Giant Sequoia The five largest metropolitan statistical areas are Los Angeles, Houston and Atlanta. The Los Angeles area is by far the largest, with over 13 million inhabitants as of 2012; the ten largest metropolitan statistical areas are found in California, Georgia, North Carolina and Arizona. Additionally, the cross-border metropolitan areas of San Diego-Tijuana and El Paso–Juárez lie within the Sun Belt. Seven of the ten largest cities in the United States are located in the Sun Belt: Los Angeles, Phoenix, San Antonio, San Diego and San Jose. Southernization, refers to t
The Mississippi River is the second-longest river and chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system. Its source is Lake Itasca in northern Minnesota and it flows south for 2,320 miles to the Mississippi River Delta in the Gulf of Mexico. With its many tributaries, the Mississippi's watershed drains all or parts of 32 U. S. two Canadian provinces between the Rocky and Appalachian mountains. The main stem is within the United States; the Mississippi ranks as the fifteenth-largest river by discharge in the world. The river either borders or passes through the states of Minnesota, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Arkansas and Louisiana. Native Americans have lived along its tributaries for thousands of years. Most were hunter-gatherers, but some, such as the Mound Builders, formed prolific agricultural societies; the arrival of Europeans in the 16th century changed the native way of life as first explorers settlers, ventured into the basin in increasing numbers.
The river served first as a barrier, forming borders for New Spain, New France, the early United States, as a vital transportation artery and communications link. In the 19th century, during the height of the ideology of manifest destiny, the Mississippi and several western tributaries, most notably the Missouri, formed pathways for the western expansion of the United States. Formed from thick layers of the river's silt deposits, the Mississippi embayment is one of the most fertile regions of the United States. During the American Civil War, the Mississippi's capture by Union forces marked a turning point towards victory, due to the river's strategic importance to the Confederate war effort; because of substantial growth of cities and the larger ships and barges that replaced steamboats, the first decades of the 20th century saw the construction of massive engineering works such as levees and dams built in combination. A major focus of this work has been to prevent the lower Mississippi from shifting into the channel of the Atchafalaya River and bypassing New Orleans.
Since the 20th century, the Mississippi River has experienced major pollution and environmental problems – most notably elevated nutrient and chemical levels from agricultural runoff, the primary contributor to the Gulf of Mexico dead zone. The word Mississippi itself comes from Misi zipi, the French rendering of the Anishinaabe name for the river, Misi-ziibi. In the 18th century, the river was the primary western boundary of the young United States, since the country's expansion westward, the Mississippi River has been considered a convenient if approximate dividing line between the Eastern and Midwestern United States, the Western United States; this is exemplified by the Gateway Arch in St. Louis and the phrase "Trans-Mississippi" as used in the name of the Trans-Mississippi Exposition, it is common to qualify a regionally superlative landmark in relation to it, such as "the highest peak east of the Mississippi" or "the oldest city west of the Mississippi". The FCC uses it as the dividing line for broadcast call-signs, which begin with W to the east and K to the west, mixing together in media markets along the river.
The Mississippi River can be divided into three sections: the Upper Mississippi, the river from its headwaters to the confluence with the Missouri River. The Upper Mississippi runs from its headwaters to its confluence with the Missouri River at St. Louis, Missouri, it is divided into two sections: The headwaters, 493 miles from the source to Saint Anthony Falls in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The source of the Upper Mississippi branch is traditionally accepted as Lake Itasca, 1,475 feet above sea level in Itasca State Park in Clearwater County, Minnesota; the name "Itasca" was chosen to designate the "true head" of the Mississippi River as a combination of the last four letters of the Latin word for truth and the first two letters of the Latin word for head. However, the lake is in turn fed by a number of smaller streams. From its origin at Lake Itasca to St. Louis, the waterway's flow is moderated by 43 dams. Fourteen of these dams are located above Minneapolis in the headwaters region and serve multiple purposes, including power generation and recreation.
