Uncle Vanya is a play by the Russian playwright Anton Chekhov. It was first published in 1897 and received its Moscow première in 1899 in a production by the Moscow Art Theatre, the play portrays the visit of an elderly professor and his glamorous, much younger second wife, Yelena, to the rural estate that supports their urban lifestyle. Sonya, the daughter by his first wife, who has worked with Vanya to keep the estate going. Uncle Vanya is unique among Chekhovs major plays because it is essentially a reworking of his own play published a decade earlier. Rayfield cites recent scholarship suggesting Chekhov revised The Wood Demon during his trip to the island of Sakhalin, a prison colony in Eastern Russia, in 1891. Aleksandr Vladimirovich Serebryakov, a university professor, who has lived for years in the city on the earnings of his late first wifes rural estate. Helena Andreyevna Serebryakov, Professor Serebryakovs young and beautiful second wife, sofia Alexandrovna Serebryakov, Professor Serebryakovs daughter from his first marriage.
She is of an age, but is considered plain. Maria Vasilyevna Voynitsky, the widow of a councilor and mother of Vanya. Ivan Petrovich Voynitsky, Marias son and Sonyas uncle, the character of the play. Mikhail Lvovich Astrov, a middle aged country doctor, ilya Ilych Telegin, an impoverished landowner, who now lives on the estate as a dependent of the family. A Workman A garden in Serebryakovs country estate and Marina discuss how old Astrov has grown, and how he feels bored with his life as a country doctor. Vanya enters, and complains about how all order has been disrupted since the professor and his wife, Yelena, as they’re talking, Yelena and Telegin return from a walk. Out of the professors earshot, Vanya calls him an old dried mackerel, criticizing him for his pomposity. Vanya’s mother, Maria Vasilyevna, who idolizes Serebryakov, objects to her son’s derogatory comments, Vanya praises the professor’s wife, for her beauty, arguing that faithfulness to an old man like Serebryakov is an immoral waste of vitality.
Astrov is forced to depart to attend a patient, but not before delivering a speech on the preservation of the forests, act I closes with Vanya declaring his love for an exasperated Yelena. The dining room, several days later, before going to bed, Serebryakov complains of being in pain and of old age. Astrov arrives, having sent for by Sonya, but the professor refuses to see him
Anton Pavlovich Chekhov was a Russian playwright and short story writer, who is considered to be among the greatest writers of short fiction in history. His career as a playwright produced four classics and his best short stories are held in esteem by writers. Along with Henrik Ibsen and August Strindberg, Chekhov is often referred to as one of the three figures in the birth of early modernism in the theatre. Chekhov practiced as a medical doctor throughout most of his career, Medicine is my lawful wife, he once said. These four works present a challenge to the ensemble as well as to audiences, because in place of conventional action Chekhov offers a theatre of mood. Chekhov had at first written stories only for financial gain, but as his artistic ambition grew and he made no apologies for the difficulties this posed to readers, insisting that the role of an artist was to ask questions, not to answer them. Anton Chekhov was born on the feast day of St. Anthony the Great 29 January 1860, the third of six surviving children, in Taganrog, a port on the Sea of Azov in southern Russia.
His father, Pavel Yegorovich Chekhov, the son of a serf and his Ukrainian wife, were from the village Vilkhovatka near Kobeliaky. A director of the choir, devout Orthodox Christian, and physically abusive father. Chekhovs mother, was an excellent storyteller who entertained the children with tales of her travels with her cloth-merchant father all over Russia and our talents we got from our father, Chekhov remembered, but our soul from our mother. Despotism and lying so mutilated our childhood that its sickening and frightening to think about it, remember the horror and disgust we felt in those times when Father threw a tantrum at dinner over too much salt in the soup and called Mother a fool. Chekhov attended the Greek School in Taganrog and the Taganrog Gymnasium and he sang at the Greek Orthodox monastery in Taganrog and in his fathers choirs. In 1876, Chekhovs father was declared bankrupt after overextending his finances building a new house, to avoid debtors prison he fled to Moscow, where his two eldest sons and Nikolay, were attending university.
