Time in the United States
Time in the United States, by law, is divided into nine standard time zones covering the states and its possessions, with most of the United States observing daylight saving time for the spring and fall months. The time zone boundaries and DST observance are regulated by the Department of Transportation. Official and precise timekeeping services are provided by two federal agencies: the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the clocks run by these services are kept synchronized with each other as well as with those of other international timekeeping organizations. It is the combination of the time zone and daylight saving rules, along with the timekeeping services, which determines the legal civil time for any U. S. location at any moment. Before the adoption of four standard time zones for the continental United States, many towns and cities set their clocks to noon when the sun passed their local meridian, pre-corrected for the equation of time on the date of observation, to form local mean solar time.
Noon occurred at different times but time differences between distant locations were noticeable prior to the 19th century because of long travel times and the lack of long-distance instant communications prior to the development of the telegraph. The use of local solar time became awkward as railways and telecommunications improved. American railroads maintained many different time zones during the late 1800s; each train station set its own clock making it difficult to coordinate train schedules and confusing passengers. Time calculation became a serious problem for people traveling by train, according to the Library of Congress; every city in the United States used a different time standard so there were more than 300 local sun times to choose from. Time zones were therefore a compromise, relaxing the complex geographic dependence while still allowing local time to be approximate with mean solar time. Railroad managers tried to address the problem by establishing 100 railroad time zones, but this was only a partial solution to the problem.
Weather service chief Cleveland Abbe had needed to introduce four standard time zones for his weather stations, an idea which he offered to the railroads. Operators of the new railroad lines needed a new time plan that would offer a uniform train schedule for departures and arrivals. Four standard time zones for the continental United States were introduced at noon on November 18, 1883, when the telegraph lines transmitted time signals to all major cities. In October 1884, the International Meridian Conference at Washington DC adopted a proposal which stated that the prime meridian for longitude and timekeeping should be one that passes through the centre of the transit instrument at the Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom; the conference therefore established the Greenwich Meridian as the prime meridian and Greenwich Mean Time as the world's time standard. The US time-zone system grew from this, in which all zones referred back to GMT on the prime meridian. In 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee formalized the concept of Coordinated Universal Time, which became the new international civil time standard.
UTC is, within about 1 second, mean solar time at 0°. UTC does not observe daylight saving time. For most purposes, UTC is considered interchangeable with GMT, but GMT is no longer defined by the scientific community. UTC is one of several related successors to GMT. Standard time zones in the United States are defined at the federal level by law 15 USC §260; the federal law establishes the transition dates and times at which daylight saving time occurs, if observed. It is the authority of the Secretary of Transportation, in coordination with the states, to determine which regions will observe which of the standard time zones and if they will observe daylight saving time; as of August 9, 2007, the standard time zones are defined in terms of hourly offsets from UTC. Prior to this they were based upon the mean solar time at several meridians 15° apart west of Greenwich. Only the full-time zone names listed below are official. View the standard time zone boundaries here; the United States uses nine standard time zones.
As defined by US law they are: From east to west, the four time zones of the contiguous United States are: Eastern Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Atlantic coast and the eastern two thirds of the Ohio Valley. Central Time Zone, which comprises the Gulf Coast, Mississippi Valley, most of the Great Plains. Mountain Time Zone, which comprises the states and portions of states that include the Rocky Mountains and the western quarter of the Great Plains. Pacific Time Zone, which comprises the states on the Pacific coast, plus Nevada and the Idaho panhandle. Alaska Time Zone, which comprises most of the state of Alaska. Hawaii-Aleutian Time Zone, which includes Hawaii and most of the length of the Aleutian Islands chain. Samoa Time Zone, which comprises American Samoa. Chamorro Time Zone, which comprises Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands. Atlantic Time Zone, which comprises Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands; some United States Minor Outlying Islands are outside the time zones defined by 15 U.
S. C. § exist in waters defined by Nautical time. In practice, military crews may
Interstate 24 is an Interstate Highway in the Midwestern and Southeastern United States. It runs diagonally from I-57, 10 miles south of Marion, Illinois, to Chattanooga, Tennessee, at I-75; as an even-numbered Interstate, it is signed as an east–west route, though the route follows a more southeast–northwest routing, passing through Nashville, Tennessee. Because the routing of I-24 is diagonal, the numbering is a bit unusual as it does not follow the Interstate Highway System numbering conventions. I-24 constitutes the majority of a high-traffic corridor between St. Louis and Atlanta; this corridor utilizes I-64 and I-57 northwest of I-24, I-75 southeast of I-24. I-24 begins near the community of Pulleys Mill; the highway heads southeast into rural Johnson County. It reaches an exit at Tunnel Hill Road, which serves Tunnel Hill; the highway continues south to its next exit at U. S. Route 45 north of Vienna, it reaches its next exit at Illinois Route 146 in eastern Vienna. I-24 heads southeast from Vienna into Massac County.
