St Mary-le-Bow /sənt ˈmɛəri lə ˈboʊ/ is an historic church rebuilt after the Great Fire of 1666 by Sir Christopher Wren in the City of London on the main east–west thoroughfare, Cheapside. According to tradition a true Cockney must be born within earshot of the sound of Bow Bells, the sound of the bells of St Marys is credited with having persuaded Dick Whittington to turn back from Highgate and remain in London to become Lord Mayor. Details of the bells, Weights in hundredweights and pounds, however, on the road from London to Lewes, the mileage is taken from the church door of St Mary-le-Bow. To note the reference used, mileposts along the way are marked with a depiction of a bow. Archaeological evidence indicates that a church existed on site in Saxon times. A medieval version of the church had destroyed by the London Tornado of 1091, one of the earliest recorded tornadoes in Britain. During the Norman period the church, known as “St Mary de Arcubus”, was rebuilt and was famed for the arches of stone, at that period the 12 feet 6 inches high vaulted crypt—although only accessible from within the church—had windows and buttresses visible from the street.
However, the anecdotalist and historian John Stow dates the titular arches, made of Caen stone in the form of a steeple and supporting a lantern. This is the form of the steeple in the Agas woodcut of 1561 and this erroneous explanation for the source of the name gained some traction in the centuries to follow, including an endorsement by Palace of Westminster architect Augustus Pugin. From at least the 13th century, the church was a peculier of the Diocese of Canterbury, the “bow bells”, which could be heard as far away as Hackney Marshes, were once used to order a curfew in the City of London. This building burned in the Great Fire of London of 1666, the church with its steeple had been a landmark of London. The current structure was built to the designs of Wren between 1671 and 1673, the 223-foot steeple was completed in 1680, the mason-contractor was Thomas Cartwright, one of the leading London mason-contractors and carvers of his generation. Since the early 1940s, a recording of the Bow Bells made in 1926 has been used by the BBC World Service as a signal for the English-language broadcasts.
It is still used today preceding some English-language broadcasts, much of the current building was destroyed by a German bomb during the Blitz on 10 May 1941, during which fire the bells crashed to the ground. Restoration under the direction of Laurence King began in 1956, the bells as listed above, cast in 1956, were eventually installed to resume ringing in 1961. The church was reconsecrated in 1964, having achieved designation as a Grade I listed building on 4 January 1950. In the church is a memorial to members of the Norwegian resistance who died in the Second World War, in the churchyard is a statue of Captain John Smith of Jamestown, founder of Virginia and former parishioner of the church. Since 1989, there has been a restaurant in the crypt, St Mary-le-Bow ministers to the financial industry and livery companies of the City of London
Old English or Anglo-Saxon is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages. It was brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers probably in the mid 5th century, Old English developed from a set of Anglo-Frisian or North Sea Germanic dialects originally spoken by Germanic tribes traditionally known as the Angles and Jutes. As the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in England, their language replaced the languages of Roman Britain, Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, Old English had four main dialects, associated with particular Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, Northumbrian and West Saxon. It was West Saxon that formed the basis for the standard of the Old English period, although the dominant forms of Middle. The speech of eastern and northern parts of England was subject to strong Old Norse influence due to Scandinavian rule, Old English is one of the West Germanic languages, and its closest relatives are Old Frisian and Old Saxon.
Like other old Germanic languages, it is different from Modern English. Old English grammar is similar to that of modern German, adjectives and verbs have many inflectional endings and forms. The oldest Old English inscriptions were using a runic system. Old English was not static, and its usage covered a period of 700 years, from the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain in the 5th century to the late 11th century, some time after the Norman invasion. While indicating that the establishment of dates is a process, Albert Baugh dates Old English from 450 to 1150, a period of full inflections. Perhaps around 85 per cent of Old English words are no longer in use, Old English is a West Germanic language, developing out of Ingvaeonic dialects from the 5th century. It came to be spoken over most of the territory of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which became the Kingdom of England and this included most of present-day England, as well as part of what is now southeastern Scotland, which for several centuries belonged to the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Northumbria.