The remaining 29 dams, beginning in downtown Minneapolis, all contain locks and were constructed to improve commercial navigation of the upper river. Taken as a whole, these 43 dams shape the geography and influence the ecology of the upper river. Beginning just below Saint Paul and continuing throughout the upper and lower river, the Mississippi is further controlled by thousands of wing dikes that moderate the river's flow in order to maintain an open navigation channel and prevent the river from eroding its banks; the head of navigation on the Mississippi is the Coon Rapids Dam in Minnesota. Before it was built in 1913, steamboats could go upstream as far as Saint Cloud, depending on river conditions; the uppermost lock and dam on the Upper Mississippi River is the Upper St. Anthony Falls Lock an
Interstate 20 is a major east–west Interstate Highway in the Southern United States. I‑20 runs 1,535 miles beginning near Kent, Texas, at I-10 to Florence, South Carolina, at I-95. Between Texas and South Carolina, I‑20 runs through northern Louisiana, Mississippi and Georgia; the major cities that I-20 connects to includes Texas. From its terminus at I‑95, the highway continues about 2 miles eastward into the city of Florence as Business Spur 20. I-20 begins 10 miles east of Kent at a fork with I-10. From there, the highway travels east-northeastward through Odessa and Abilene before turning eastward towards Dallas/Fort Worth; the La Entrada al Pacifico corridor runs along I-20 between U. S. Route 385 and Farm to Market Road 1788. Between Monahans and I-10, I-20 has an 80 miles per hour speed limit. From the highway's opening in the 1960s through 1971, I-20 went through the heart of the Metroplex via the Dallas-Fort Worth Turnpike; this old route is now signed I-30, US 80 and Texas Spur 557. In 1977, I-20 was rerouted to go through the southern sections of Fort Worth, Grand Prairie and Mesquite before rejoining its original route at Terrell.
Part of I-20 in Dallas is named the Lyndon B. Johnson Freeway and used to be signed as I-635. I-20 continues eastward from Terrell, bypassing Tyler and Marshall before crossing the Louisiana border near Waskom. In Louisiana, I-20 parallels U. S. Route 80 through the northern part of the state. Entering the state from near Waskom, the highway enters the Shreveport-Bossier City metropolitan area, intersecting I-49 near downtown Shreveport and passing close to Barksdale Air Force Base in Bossier City. From that area, the highway traverses rural, hilly terrain, bypassing Minden and Grambling before reaching Monroe. From Monroe, I-20 enters flatter terrain. Before crossing the Mississippi, the highway passes Tallulah. At the Mississippi River, I-20 enters Vicksburg, Mississippi. Upon entering Mississippi by crossing the Mississippi River, I-20 enters Vicksburg. Between Edwards and Clinton, the highway follows the original two-lane routing of US 80. In Jackson, I-20 sees a short concurrency with both I-55 and US 49.
In Jackson is an unusually expansive stack interchange, at the junction of I-20, I-55 North and US 49 South. The interchange replaces a former directional interchange at I-55 North and a cloverleaf at Highway 49. From the Stack, I-20 continues eastward to Meridian, where it begins the nearly 160-mile overlap with I-59; the route of the Mississippi section of I-20 is defined in Mississippi Code § 65-3-3. I-20 crosses the Alabama state line near York, it stays conjoined as it passes through western Alabama and Tuscaloosa. At Birmingham, the two highways pass through downtown together before splitting at Exit 130 just east of the Birmingham airport. I-20 continues eastward through Oxford/Anniston and the Talladega National Forest, passing by the Talladega Superspeedway in the process, visible from the highway. In Birmingham, the intersection of I-20 / I-59 and I-65 is known as a Malfunction Junction because of the interchange's somewhat-confusing design, the number of traffic accidents that occur there.
This section of the Interstate is undergoing construction to reconfigure the interchanges. I-20 enters Georgia near Tallapoosa and after passing through western Georgia, it enters the Atlanta metropolitan area. On clear days, eastbound motorists get their first view of downtown Atlanta as they come over the top of the Six Flags Hill; the Six Flags Over Georgia amusement park is visible off exit 46 eastbound. The highway passes through the center of Atlanta, meeting with I-75 and I-85, which share a common expressway, it continues through Metropolitan Atlanta eastward and through the eastern half of Georgia until it exits the state, crossing the Savannah River at Augusta. Throughout the state, I-20 is conjoined with unsigned State Route 402. I-20 from the Alabama state line to I-285 in Atlanta is named the "Tom Murphy Freeway", but it is called the "Ralph David Abernathy Freeway" within I-285; the Interstate Highway is named the Purple Heart Highway from I-285 in DeKalb County to US 441 in Madison, it is called the Carl Sanders Highway from US 441 to the South Carolina state line.