Its first exit in Massac County is at Big Bay Road, which serves the communities of Big Bay and New Columbia. I-24 continues southward; the highway passes west of Fort Massac State Park. It crosses the Interstate 24 Bridge over the Ohio River. After that, it continues into Kentucky. I-24 crosses into Kentucky on a bridge over the Ohio River, it passes to the west of Paducah and intersects US Routes 60, 45, 62. The freeway passes near Woodlawn-Oakdale and Reidland and connects with US 68; the welcome center in Paducah is Whitehaven. This is the only historic house in the country used as a rest area. East of this point, I-24 runs concurrently with I-69. Through this, it crosses the Tennessee and the Cumberland Rivers; the roadway travels along the north shore of the Cumberland River. I-69 splits off to the east just north of Mineral Mound State Park. I-24 continues away from the river, it runs through farmland for several miles. It passes south of Hopkinsville and interchanges with I-169. Near the Tennessee border, I-24 passes north of Fort Campbell.
Afterwards, it crosses into Tennessee. I-69 runs concurrently with I-24 for 17 miles from Calvert City to Eddyville. I-24 crosses into Tennessee traveling in a southeasterly and northwesterly direction in Clarksville, Montgomery County; the first interchange is with SR 48. I-24 has interchanges with US 79, SR 237, SR 76, crosses the Red River, it enters a long straight section, crossing into Robertson County, has interchanges with SR 256, SR 49 near Springfield, respectively. The route enters the rolling hilly terrain of the Nashville Basin, crosses into Cheatham County, where it has an interchange with SR 249. I-24 crosses into Davidson County, has an interchange with US 431; the interstate continues for several miles through rural woodlands before coming to an interchange with SR 45. Three miles I-24 crosses the Nashville Urban Boundary, widens to six lanes, has an interchange with SR 155, the northern beltway around Nashville. Less than a mile I-24 joins a concurrency with Interstate 65, where the combined routes carry ten through lanes, travel due south.
About two miles I-65 splits off, I-24 enters downtown Nashville, where it has interchanges with US 41, US 431, US 31E, as well as several city streets. I-24 crosses the Cumberland River, joins in a concurrency with Interstate 40, travelling southeast with eight through lanes, two miles I-40 splits off eastwardly, heading toward Knoxville. Located at this interchange is an interchange with US 41, less than a mile is an interchange with the eastern terminus of Interstate 440, accessible from I-40 nearby. About a mile is once again an interchange with SR 155/Briley Parkway near the Nashville International Airport, I-24 continues southeast, bisecting a major residential area. Here I-24 carries eight through lanes, beginning at the next exit, SR 255, the left lanes operate as HOV lanes during rush hour. I-24 continues southeast through the growing suburbs of Nashville, crosses into Rutherford County near the city of LaVergne, where there are three exits. Beginning at this point, I-24 is straight and flat for most of its distance through Middle Tennessee.
The straightest stretch of highway in Tennessee is located on I-24 between Lavergne and eastern Murfreesboro, where the route is straight for about fifteen miles, although the median widens and narrows. Four miles is an interchange with SR 102, which connects to Smyrna and the Nissan Motor Manufacturing Plant. Another four miles is an interchange with Interstate 840, the outer southern beltway around Nashville, I-24 enters Murfreesboro, the largest suburb of Nashville. In Murfreesboro, I-24 has interchanges with SR 96, SR 99, US 231 and at the final Murfreesboro exit, the HOV lane designation ends, I-24 narrows to six lanes and four lanes a short distance later. Three miles is an interchange with the Joe B. Jackson Parkway, which serves as an outer beltway around southeast Murfreesboro. I-24 enters a more rural area, at exit 97 has an interchange with SR 64, which connects to Shelbyville. I-24 curves to the south the east enters Bedford County, Coffee County. At exit 105 is an inter
Harpeth River State Park
Harpeth River State Park is a state park in Cheatham and Davidson counties in the U. S. state of Tennessee, in the southeastern United States. The park is a linear park, created to connect several state historic and archaeological sites along the lower Harpeth River; the park includes an incised meander in the river known as the Narrows of the Harpeth and its associated national historic landmark, the Montgomery Bell Tunnel. The park includes the Mound Bottom and Mace Bluff archaeological sites, the Newsom's Mill Historic Site, the Gossett Tract State Natural Area, a section of land at Hidden Lakes; the Montgomery Bell Tunnel is a man-made water feature in Cheatham County, which directs water through a tunnel at a narrow portion of an oxbow on the Harpeth River. Created in 1818 by Montgomery Bell, the 290-foot long tunnel was devised to power an iron-manufacturing operation known as Pattison Forge; the area is now protected as being a Tennessee state park, as well as a National Historic Landmark.