Other parts of the island – Wales and most of Scotland – continued to use Celtic languages, Norse was widely spoken in the parts of England which fell under Danish law. Anglo-Saxon literacy developed after Christianisation in the late 7th century, the oldest surviving text of Old English literature is Cædmons Hymn, composed between 658 and 680. There is a corpus of runic inscriptions from the 5th to 7th centuries. The Old English Latin alphabet was introduced around the 9th century, with the unification of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms by Alfred the Great in the 9th century, the language of government and literature became standardised around the West Saxon dialect. In Old English, typical of the development of literature, poetry arose before prose, a literary standard, dating from the 10th century, arose under the influence of Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester, and was followed by such writers as the prolific Ælfric of Eynsham. This form of the language is known as the Winchester standard and it is considered to represent the classical form of Old English
City of London
The City of London is a city and county within London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, the City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London, the City of London is not a London borough. The City of London is widely referred to simply as the City and is colloquially known as the Square Mile. Both of these terms are often used as metonyms for the United Kingdoms trading and financial services industries. The name London is now used for a far wider area than just the City. London most often denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs and this wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1888, when the County of London was created. The local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council and it is unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries.
The Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, the current Lord Mayor, as of November 2016, is Andrew Parmley. The City is a business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the primary business centre. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008, the insurance industry is focused around the eastern side of the City, around Lloyds building. A secondary financial district exists outside of the City, at Canary Wharf,2.5 miles to the east, the City has a resident population of about 7,000 but over 300,000 people commute to and work there, mainly in the financial services sector. It used to be held that Londinium was first established by merchants as a trading port on the tidal Thames in around 47 AD. However, this date is only supposition, many historians now believe London was founded some time before the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD. They base this notion on evidence provided by both archaeology and Welsh literary legend, archaeologists have claimed that as much as half of the best British Iron Age art and metalwork discovered in Britain has been found in the London area.
One of the most prominent examples is the famously horned Waterloo Helmet dredged from the Thames in the early 1860s and now exhibited at the British Museum. Also, according to an ancient Welsh legend, a king named Lud son of Heli substantially enlarged and improved a pre-existing settlement at London which afterwards came to be renamed after him, the same tradition relates how this Lud son of Heli was buried at Ludgate
Liverpool is a major city and metropolitan borough in North West England.24 million people in 2011. Liverpool historically lay within the ancient hundred of West Derby in the south west of the county of Lancashire and it became a borough from 1207 and a city from 1880. In 1889 it became a county borough independent of Lancashire, Liverpool sits on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary and its growth as a major port is paralleled by the expansion of the city throughout the Industrial Revolution. Along with general cargo, raw materials such as coal and cotton, the city was directly involved in the Atlantic slave trade. Liverpool was home to both the Cunard and White Star Line, and was the port of registry of the ocean liner RMS Titanic and others such as the RMS Lusitania, Queen Mary, and Olympic. The city celebrated its 800th anniversary in 2007, and it held the European Capital of Culture title together with Stavanger, several areas of Liverpool city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCO in 2004.
The Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City includes the Pier Head, Albert Dock, tourism forms a significant part of the citys economy. Liverpool is the home of two Premier League football clubs and Everton, matches between the two being known as the Merseyside derby, the world-famous Grand National horse race takes place annually at Aintree Racecourse on the outskirts of the city. The city is home to the oldest Black African community in the country. Natives of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians and colloquially as Scousers, a reference to scouse, the word Scouse has become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. Pool is a place name element in England from the Brythonic word for a pond, inlet, or pit, cognate with the modern Welsh. The derivation of the first element remains uncertain, with the Welsh word Llif as the most plausible relative and this etymology is supported by its similarity to that of the archaic Welsh name for Liverpool Llynlleifiad. Other origins of the name have suggested, including elverpool.
The name appeared in 1190 as Liuerpul, and it may be that the place appearing as Leyrpole, in a record of 1418. King Johns letters patent of 1207 announced the foundation of the borough of Liverpool, the original street plan of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John near the same time it was granted a royal charter, making it a borough. The original seven streets were laid out in an H shape, Bank Street, Castle Street, Chapel Street, Dale Street, Juggler Street, Moor Street, in the 17th century there was slow progress in trade and population growth. Battles for the town were waged during the English Civil War, in 1699 Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, that same year its first slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa. Since Roman times, the city of Chester on the River Dee had been the regions principal port on the Irish Sea
Wards of the City of London
The City of London is divided into 25 wards. Unlike other modern-day English local authorities, the City of London Corporation has two bodies, the now largely ceremonial Court of Aldermen and the Court of Common Council. The wards are a survival of the governmental system that allowed very small areas to exist as self-governing units within the wider city. They are both electoral/political sub-divisions and permanent ceremonial and administrative entities within the City and they had their boundaries changed in 2003, and to a lesser extent in 2013, though the number of wards and their names did not change. Each ward, or aldermanry, has its own alderman, who is the most senior official or representative in the ward, the aldermen traditionally held office for life but in the modern era put themselves up for re-election at least every six years. They now customarily retire at 70, the retirement age as a justice of the peace. Each ward returns one alderman to the Court of Aldermen, one of the aldermen is elected as Lord Mayor of London for a period of one year.