The family lived in poverty in Moscow, Chekhovs mother physically and emotionally broken by the experience, Chekhov was left behind to sell the familys possessions and finish his education. Chekhov remained in Taganrog for three years, boarding with a man called Selivanov who, like Lopakhin in The Cherry Orchard, had bailed out the family for the price of their house. Chekhov had to pay for his own education, which he managed by private tutoring and selling goldfinches and he sent every ruble he could spare to his family in Moscow, along with humorous letters to cheer them up. Chekhov enjoyed a series of affairs, one with the wife of a teacher. In 1879, Chekhov completed his schooling and joined his family in Moscow, Chekhov now assumed responsibility for the whole family
Occams razor is a problem-solving principle attributed to William of Ockham, who was an English Franciscan friar, scholastic philosopher and theologian. The principle can be interpreted as stating Among competing hypotheses, the one with the fewest assumptions should be selected, in science, Occams razor is used as a heuristic technique to guide scientists in the development of theoretical models, rather than as an arbiter between published models. The term Occams razor did not appear until a few centuries after William of Ockhams death in 1347, libert Froidmont, in his On Christian Philosophy of the Soul, takes credit for the phrase, speaking of novacula occami. Ockham did not invent this principle, but the association with him may be due to the frequency. The origins of what has come to be known as Occams razor are traceable to the works of philosophers such as John Duns Scotus, Robert Grosseteste, Maimonides. Aristotle writes in his Posterior Analytics, We may assume the superiority ceteris paribus of the demonstration which derives from fewer postulates or hypotheses, ptolemy stated, We consider it a good principle to explain the phenomena by the simplest hypothesis possible.
Phrases such as It is vain to do more what can be done with fewer. Robert Grosseteste, in Commentary on the Posterior Analytics Books, That is better, similarly in natural science, in moral science, and in metaphysics the best is that which needs no premises and the better that which needs the fewer, other circumstances being equal. The Summa Theologica of Thomas Aquinas states that it is superfluous to suppose that what can be accounted for by a few principles has been produced by many. Aquinas uses this principle to construct an objection to Gods existence, an objection that he in turn answers and refutes generally, Aquinas acknowledges the principle that today is known as Occams razor, but prefers causal explanations to other simple explanations. The Indian Hindu philosopher Madhva in verse 400 of his Vishnu-Tattva-Nirnaya says, William of Ockham was an English Franciscan friar and theologian, an influential medieval philosopher and a nominalist. His popular fame as a great logician rests chiefly on the maxim attributed to him, the term razor refers to distinguishing between two hypotheses either by shaving away unnecessary assumptions or cutting apart two similar conclusions.
This principle is sometimes phrased as pluralitas non est ponenda sine necessitate, in his Summa Totius Logicae, i. 12, Ockham cites the principle of economy, Frustra fit per plura quod potest fieri per pauciora, to quote Isaac Newton, We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances. Therefore, to the natural effects we must, as far as possible. Bertrand Russell offers a version of Occams razor, Whenever possible. The only assumption is that the environment follows some unknown but computable probability distribution and this theory is a mathematical formalization of Occams razor. Another technical approach to Occams razor is ontological parsimony, the widespread laymans formulation that the simplest explanation is usually the correct one appears to have been derived from Occams razor
The Cherry Orchard
The Cherry Orchard is the last play by Russian playwright Anton Chekhov. It opened at the Moscow Art Theatre on 17 January 1904 in a directed by Konstantin Stanislavski. Chekhov described the play as a comedy, with elements of farce. Since its first production, directors have contended with its dual nature and it is often identified as one of the three or four outstanding plays by Chekhov, along with The Seagull, Three Sisters, and Uncle Vanya. The play concerns an aristocratic Russian landowner who returns to her family estate just before it is auctioned to pay the mortgage. Unresponsive to offers to save the estate, she allows its sale to the son of a former serf, the story presents themes of cultural futility – both the futile attempts of the aristocracy to maintain its status and of the bourgeoisie to find meaning in its newfound materialism. Widely regarded as a classic of 20th-century theatre, the play has been translated and adapted into many languages, major theatre directors have staged it, including Charles Laughton, Peter Brook, Andrei Șerban, Jean-Louis Barrault, Tyrone Guthrie, Katie Mitchell, Mehmet Ergen and Giorgio Strehler.
It has influenced other playwrights, including Eugene ONeill, George Bernard Shaw, David Mamet. The spelling of character names depends on the transliteration used, Madame Lyubov Andreievna Ranevskaya – a landowner. Ranyevskaya is the linchpin around which the other characters revolve, a commanding and popular figure, she represents the pride of the old aristocracy, now fallen on hard times. Her confused feelings of love for her old home and sorrow at the scene of her sons death, most of her humor comes from her inability to understand financial or business matters. Peter Trofimov – a student and Anyas love interest, Trofimov is depicted as an eternal student. An impassioned left-wing political commentator, he represents the rising tide of reformist political opinion in Russia, Boris Borisovich Simeonov-Pishchik – a landowner and another old aristocrat whose estate has hit hard times. He is constantly discussing new business ventures that may save him and his character embodies the irony of the aristocracys position, despite his financial peril, he spends the play relaxing and socializing with the Gayevs.