Upon leaving Augusta, I-20 crosses the Savannah River and enters the Palmetto State and heads northeastward, bypassing Aiken and Lexington before reaching the state capital of Columbia, which can be reached most directly by taking I-26 east at Exit 64 almost I-126 / US 76. At Columbia, I-20 bypasses the city to the north and again turns northeastward, bypassing Fort Jackson and Camden. After crossing the Wateree River, it turns due east, passes by tiny Bishopville, before reaching the Florence area, it is near Florence where I-20 sees its eastern terminus at Interstate 95. However, for about two miles, the highway continues into Florence as Business Spur 20. I-20 in the Palmetto State is known as either the J. Strom Thurmond Freeway or John C. West Freeway; the first section to be completed was the bridge over the Savannah River in 1965. It was built in 19
In electronics and telecommunications, a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which produces radio waves with an antenna. The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency alternating current, applied to the antenna; when excited by this alternating current, the antenna radiates radio waves. Transmitters are necessary component parts of all electronic devices that communicate by radio, such as radio and television broadcasting stations, cell phones, walkie-talkies, wireless computer networks, Bluetooth enabled devices, garage door openers, two-way radios in aircraft, spacecraft, radar sets and navigational beacons; the term transmitter is limited to equipment that generates radio waves for communication purposes. Generators of radio waves for heating or industrial purposes, such as microwave ovens or diathermy equipment, are not called transmitters though they have similar circuits; the term is popularly used more to refer to a broadcast transmitter, a transmitter used in broadcasting, as in FM radio transmitter or television transmitter.
This usage includes both the transmitter proper, the antenna, the building it is housed in. A transmitter can be a separate piece of electronic equipment, or an electrical circuit within another electronic device. A transmitter and a receiver combined in one unit is called a transceiver; the term transmitter is abbreviated "XMTR" or "TX" in technical documents. The purpose of most transmitters is radio communication of information over a distance; the information is provided to the transmitter in the form of an electronic signal, such as an audio signal from a microphone, a video signal from a video camera, or in wireless networking devices, a digital signal from a computer. The transmitter combines the information signal to be carried with the radio frequency signal which generates the radio waves, called the carrier signal; this process is called modulation. The information can be added to the carrier in several different ways, in different types of transmitters. In an amplitude modulation transmitter, the information is added to the radio signal by varying its amplitude.
In a frequency modulation transmitter, it is added by varying the radio signal's frequency slightly. Many other types of modulation are used; the radio signal from the transmitter is applied to the antenna, which radiates the energy as radio waves. The antenna may be enclosed inside the case or attached to the outside of the transmitter, as in portable devices such as cell phones, walkie-talkies, garage door openers. In more powerful transmitters, the antenna may be located on top of a building or on a separate tower, connected to the transmitter by a feed line, a transmission line. Electromagnetic waves are radiated by electric charges undergoing acceleration. Radio waves, electromagnetic waves of radio frequency, are generated by time-varying electric currents, consisting of electrons flowing through a metal conductor called an antenna which are changing their velocity or direction and thus accelerating. An alternating current flowing back and forth in an antenna will create an oscillating magnetic field around the conductor.
The alternating voltage will charge the ends of the conductor alternately positive and negative, creating an oscillating electric field around the conductor. If the frequency of the oscillations is high enough, in the radio frequency range above about 20 kHz, the oscillating coupled electric and magnetic fields will radiate away from the antenna into space as an electromagnetic wave, a radio wave. A radio transmitter is an electronic circuit which transforms electric power from a power source into a radio frequency alternating current to apply to the antenna, the antenna radiates the energy from this current as radio waves; the transmitter impresses information such as an audio or video signal onto the radio frequency current to be carried by the radio waves. When they strike the antenna of a radio receiver, the waves excite similar radio frequency currents in it; the radio receiver extracts the information from the received waves. A practical radio transmitter consists of these parts: A power supply circuit to transform the input electrical power to the higher voltages needed to produce the required power output.