The Lord Mayor performs many functions and holds many ancient positions, the City of London is the only remaining local authority in Great Britain to have aldermen, since their general abolition in England and Wales in 1974 and the London boroughs in 1978. Wards continue to have beadles, with most having just one and these should not be confused with the Beadles of the Livery Companies of the City, who are employees of them. The wards alderman presides over the wardmote and appoints one of the councillors of the ward as a deputy for the year ahead. Wardmotes at which an alderman is to be elected are presided over by the Lord Mayor, there are twenty two of these. Confusingly, there is a United Wards Club which was formed many of the others as a joint association and is now additional to them. In recent times the ward clerk is a permanent position held by an official at the Corporation, the ward clerk is a separate office to that of the Town Clerk of London, who is the chief executive of the Corporation.
Boundary changes in 2003 removed some of these places from their wards, but that boundary review. The Common Council as we know it today, as a body of the wards, was realised in 1384 when the Citys guilds no longer elected members. The number of members of the Common Council grew to 240 by the mid-nineteenth century, each ward was divided into precincts, each of which elected one common councilman. As the number of precincts grew over time, the number of councilmen elected therefore increased, the precincts have now been abolished. The wards are ancient and their number has changed three times since their creation in time immemorial
Bank of England
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based. Established in 1694, it is the second oldest central bank in the world, after the Sveriges Riksbank, and it was established to act as the English Governments banker and is still one of the bankers for the Government of the United Kingdom. The Bank was privately owned by stockholders from its foundation in 1694 until it was nationalised in 1946, in 1998, it became an independent public organisation, wholly owned by the Treasury Solicitor on behalf of the government, with independence in setting monetary policy. The Banks Monetary Policy Committee has a responsibility for managing monetary policy. The Banks Financial Policy Committee held its first meeting in June 2011 as a macro prudential regulator to oversee regulation of the UKs financial sector, the Banks headquarters have been in Londons main financial district, the City of London, on Threadneedle Street, since 1734.
It is sometimes known by the metonym The Old Lady of Threadneedle Street or The Old Lady, the busy road junction outside is known as Bank junction. Until 2016, the bank provided banking services as a popular privilege for employees. Englands crushing defeat by France, the dominant naval power, in naval engagements culminating in the 1690 Battle of Beachy Head, England had no choice but to build a powerful navy. No public funds were available, and the credit of William IIIs government was so low in London that it was impossible for it to borrow the £1,200,000 that the government wanted. To induce subscription to the loan, the subscribers were to be incorporated by the name of the Governor, the Bank was given exclusive possession of the governments balances, and was the only limited-liability corporation allowed to issue bank notes. The lenders would give the government cash and issue notes against the government bonds, the £1. 2m was raised in 12 days, half of this was used to rebuild the navy.
This helped the new Kingdom of Great Britain – England and Scotland were formally united in 1707 – to become powerful, the power of the navy made Britain the dominant world power in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The establishment of the bank was devised by Charles Montagu, 1st Earl of Halifax, the plan of 1691, which had been proposed by William Paterson three years before, had not been acted upon. The Royal Charter was granted on 27 July through the passage of the Tonnage Act 1694, the first governor was Sir John Houblon, who is depicted in the £50 note issued in 1994. The charter was renewed in 1742,1764, and 1781, the Bank moved to its current location in Threadneedle Street in 1734, and thereafter slowly acquired neighbouring land to create the edifice seen today. When the idea and reality of the National Debt came about during the 18th century, the 1844 Bank Charter Act tied the issue of notes to the gold reserves and gave the Bank sole rights with regard to the issue of banknotes.