Anya – Lyubovs daughter, aged 17 and she journeys to Paris to rescue her mother from her desperate situation. She is a virtuous and strong young woman and she is in love with Trofimov and listens to his revolutionary ideas, although she may or may not be taking them in. Varya – Lyubovs adopted daughter, aged 24, Varya is the one who manages the estate and keeps everything in order. She is the rock holds the family together
The Bear (play)
The Bear, A Joke in One Act, or The Boor, is a one-act comedic play written by Russian author Anton Chekhov. The play was dedicated to Nikolai Nikolaevich Solovtsov, Chekhovs boyhood friend. Since her husband died, Popova has locked herself in the house in mourning and her footman, begins the play by begging Popova to stop mourning and step outside the estate. She ignores him, saying that she made a promise to her husband to remain faithful to his memory. Their conversation is interrupted when Grigory Stepanovitch Smirnov arrives and wishes to see Elena Popova, although Luka tells Grigory Smirnov to leave, he ignores Lukas requests and enters the dining room. Popova agrees to meet him and Smirnov explains to her that her late husband owes him a sum of 1,200 roubles. Because he is a landowner, Smirnov explains that he needs the sum paid to him on that day to pay for the mortgage of a house due the next day. Popova explains that she has no money with her and that she will settle her husbands debts when her steward arrives the day after tomorrow, Smirnov gets angered by her refusal to pay him back and mocks the supposed mourning of her husband, Well, there.
Must I pay the interest, or mustnt I, I ask you, Must I pay, or must I not. Suppose your husband is dead, and youve got a state of mind, and your stewards gone away somewhere, devil take him, what do you want me to do. Do you think I can fly away from my creditors in a balloon, or do you expect me to go and run my head into a brick wall. Smirnov decides that he not leave the estate until his debts are paid off. He and Popova get into another argument when he starts yelling at the footman to bring him kvass or any alcoholic beverage, the argument turns into a debate about true love according to the different genders. Smirnov argues that women are incapable of loving anybody except a lapdog, to which Popova argues that she loved her husband although he cheated on her. The argument deteriorates into another shouting match about paying back the debt, during this argument Popova insults Smirnov by calling him a bear, amongst other names, Youre a boor. Smirnov, calls for a duel, not caring that Popova is a woman, Popova, in turn, enthusiastically agrees and goes off to get a pair of guns her husband owned.
Luka overhears their conversation, gets frightened for his mistress, Smirnov says to himself how impressed he is by Popovas audacity and slowly realizes that he has actually fallen in love with her and her dimpled cheeks. When Popova returns with the pistols, Smirnov makes his love confession, Popova oscillates between refusing him and ordering him to leave and telling him to stay
Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance. The term comes from a Greek word meaning action, which is derived from I do, the two masks associated with drama represent the traditional generic division between comedy and tragedy. They are symbols of the ancient Greek Muses, Thalia was the Muse of comedy, while Melpomene was the Muse of tragedy. Considered as a genre of poetry in general, the mode has been contrasted with the epic. The use of drama in a narrow sense to designate a specific type of play dates from the modern era. Drama in this sense refers to a play that is neither a comedy nor a tragedy—for example and it is this narrower sense that the film and television industries, along with film studies, adopted to describe drama as a genre within their respective media. Radio drama has been used in both senses—originally transmitted in a performance, it has been used to describe the more high-brow. The enactment of drama in theatre, performed by actors on a stage before an audience, presupposes collaborative modes of production, the structure of dramatic texts, unlike other forms of literature, is directly influenced by this collaborative production and collective reception.
The early modern tragedy Hamlet by Shakespeare and the classical Athenian tragedy Oedipus Rex by Sophocles are among the masterpieces of the art of drama, a modern example is Long Days Journey into Night by Eugene O’Neill. Closet drama describes a form that is intended to be read, in improvisation, the drama does not pre-exist the moment of performance, performers devise a dramatic script spontaneously before an audience. Western drama originates in classical Greece, the theatrical culture of the city-state of Athens produced three genres of drama, tragedy and the satyr play. Their origins remain obscure, though by the 5th century BCE they were institutionalised in competitions held as part of celebrating the god Dionysus. The competition for tragedies may have begun as early as 534 BCE, tragic dramatists were required to present a tetralogy of plays, which usually consisted of three tragedies and one satyr play. Comedy was officially recognized with a prize in the competition from 487 to 486 BCE, five comic dramatists competed at the City Dionysia, each offering a single comedy.
Ancient Greek comedy is traditionally divided between old comedy, middle comedy and new comedy, following the expansion of the Roman Republic into several Greek territories between 270–240 BCE, Rome encountered Greek drama. While Greek drama continued to be performed throughout the Roman period, from the beginning of the empire, interest in full-length drama declined in favour of a broader variety of theatrical entertainments. The first important works of Roman literature were the tragedies and comedies that Livius Andronicus wrote from 240 BCE, five years later, Gnaeus Naevius began to write drama. No plays from either writer have survived, by the beginning of the 2nd century BCE, drama was firmly established in Rome and a guild of writers had been formed