An electronic oscillator circuit to generate the radio frequency signal. This generates a sine wave of constant amplitude called the carrier wave, because it serves to "carry" the information through space. In most modern transmitters, this is a crystal oscillator in which the frequency is controlled by the vibrations of a quartz crystal; the frequency of the carrier wave is considered the frequency of the transmitter. A modulator circuit to add the information to be transmitted to the carrier wave produced by the oscillator; this is done by varying some aspect of the carrier wave. The information is provided to the transmitter either in the form of an audio signal, which represents sound, a video signal which represents moving images, or for data in the form of a binary digital signal which represents a sequence of bits, a bitstream. Different types of transmitters use different modulation methods to transmit information: In an AM transmitter the amplitude of the carrier wave is varied in proportion to the modulation signal.
In an FM transmitter the frequency of the carrier is varied by the modulation signal. In an FSK transmitter, which transmits digital data, the frequency of the carrier is shifted between two frequencies which represent the two binary digits, 0 and 1. Many oth
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at 443.8 million years ago, to the beginning of the Devonian Period, 419.2 Mya. The Silurian is the shortest period of the Paleozoic Era; as with other geologic periods, the rock beds that define the period's start and end are well identified, but the exact dates are uncertain by several million years. The base of the Silurian is set at a series of major Ordovician–Silurian extinction events when 60% of marine species were wiped out. A significant evolutionary milestone during the Silurian was the diversification of jawed fish and bony fish. Multi-cellular life began to appear on land in the form of small, bryophyte-like and vascular plants that grew beside lakes and coastlines, terrestrial arthropods are first found on land during the Silurian. However, terrestrial life would not diversify and affect the landscape until the Devonian; the Silurian system was first identified by British geologist Roderick Murchison, examining fossil-bearing sedimentary rock strata in south Wales in the early 1830s.
He named the sequences for a Celtic tribe of Wales, the Silures, inspired by his friend Adam Sedgwick, who had named the period of his study the Cambrian, from the Latin name for Wales. This naming does not indicate any correlation between the occurrence of the Silurian rocks and the land inhabited by the Silures. In 1835 the two men presented a joint paper, under the title On the Silurian and Cambrian Systems, Exhibiting the Order in which the Older Sedimentary Strata Succeed each other in England and Wales, the germ of the modern geological time scale; as it was first identified, the "Silurian" series when traced farther afield came to overlap Sedgwick's "Cambrian" sequence, provoking furious disagreements that ended the friendship. Charles Lapworth resolved the conflict by defining a new Ordovician system including the contested beds. An early alternative name for the Silurian was "Gotlandian" after the strata of the Baltic island of Gotland; the French geologist Joachim Barrande, building on Murchison's work, used the term Silurian in a more comprehensive sense than was justified by subsequent knowledge.
He divided the Silurian rocks of Bohemia into eight stages. His interpretation was questioned in 1854 by Edward Forbes, the stages of Barrande, F, G and H, have since been shown to be Devonian. Despite these modifications in the original groupings of the strata, it is recognized that Barrande established Bohemia as a classic ground for the study of the earliest fossils; the Llandovery Epoch lasted from 443.8 ± 1.5 to 433.4 ± 2.8 mya, is subdivided into three stages: the Rhuddanian, lasting until 440.8 million years ago, the Aeronian, lasting to 438.5 million years ago, the Telychian. The epoch is named for the town of Llandovery in Wales; the Wenlock, which lasted from 433.4 ± 1.5 to 427.4 ± 2.8 mya, is subdivided into the Sheinwoodian and Homerian ages. It is named after Wenlock Edge in England. During the Wenlock, the oldest-known tracheophytes of the genus Cooksonia, appear; the complexity of later Gondwana plants like Baragwanathia, which resembled a modern clubmoss, indicates a much longer history for vascular plants, extending into the early Silurian or Ordovician.