Private banks that had previously had that right retained it, provided that their headquarters were outside London, a few English banks continued to issue their own notes until the last of them was taken over in the 1930s. Scottish and Northern Irish private banks still have that right, the bank acted as lender of last resort for the first time in the panic of 1866
St. Paul's tube station
St. Pauls is a London Underground station located in the City of London financial district. The station, which takes its name from the nearby St Pauls Cathedral, is on the Central line and it should not be confused with City Thameslink railway station which opened in 1990 with the name St. Pauls Thameslink, but is some distance from the Underground station. The station was opened by the Central London Railway on 30 July 1900 with the name Post Office, the name Post Office was possibly chosen instead of the more obvious St. Pauls to differentiate it from a South Eastern Railway station which already held that name. A modern ventilation shaft in the centre of the island at the junction indicates the location of the original lift shafts. When the SER station called St. Pauls was renamed as Blackfriars in 1937, the Underground station called Post Office took the name St. Pauls, at the end of the 19th century, Newgate Street was a narrow road with some of its mediaeval character remaining. To reduce land purchase and compensation payments, the CLR routed its tunnels directly under public roads, at St.
Pauls the narrowness of the road required the tunnels to be placed one above the other with the westbound tunnel uppermost. The lifts originally operated to a level between the two platforms, with stairs up or down to the platforms as necessary, a high-level access passageway is visible at the lowest level leading to the disused lift lobby. During the Second World War the electricity grid control room for London, the station entrances are located around the junction of Newgate Street, Cheapside and St Martins Le Grand. St Pauls Cathedral is a distance to the south. Visitors should note that the entrance to the cathedral is at its western end. St. Pauls is the nearest Underground station to the London Stock Exchange, other notable sites in the vicinity include the Old Bailey, Museum of London and the church of St Mary-le-Bow. London Buses routes 4,8,25,56,100,172,242,521 and night route N8 serve the station
Mansion House, London
Mansion House is the official residence of the Lord Mayor of London. It is used for some of the City of Londons official functions, including two annual White Tie dinners, hosted by the Lord Mayor. At the Easter banquet, the speaker is the Foreign Secretary. In early June, it is the turn of the Chancellor of the Exchequer to give his Mansion House Speech about the state of the British economy and it is a Grade I listed building. Mansion House was built between 1739 and 1752, in the fashionable Palladian style by the surveyor and architect George Dance the Elder. The site, at the east end of Poultry, had previously occupied by the Stocks Market. The construction was prompted by a wish to put an end to the inconvenient practice of lodging the Lord Mayor in one of the City Halls, Dance won a competition over designs solicited from James Gibbs and Giacomo Leoni, and uninvited submissions by Batty Langley and Isaac Ware. In 1795 George Dance the Younger re-roofed the central courtyard, and had the Noahs Ark demolished, in the same year, the original grand staircase was removed to make way for a further two rooms.
In 1835 the entrance steps were reduced to one flight, Mansion House was paid for in an unusual way. William Edward Hartpole Lecky in his History of England during the Eighteenth Century describes it as a very scandalous form of persecution, there are over one hundred livery companies, the senior members of which form a special electorate known as Common Hall. In order to serve as a Sheriff of the City of London and this was exactly what English Dissenters could not, in conscience, do. The electors appointed these Dissenters with a knowledge that they would not serve. One of those whom they selected was blind, another was bedridden, some tried to appeal, but the process was immensely risky and costly, with the City holding all the cards. Thomas Abney rose to be Lord Mayor in this fashion, a person who had not taken the Sacrament according to the Anglican rite could not stand as a candidate for sheriff of London. Thus Dissenters were ineligible, they could not run if asked, Samuel Sharpe, banker by day and amateur Egyptologist by night, wrote about it in the 1830s, striking a blow against the Test and Corporate Acts.
The article was republished in 1872, Sharpe argues that Mansion House remains as a monument of the unjust manner in which Dissenters were treated in the last century. Mansion House has three storeys over a rusticated basement. The building originally had two prominent and unusual attic structures at either end, which were removed in 1794 and 1843, the building is on a confined site
Nottingham is a city and unitary authority area in Nottinghamshire, located 128 miles north of London, in the East Midlands. Nottingham has links to the legend of Robin Hood and to the lace-making, bicycle and it was granted its city charter in 1897 as part of Queen Victorias Diamond Jubilee celebrations. Nottingham is a tourist destination, in 2011, visitors spent over £1.5 billion - the thirteenth highest amount in Englands 111 statistical territories. In 2015, Nottingham had an population of 321,550 with the wider urban area. Its urban area is the largest in the east Midlands and the second largest in the Midlands, the population of the Nottingham/Derby metropolitan area is estimated to be 1,610,000. Its metropolitan economy is the seventh largest in the United Kingdom with a GDP of $50. 9bn, the city is ranked as a sufficiency-level world city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network. It is a sporting centre, and in October 2015 was named Home of English Sport. The city has rugby, ice hockey and cricket teams, and the Aegon Nottingham Open.