Harpeth River State Park
Tennessee's 6th congressional district
The 6th Congressional District of Tennessee is a congressional district in Middle Tennessee. It has been represented by Republican John Rose since January 2019; the district is located in north-central borders Kentucky to the north. It is composed of the following counties: Cannon, Coffee, Cumberland, DeKalb, Jackson, Overton, Putnam, Smith, Trousdale and Wilson, it contains small pieces of Cheatham and Van Buren. Much of the Sixth District is wooded, it is spread across the geographic regions known as the Cumberland Plateau, the Highland Rim, the Central Basin. The area is known for its waterfalls, such as Cummins Falls. With close access to interstates 24, 40, 65, subdivisions are sprouting exponentially, fast filling with new economy managers. Many companies have opened either manufacturing or distribution centers in the 6th District; this includes Amazon and Bridgestone-Firestone in Lebanon, gun manufacturer Beretta in Gallatin, clothing manufacturer Under Armour in Mt. Juliet. Politically speaking, the region was traditionally a "Yellow Dog Democrat" district.
However, the district began. It supported Bill Clinton in 1992 due to Gore's presence as Clinton's running mate. However, it has not supported a Democrat for president since. By the turn of the century, it was obvious that the Democrats would have a hard time holding onto the district once longtime Democratic incumbent Bart Gordon retired. Gordon retired in 2010, Black—then a state senator—won the seat in a landslide, proving just how Republican this district had become; the 2010 redistricting made the district more Republican, with its longtime anchor, being drawn out of the district. Since no Democrat has won an entire county within the district in any presidential, senate, or congressional election. According to the 2010 census, the five largest cities are Hendersonville, Gallatin, Mt. Juliet. Prior to the 1980 census, when Tennessee picked up a district, most of what is now the 6th district was in the 4th district. During the 1940s, this area was represented by Sr. of Carthage. Gore was elected to the United States Senate in 1952, where he was instrumental in creating the Interstate Highway system.
From 1953 to 1977, the area was represented by Joe L. Evins of Smithville. Evins's nephew, Dan Evins, was the founder of Cracker Barrel Old Country Store restaurant/retail chain. Cracker Barrel's headquarters are still located in Lebanon. In 1976, Evins was succeeded by future Vice President and son of Albert Gore, Sr.. He was representing the area. Shortly following the redistricting into the 6th District, Gore was elected to the United States Senate, he was succeeded by former Democratic State Chair Bart Gordon of Murfreesboro. Gordon held the post for the next twenty-six years unopposed; the only year he faced. Gordon defeated Gill by only one percentage point. Diane Black was elected in the Republican landslide of 2010 when Democrat Bart Gordon decided to end a 26-year career in Congress. Black's victory marked the first time that much of the district had been represented by a Republican since 1921, for only the second time since Reconstruction. Following an eight-year stint in Congress, Black made an unsuccessful run for Governor of Tennessee in 2018.
In the concurrent election, the district selected businessman and former Tennessee Agriculture Commissioner John Rose. The Sixth District raised two Nobel Peace Prize winners: Cordell Hull of Pickett County and Al Gore of Carthage. Hailing from the district was World War I hero Alvin C. York. Current residents include country musicians Charlie Daniels and Gretchen Wilson, as well as the band Kings of Leon. District created March 4, 1813. Tennessee's congressional districts List of United States congressional districts Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of Political Parties in the United States Congress. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Martis, Kenneth C.. The Historical Atlas of United States Congressional Districts. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. Congressional Biographical Directory of the United States 1774–present Political Graveyard database of Tennessee congressmen Congress.com: Tennessee Congressional districts
Interstate 40 in Tennessee
Interstate 40 traverses the entirety of the state of Tennessee from west to east, running from the Mississippi River at the Arkansas border to the northern base of the Great Smoky Mountains at the North Carolina border. The road connects Tennessee's three largest cities—Memphis and Knoxville—and crosses all of Tennessee's physiographical provinces and Grand Divisions—the Mississippi Embayment and Gulf Coastal Plain in West Tennessee, the Highland Rim and Nashville Basin in Middle Tennessee, the Cumberland Plateau, Appalachian Valley and Ridge Province, Blue Ridge Province in East Tennessee; the Tennessee section of I-40 is 452 miles long, the longest of any state. I-40 enters Tennessee from Arkansas via the six lane Hernando de Soto Bridge, which spans the Mississippi River at river mile 736. Within the city of Memphis, the interstate passes across the southern half of Mud Island before crossing the Wolf River Harbor into downtown Memphis. Throughout Memphis, the highway contains a minimum of six through lanes, except through major interchanges.
