Cheerleading is an activity in which the participants cheer for their team as a form of encouragement. It can range from chanting slogans to intense physical activity, it can be for competition. Competitive routines range anywhere from one to three minutes, contain components of tumbling, jumps and stunting. Cheerleading originated in the United States, remains predominantly in America, with an estimated 1.5 million participants in all-star cheerleading. The global presentation of cheerleading was led by the 1997 broadcast of ESPN's International cheerleading competition, the worldwide release of the 2000 film Bring It On. Due in part to this recent exposure, there are now an estimated 100,000 participants scattered around the globe in Australia, China, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, the United Kingdom. Cheerleading began during the late 18th century with the rebellion of male students. After the American Revolutionary War, students experienced harsh treatment from teachers. In response to faculty's abuse, college students violently acted out.

The undergraduates began to riot, burn down buildings located on their college campuses, assault faculty members. As a more subtle way to gain independence, students invented and organized their own extracurricular activities outside their professors' control; this brought about American sports. In the 1860s, students from Great Britain began to cheer and chant in unison for their favorite athletes at sporting events. Soon, that gesture of support crossed overseas to America. On November 6, 1869, the United States witnessed its first intercollegiate football game, it took place between Princeton and Rutgers University, marked the day the original "Sis Boom Rah!" Cheer was shouted out by student fans. Organized cheerleading started as an all-male activity; as early as 1877, Princeton University had a "Princeton Cheer", documented in the February 22, 1877, March 12, 1880, November 4, 1881, issues of The Daily Princetonian. This cheer was yelled from the stands by students attending games, as well as by the athletes themselves.

The cheer, "Hurrah! Hurrah! Hurrah! Tiger! S-s-s-t! Boom! A-h-h-h!" remains in use with slight modifications today, where it is now referred to as the "Locomotive". Princeton class of 1882 graduate Thomas Peebles moved to Minnesota in 1884, he transplanted the idea of organized crowds cheering at football games to the University of Minnesota. The term "Cheer Leader" had been used as early as 1897, with Princeton's football officials having named three students as Cheer Leaders: Thomas and Guerin from Princeton's classes of 1897, 1898, 1899 on October 26, 1897; these students would cheer for the team at football practices, special cheering sections were designated in the stands for the games themselves for both the home and visiting teams. It was not until 1898 that University of Minnesota student Johnny Campbell directed a crowd in cheering "Rah, Rah! Ski-u-mah, Hoo-Rah! Hoo-Rah! Varsity! Varsity! Varsity, Minn-e-So-Tah!", making Campbell the first cheerleader. November 2, 1898 is the official birth date of organized cheerleading.

Soon after, the University of Minnesota organized a "yell leader" squad of six male students, who still use Campbell's original cheer today. In 1903, the first cheerleading fraternity, Gamma Sigma, was founded. In 1923, at the University of Minnesota, women were permitted to participate in cheerleading. However, it took time for other schools to follow. In the late 1920s, many school manuals and newspapers that were published still referred to cheerleaders as "chap," "fellow," and "man". Women cheerleaders were overlooked until the 1940s when collegiate men were drafted for World War II, creating the opportunity for more women to make their way onto sporting event sidelines; as noted by Kieran Scott in Ultimate Cheerleading: "Girls took over for the first time." An overview written on behalf of cheerleading in 1955 explained that in larger schools, "occasionally boys as well as girls are included,", in smaller schools, "boys can find their place in the athletic program, cheerleading is to remain a feminine occupation."

During the 1950s, female participation in cheerleading continued to grow and by the 1970s, it was girls cheering at public school games. Cheerleading could be found at every school level across the country pee wee and youth leagues began to appear. In 1975, it was estimated by a man named Randy Neil that over 500,000 students participated in American cheerleading from elementary school to the collegiate level, he approximated that ninety-five percent of cheerleaders within America were female. As of 2005, overall statistics show around 97% of all modern cheerleading participants are female, although at the collegiate level, cheerleading is co-ed with about 50% of participants being male. In 1948, Lawrence "Herkie" Herkimer, of Dallas, Texas, a former cheerleader at Southern Methodist University, formed the National Cheerleaders Association in order to hold clinics for cheerleading. In 1949, The NCA held its first clinic in Huntsville, with 52 girls in attendance. Herkimer contributed many firsts to cheerleading: the founding of the Cheerleader & Danz Team cheerleading uniform supply company, inventing the herkie jump, creating the "Spirit Stick".