This accolade came just over a year after Nottingham was named as the UKs first City of Football, on 11 December 2015, Nottingham was named a Unesco City of Literature, joining Norwich, Melbourne and Barcelona as one of only a handful in the world. The title reflects Nottinghams literary heritage, with Lord Byron, DH Lawrence and it has two universities, the University of Nottingham and Nottingham Trent University, which are attended by over 70,610 students. In modern Welsh it is known poetically as Y Ty Ogofog, when it fell under the rule of a Saxon chieftain named Snot it became known as Snotingaham, the homestead of Snots people. Some authors derive Nottingham from Snottenga and ham, Nottingham Castle was constructed in 1068 on a sandstone outcrop by the River Leen. Following the Norman Conquest the Saxon settlement developed into the English Borough of Nottingham and housed a Town Hall, a settlement developed around the castle on the hill opposite and was the French borough supporting the Normans in the castle.
Eventually, the space between was built on as the town grew and the Old Market Square became the focus of Nottingham several centuries later, consisted initially of a ditch and bank in the early 12th century. The ditch was widened, in the mid 13th century, a short length of the wall survives, and is visible at the northern end of Maid Marian Way, and is protected as a Scheduled Monument. On the return of Richard the Lionheart from the Crusades, the Castle was occupied by supporters of Prince John and it was besieged by Richard and, after a sharp conflict, was captured. In the legends of Robin Hood, Nottingham Castle is the scene of the showdown between the Sheriff and the hero outlaw. By the 15th century Nottingham had established itself as a centre of an export trade in religious sculpture made from Nottingham Alabaster
Saint Helier is one of the twelve parishes of Jersey, the largest of the Channel Islands in the English Channel. St Helier has a population of about 33,500, roughly 34. 2% of the population of Jersey. The greater part of St Helier is rural, the parish covers a surface area of 4.1 square miles, being 9% of the total land area of the Island. The parish arms are two crossed axes on a blue background, the blue symbolising the sea, and the axes symbolising the martyrdom of Helier at the hands of Saxon pirates in 555 AD. It is thought that the site of St Helier was settled at the time of the Roman control of Gaul, before land reclamation and port construction started, boats could be tied up to the churchyard wall on the seaward side. An Abbey of St Helier was founded in 1155 on LIslet, closed at the Reformation, the site of the abbey was fortified to create the castle that replaced Mont Orgueil as the Islands major fortress. The new Elizabeth Castle was named after the Queen by the Governor of Jersey 1600-1603, la Cohue stood on one side of the square, now rebuilt as the Royal Court and States Chamber.
The market cross in the centre of the square was pulled down at the Reformation, george II gave £200 towards the construction of a new harbour - previously boats would be beached on a falling tide and unloaded by cart across the sands. Many of St Heliers road names and street names are bilingual English/French or English/Jèrriais, the names in the various languages are not usually translations, distinct naming traditions survive alongside each other. The Royal Square was the scene of the Battle of Jersey on 6 January 1781, john Singleton Copleys epic painting The Death of Major Pierson captures an imaginative version of the scene. As harbour construction moved development seaward, a growth in population meant that marshland, settlement by English immigrants added quarters of colonial-style town houses to the traditional building stock. Continuing military threats from France spurred the construction of a fortress, Fort Regent, on the Mont de la Ville. This was the start of Jerseys agricultural prosperity in the 19th century, from the 1820s, peace with France and better communications by steamships and railways to coastal ports encouraged an influx of English-speaking residents.
Speculative development covered the basin north of the central coastal strip as far as the hills within a period of about 40 years. In the second half of the 19th century, hundreds of trucks laden with potatoes and this prompted a programme of road-widening which swept away many of the ancient buildings of the town centre. Pressure for redevelopment has meant that few buildings remain in urban St Helier which date to before the 19th century. Pierre Le Sueur, reforming Constable of St Helier, was responsible for installing sewerage, an obelisk with fountain in the town centre was raised to his memory following his premature death in office from overwork. In the 1970s, a programme of pedestrianisation of the streets was undertaken
Wakefield is a city in West Yorkshire, England, on the River Calder and the eastern edge of the Pennines, which had a population of 77,512 at the 2011 Census. Wakefield was dubbed the Merrie City in the Middle Ages and in 1538 John Leland described it as, so that all vitaile is very good and chepe there. A right honest man shall fare well for 2d, there be plenti of se coal in the quarters about Wakefield. The Battle of Wakefield took place in the Wars of the Roses, Wakefield became an important market town and centre for wool, exploiting its position on the navigable River Calder to become an inland port. In the 18th century, Wakefield traded in corn, coal mining and textiles, in the Domesday Book of 1086, it was written Wachefeld and as Wachefelt. Flint and stone tools and bronze and iron implements have been found at Lee Moor and this part of Yorkshire was home to the Brigantes until the Roman occupation in AD43. Wakefield was probably settled by the Angles in the 5th or 6th century and they divided the area into wapentakes and Wakefield was part of the Wapentake of Agbrigg.