About one mile from the state line is an interchange with the western terminus of Interstate 240, where I-40 abruptly turns north, following a route designated as part of I-240. About one mile the highway has an interchange with State Route 300, a connector to US 51 and the future Interstate 69. At this interchange, the interstate turns east and enters a stretch designated as the Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Expressway. I-40 crosses the Wolf River three times in Memphis as the road passes near the neighborhoods of Frayser and Raleigh and turns southeast. A few miles I-40 has an interchange with I-240 southbound and Sam Cooper Boulevard eastbound, turns sharp northeast, leaving Memphis. For the next several miles the highway is known as the Isaac Hayes Memorial Highway and is eight lanes, the left lanes functioning as HOV lanes during rush hour, passing through several major suburbs of Memphis, including Bartlett and Lakeland. At exit 18, with US 64, the highway narrows to six lanes, to four lanes a short distance beyond.
Several miles near Arlington, is a cloverleaf interchange with I-269. East of Arlington, I-40 crosses the Loosahatchie River and leaves the Memphis area, traversing through the Gulf Coastal Plain in a flat and straight stretch of farmland with some rural woodlands, bypassing most cities and communities. South of Brownsville, about 40 miles east of Memphis, the highway turns north and enters the Hatchie National Wildlife Refuge and crosses the Hatchie River. Upon exiting the refuge, I-40 passes just southeast of Brownsville; the interstate continues for the next 20 miles though further agricultural terrain, at mile marker 78, the crosses the South Fork of the Forked Deer River into Jackson. Passing through the northern half of the city, I-40 has a total of six exits in Jackson. From Jackson, I-40 continues east northeast through a sparsely populated area of farmland and woodlands, near the community of Parkers Crossroads, has an interchange with SR 22, a major north-south connector route in west Tennessee.
Several miles I-40 proceeds for several miles through the northern half of the Natchez Trace State Park, has an interchange with US 641/SR 69, another major north-south corridor, at milepost 126. The route descends about 400 feet on a steep grade over the course of a mile before crossing the Tennessee River into Middle Tennessee on the Jimmy Mann Evans Memorial Bridge. East of the Tennessee River, I-40 traverses through vast woodlands in the rugged hills of the Western Highland Rim for a considerable distance; this section is characterized by several noticeable upgrades and downgrades, with minor curves. About 35 miles the highway passes southeast of Dickson, now within the Nashville metropolitan area. A few miles approximately 35 miles west of Nashville, is the western terminus of Interstate 840, the outer southern beltway around Nashville; the highway continues through woodlands and descends into the Nashville Basin between mile markers 186 and 188. Around Bellevue, the route widens to six lanes.
About ten miles I-40 has an interchange with the western terminus of State Route 155, the northern controlled-access beltway around Nashville. About two miles is the western terminus of I-440, the southern loop around central Nashville. Two miles I-40 enters Downtown Nashville, has interchanges with several major highways and surface roads. In Nashville, I-40 shares brief concurrences first with I-65 and I-24, before splitting off; the eastern terminus of I-440 is directly accessible from the easternmost interchange with I-24. About 1.5 miles I-40 has an interchange with SR 155 near the Nashville International Airport. The route continues east for the next 20 miles through a still-developing area with eight lanes, the left lanes functioning as HOV lanes during rush hour, passing near the suburbs of Mount Juliet and Gallatin. At mile 219, I-40 crosses the Stones River just downstream from the Percy Priest Dam. About 25 miles east of Nashville, the route narrows back to four lanes and has an interchange with the eastern terminus of I-840 a few miles east of Lebanon.