By the 1960s, college cheerleaders began hosting workshops across the nation, teaching fundamental cheer skills to high-school-age g


TXI Texas Industries, was set up in 1946 and now is headquartered in Dallas, Texas. The company is focused on heavy construction materials in the southwestern United States market. There are three products: cement and concrete related products; until 2012, Texas Industries owned 82 manufacturing facilities in six states. Its Midlothian plant on the south side of Midlothian, Texas is about 27 miles south of downtown Dallas; when the plant was built it was the largest cement plant in the country. The Chaparral Steel plant is next to TXI's cement plant in Midlothian. Chaparral Steel was spun off from TXI and purchased by Gerdau in 2007 for $4.2 billion. At that time, Chaparral Steel was the second-largest producer of structural steel beams in North America and a major producer of steel bar product. In 1994, with an annual revenue of $614M, the company ranked 500th on the Fortune 500 list by annual revenue. In January 2014, Martin Marietta Materials, a rival provider of construction materials, agreed to buy TXI for $2.06 billion in stock.

The combined company will operate under the name Martin Marietta with 7,000 employees and headquarters in Raleigh, N. C. Martin Marietta’s current home; as of July 2, 2014, TXI became a wholly owned subsidiary of Martin Marietta Materials, Inc

Detective Conan: Full Score of Fear

Detective Conan: Full Score of Fear is the twelfth movie installment of the Detective Conan manga and anime franchise. The initial screening of the movie was scheduled on April 19, 2008. An OVA, which takes place three years earlier, was released specially for the movie; the OVA was released go Shogakukan on DVD as Magic File # 2. The movie opens on the stage of a concert hall, she sends a message on her cellphone, there is an explosion. Elsewhere, an unknown person with the classic black silhouette of a man reads the news on the computer and comments on how he is getting closer to his plan of a Silent Night. On the grounds outside the hall, Conan Edogawa talks to Ran Mori on the phone as Shinichi Kudo, he investigates and sees an old man picking up a piano key from the piano destroyed in the explosion, putting it in his pocket. The man leaves in a car. Ran invites him to go to a rehearsal with her at the concert hall, opening soon, he declines and tells her she's meddling too much which causes her to angrily reply he will never be like Sherlock Holmes because he's tone deaf.

Ran angrily hangs up. At the rehearsal; the kids ask Reiko Akiba to help their class choir to sing their school anthem. She agreed, but asks them to leave possibly to allow Shion, shy, perform without fear; the next day Ran plays the piano. Akiba comments on their performance, he is revealed to have a perfect pitch. Genta suffers in agonizing pain. At the hospital, the doctor says that Genta's throat is inflamed by chemicals and he will not be able to speak for about four days; the detective boys and Akiba accompany Genta home. On the way home they are chased by a truck, so at one of the turns Akiba takes a different route to get the truck away from them, she trips and is about to be run over until a taxi comes and the car turns. The culprit escapes. Two more murders occur. One explosion kills Soko Kawabe, with the foot joint of a flute left on the scene; the other murder occurs when the paraglider of the victim is inflicted with fine cuts to cause it to plunge from mid-air. In the victim's car is the headjoint of the flute.

These 2 victims, together with the 2 dead victims from the earlier explosion belonged to a group called the quarter quintet. Conan, indebted to Akiba for a reason he has forgotten, follows her to the forest as she is known to relax there on the day before the concert, she is attacked by a gunner. They escape, she does not report this to the police to avoid missing the concert. Mori deduces that the murderer is Genya Domoto as a year ago the quarter quintet badly performed the 9th symphony of Beethoven whilst drunk. Mori assumes Domoto was a Beethoven fanatic and seeing one of his songs defiled by drunks, murdered them. An evidence he points out was Genya's hair. Genya reveals he got his hair for his mother and his hair is natural. At Domoto Hall, the concert is being prepared. Sonoko says that a balcony is reserved with 10 seats, one for Shinichi. After rehearsal Conan and Akiba look for Kazuki to tell him a key for the organ is a little flat. Near a lake and Conan are knocked out by the assailant with a wrench.

They hear an explosion coming from the Doumoto Hall. Since the Concert Hall is built to be soundproof and stable, the explosions outside could not be heard inside; the explosions are destroying the pillars outside the hall to prevent entry or exit. Conan sees a phone on top of a building, he explains. He knocks the phone down with the ball and Akiba and Conan exert the right chords to dial 110, calling the cops. Conan enters the balcony of the assailant. Conan reveals the reason why Fuwa killed the first four people was to avenge his son, who died indirectly because of them, as well as his pride as a professional piano tuner being thrown away when Kazuki Domoto quit playing the piano. Without his son and pride of being a tuner for a professional pianist, his life was nothing and he wanted to bring silence to the organ which haunted him. Just the 24th irregular note was played but the final explosion did not occur. Conan reveals that he had removed the sensor from the organ before he came to Fuwa.

Fuwa congratulates him and prepares to press the detonator but it was shot out of his hand by Officer Sato. Fuwa takes out a gun and prepares to commit suicide until Kazuki arrives and reveals to him the reason he quit as a pianist was to keep Fuwa's pride; because of Fuwa's old age, his hearing was starting to deteriorate and so was his tuning, so to keep his pride Kazuki quit being a pianist so he did not have to hurt his friend. Fuwa comes to realize surrenders peacefully. While outside the concert, Ran hears Amazing Grace played on a violin, she e