The settlement grew near a place on the River Calder around three roads, Westgate and Kirkgate. The gate suffix derives from Old Norse gata meaning road and kirk, before 1066 the manor of Wakefield belonged to Edward the Confessor and it passed to William the Conqueror after the Battle of Hastings. After the Conquest Wakefield was a victim of the Harrying of the North in 1069 when William the Conqueror took revenge on the population for resistance to Norman rule. The settlement was recorded as Wachfeld in the Domesday Book of 1086, the manor was granted by the crown to William de Warenne, 1st Earl of Surrey whose descendants, the Earls Warenne, inherited it after his death in 1088. The construction of Sandal Castle began early in the 12th century, a second castle was built at Lawe Hill on the north side of the Calder but was abandoned. Wakefield and its environs formed the caput of an extensive baronial holding by the Warennes that extended to Cheshire and Lancashire, the Warennes, and their feudal sublords, held the area until the 14th century, when it passed to their heirs.
Norman tenants holding land in the region included the Lyvet family at Lupset, the Domesday Book recorded two churches, one in Wakefield and one in Sandal Magna. The Saxon church in Wakefield was rebuilt in about 1100 in stone in the Norman style and was enlarged until 1315 when the central tower collapsed. By 1420 the church was rebuilt and was extended between 1458 and 1475. In 1203 William de Warenne, 5th Earl of Surrey received a grant for a market in the town. In 1204 King John granted the rights for a fair at the feast of All Saints,1 November, the market was close to the Bull Ring and the church
Bradford /ˈbrædfərd/ is in the Metropolitan Borough of the City of Bradford in West Yorkshire, England, in the foothills of the Pennines 8.6 miles west of Leeds, and 16 miles northwest of Wakefield. Bradford became a borough in 1847, and received its charter as a city in 1897. Following local government reform in 1974, city status was bestowed upon the metropolitan borough. Historically a part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Bradford rose to prominence during the 19th century as a centre of textile manufacture. It was a boomtown of the Industrial Revolution, and amongst the earliest industrialised settlements, the textile sector in Bradford fell into decline from the mid-20th century. However, Bradford has faced challenges to the rest of the post-industrial area of Northern England, including deindustrialisation, social unrest. It was recorded as Bradeford in 1086, after an uprising in 1070, during William the Conquerors Harrying of the North, the manor of Bradford was laid waste and is described as such in the Domesday Book of 1086.
It became part of the Honour of Pontefract given to Ilbert de Lacy for service to the Conqueror, there is evidence of a castle in the time of the Lacys. The manor passed to the Earl of Lincoln, John of Gaunt, The Crown and, ultimately, by the middle ages Bradford, had become a small town centred on Kirkgate and Ivegate. In 1316 there is mention of a mill, a soke mill where all the manor corn was milled. During the Wars of the Roses the inhabitants sided with House of Lancaster, Edward IV granted the right to hold two annual fairs and from this time the town began to prosper. In the reign of Henry VIII Bradford exceeded Leeds as a manufacturing centre, Bradford grew slowly over the next two-hundred years as the woollen trade gained in prominence. During the Civil War the town was garrisoned for the Parliamentarians, Sir Thomas Fairfax took the command of the garrison and marched to meet the Duke of Newcastle but was defeated. The Parliamentarians retreated to Bradford and the Royalists set up headquarters at Bolling Hall from where the town was besieged leading to its surrender, the Civil War caused a decline in industry but after the accession of William and Mary in 1689 prosperity began to return.
The launch of manufacturing in the early 18th century marked the start of the development while new canal. In 1801, Bradford was a market town of 6,393 people. Bradford was thus not much bigger than nearby Keighley and was smaller than Halifax. This small town acted as a hub for three nearby townships – Manningham and Great and Little Horton, which were separated from the town by countryside