The interstate continues for 50 miles across open farmland, passing near small communities. In Smith County between mileposts 263 and 266, I-40 crosses the meandering Caney Fork River five times before ascending the Eastern Highland Rim, reaching 1,000 feet for the first time in the state near Silver Point; the interstate remains flat across the plateau, beginning at the edge of the table-top rim at mile marker 27
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Benjamin F. Cheatham
Benjamin Franklin "Frank" Cheatham was a Tennessee planter, California gold miner, a general in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. He served in the Army of Tennessee, inflicting many casualties on Sherman at Kennesaw Mountain, but taking the blame for General Schofield's escape at Spring Hill, a major factor in the Confederate defeat at Franklin. Cheatham was born in Nashville, Tennessee on a plantation called Westover, which in its prime consisted of three thousand acres, he was born into two of the most prominent families of the middle Tennessee elite of the slave society. His mother was descended from General James Robertson, the founder of Nashville and "father" of Middle Tennessee, who came from Virginia; the Cheathams had been in middle Tennessee for two generations and become established as plantation owners, lawyers and mayors of the city. At the start of the Mexican–American War, Cheatham joined the 1st Tennessee Infantry Regiment as a captain and finished the war having been promoted to Colonel of the 3rd Tennessee.
He moved to California in 1849 for the Gold Rush, but returned to Tennessee in 1853. He served as a brigadier general in the Tennessee Militia. Cheatham joined the Confederate States Army as a brigadier general on May 9, 1861, became a brigade commander in the Western District of Department Number Two, under Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk, his first test in the war was in Missouri on November 7 at the Battle of Belmont, leading three regiments in Brig. Gen. Gideon J. Pillow's division against Union Brig. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant in his first Civil War combat. In December and his division received the Thanks of Congress, "for the desperate courage they exhibited in sustaining for several hours, under most disadvantageous circumstances an attack by a force of the enemy superior to their own, both in numbers and appointments. Cheatham was promoted to major general, on March 10, 1862, was appointed commander of the 2nd Division, First Corps, Army of Mississippi, he led his division at the Battle of Shiloh and was wounded, although it is unclear whether this occurred on April 6 or April 7, 1862.
General Braxton Bragg became commander of the Army and Cheatham served under him at Perryville and Stones River. At the latter battle, Cheatham performed sluggishly. However, Pvt. Sam Watkins, author of Company Aytch, claims to have witnessed Cheatham leading a charge on the Wilkerson Turnpike during the battle, indicating that he performed gallantly during that part of the battle, at least. Cheatham continued as a division commander under Bragg at the Battle of Chickamauga and, following that rare Confederate victory in the West, in the battles around Chattanooga, including Missionary Ridge, where Bragg was defeated by Grant, he helped block the Union Army in the final hours of the battle. In 1864, Cheatham fought well in the Atlanta Campaign under General Joseph E. Johnston, Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood, inflicting heavy casualties on William T. Sherman's Union Army at the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, was wounded at the Battle of Ezra Church, he took over command of Hood's corps when Hood was elevated to command the army on July 18, led his corps in the battles around Atlanta.
Cheatham's most famous service came as a corps commander under Hood in the Franklin-Nashville Campaign. He was engaged in all the major battles of the campaign, receiving notoriety when the Union Army under Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield was able to slip by him and escape from the Battle of Spring Hill, which foiled Hood's plan and led to the disastrous Confederate defeat at Franklin the next day. Hood accused Cheatham of dereliction of duty and the enmity between them lasted for the rest of their lives. Hood's discovered papers, which include numerous letters based on supposition and hearsay from high level generals, fail to confirm that Cheatham refused to execute Hood's orders to block the turnpike and that he was against launching a night attack. After the collapse of Hood's army at Nashville, Cheatham joined Johnston's motley command for the Carolinas Campaign as a division commander, the highest position this small army could justify, he surrendered to General Sherman in North Carolina in April 1865.
Shortly after the war, he married in his 40s for the first time, to Anna Bell Robertson of North Carolina. She was the sister of one of his war-time aides, they had five children together: Benjamin Franklin Jr. Patton Robertson, Joseph Johnston, Medora Cheatham Hodgson, Alice, their son Benjamin Franklin Cheatham, Jr. was a major general in the U. S. Army, serving with distinction in the Spanish–American War and World War I, he served as quartermaster general from 1926 to 1930. During his tenure in the latter position, he supervised landscaping improvements to Arlington National Cemetery, including restoration of the Lee Mansion and the building of the Tomb of the Unknowns, he is buried at Arlington. Their daughter Medora married Telfair Hodgson Jr. the treasurer of Sewanee: The University of the South and a developer of Belle Meade, whose own father, Telfair Hodgson, was Sewanee's third vice chancellor. After the war, Cheatham declined an offer of Federal civil service employment from President Grant.
He was an unsuccessful candidate for the United States House of Representatives in 1872. He served for four years as the appointed superintendent of a Tennessee state pris