The first terrestrial animals appear in the Wenlock, represented by air-breathing millipedes from Scotland. The Ludlow, lasting from 427.4 ± 1.5 to 423 ± 2.8 mya, comprises the Gorstian stage, lasting until 425.6 million years ago, the Ludfordian stage. It is named for the town of Ludlow in England; the Přídolí, lasting from 423 ± 1.5 to 419.2 ± 2.8 mya, is the final and shortest epoch of the Silurian. It is named after one locality at the Homolka a Přídolí nature reserve near the Prague suburb Slivenec in the Czech Republic. Přídolí is the old name of a cadastral field area. In North America a different suite of regional stages is sometimes used: Cayugan Lockportian Tonawandan Ontarian Alexandrian In Estonia the following suite of regional stages is used: Ohessaare stage Kaugatuma stage Kuressaare stage Paadla stage Rootsiküla stage Jaagarahu stage Jaani stage Adavere stage Raikküla stage Juuru stage With the supercontinent Gondwana covering the equator and much of the southern hemisphere, a large ocean occupied most of the northern half of the globe.
The high sea levels of the Silurian and the flat land resulted in a number of island chains, thus a rich diversity of environmental settings. During the Silurian, Gondwana continued a slow southward drift to high southern latitudes, but there is evidence that the Silurian icecaps were less extensive than those of the late-Ordovician glaciation; the southern continents remained united during this period. The melting of icecaps and glaciers contributed to a rise in sea level, recognizable from the fact that Silurian sediments overlie eroded Ordovician sediments, forming an unconformity; the continents of Avalonia and Laurentia drifted together near the equator, starting the formation of a second supercontinent known as Euramerica. When the proto-Europe coll
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U. S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state. Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State"; the state tree is the longleaf pine, the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery; the largest city by population is Birmingham. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana. From the American Civil War until World War II, like many states in the southern U. S. suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s.
Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one based on agriculture to one with diversified interests; the state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, finance, aerospace, mineral extraction, education and technology. The European-American naming of the Alabama River and state was derived from the Alabama people, a Muskogean-speaking tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers on the upper reaches of the river. In the Alabama language, the word for a person of Alabama lineage is Albaamo; the suggestion that "Alabama" was borrowed from the Choctaw language is unlikely. The word's spelling varies among historical sources; the first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540: Garcilaso de la Vega used Alibamo, while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu in transliterations of the term.
As early as 1702, the French called the tribe the Alibamon, with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons. Other spellings of the name have included Alibamu, Albama, Alibama, Alabamu, Allibamou. Sources disagree on the word's meaning; some scholars suggest the word comes from amo. The meaning may have been "clearers of the thicket" or "herb gatherers", referring to clearing land for cultivation or collecting medicinal plants; the state has numerous place names of Native American origin. However, there are no correspondingly similar words in the Alabama language. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican proposed it meant "Here We Rest." This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek. Experts in the Muskogean languages have not found any evidence to support such a translation. Indigenous peoples of varying cultures lived in the area for thousands of years before the advent of European colonization. Trade with the northeastern tribes by the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period and continued until European contact.
The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers built at what is now the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama. This is the second-largest complex of the classic Middle Mississippian era, after Cahokia in present-day Illinois, the center of the culture. Analysis of artifacts from archaeological excavations at Moundville were the basis of scholars' formulating the characteristics of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex. Contrary to popular belief, the SECC appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerican culture, but developed independently; the Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples. Among the historical tribes of Native American people living in present-day Alabama at the time of European contact were the Cherokee, an Iroquoian language people. While part of the same large language family, the Muskogee tribes developed distinct cultures and languages. With exploration in the 16th century, the Spanish were the first Europeans to reach Alabama.
The expedition of Hernando de Soto passed through Mabila and other parts of the state in 1540. More than 160 years the French founded the region's first European settlement at Old Mobile in 1702; the city was moved to the current site of Mobile in 1711. This area was claimed by the French from 1702 to 1763 as part of La Louisiane. After the French lost to the British in the Seven Years' War, it became part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1783. After the United States victory in the American Revolutionary War, the territory was divided between the United States and Spain; the latter retained control of this western territory from 1783 until the surrender of the Spanish garrison at Mobile to U. S. forces on April 13, 1813. Thomas Bassett, a loyalist to the British monarchy during the Revolutionary era, was one of the earliest white settlers in the state