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Chemical Weapons Convention

The Chemical Weapons Convention is an arms control treaty that outlaws the production and use of chemical weapons and their precursors. The full name of the treaty is the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production and Use of Chemical Weapons and on their Destruction and it is administered by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, an intergovernmental organization based in The Hague, The Netherlands; the treaty entered into force on 29 April 1997. The Chemical Weapons Convention prohibits the large-scale use, production and transfer of chemical weapons. Limited production for research, pharmaceutical or protective purposes is still permitted; the main obligation of member states under the convention is to effect this prohibition, as well as the destruction of all current chemical weapons. All destruction activities must take place under OPCW verification; as of May 2018, 193 states accept its obligations. Israel has signed but not ratified the agreement, while three other UN member states have neither signed nor acceded to the treaty.

Most the State of Palestine deposited its instrument of accession to the CWC on 17 May 2018. In September 2013 Syria acceded to the convention as part of an agreement for the destruction of Syria's chemical weapons; as of November 2018, 96.62% of the world's declared chemical weapons stockpiles had been destroyed. The convention has provisions for systematic evaluation of chemical production facilities, as well as for investigations of allegations of use and production of chemical weapons based on intelligence of other state parties; some chemicals which have been used extensively in warfare but have numerous large-scale industrial uses such as phosgene are regulated, certain notable exceptions exist. Chlorine gas is toxic, but being a pure element and widely used for peaceful purposes, is not listed as a chemical weapon. Certain state-powers continue to manufacture and implement such chemicals in combat munitions. Although these chemicals are not listed as controlled by the CWC, the use of any toxic chemical as a weapon is in-and-of itself forbidden by the treaty.

Other chemicals, such as white phosphorus, are toxic but are legal under the CWC when they are used by military forces for reasons other than their toxicity. Intergovernmental consideration of a chemical and biological weapons ban was initiated in 1968 within the 18-nation Disarmament Committee, after numerous changes of name and composition, became the Conference on Disarmament in 1984. On 3 September 1992 the Conference on Disarmament submitted to the U. N. General Assembly its annual report; the General Assembly approved the Convention on 30 November 1992, the U. N. Secretary-General opened the Convention for signature in Paris on 13 January 1993; the CWC remained open for signature until its entry into force on 29 April 1997, 180 days after the deposit of the 65th instrument of ratification. The convention augments the Geneva Protocol of 1925 for chemical weapons and includes extensive verification measures such as on-site inspections, it does not, cover biological weapons. The convention is administered by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, which acts as the legal platform for specification of the CWC provisions.

The Conference of the States Parties is mandated to change the CWC and pass regulations on implementation of CWC requirements. The Technical Secretariat of the organization conducts inspections to ensure compliance of member states; these inspections target destruction facilities, chemical weapons production facilities which have been dismantled or converted for civil use, as well as inspections of the chemical industry. The Secretariat may furthermore conduct "investigations of alleged use" of chemical weapons and give assistance after use of chemical weapons; the 2013 Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to the organization because it had, with the Chemical Weapons Convention, "defined the use of chemical weapons as a taboo under international law" according to Thorbjørn Jagland, Chairman of the Norwegian Nobel Committee. Prohibition of production and use of chemical weapons Destruction of chemical weapons production facilities Destruction of all chemical weapons Assistance between State Parties and the OPCW in the case of use of chemical weapons An OPCW inspection regime for the production of chemicals which might be converted to chemical weapons International cooperation in the peaceful use of chemistry in relevant areas The convention distinguishes three classes of controlled substance, chemicals that can either be used as weapons themselves or used in the manufacture of weapons.

The classification is based on the quantities of the substance produced commercially for legitimate purposes. Each class is split into Part A, which are chemicals that can be used directly as weapons, Part B, which are chemicals useful in the manufacture of chemical weapons. Separate from the precursors, the convention defines toxic chemicals as "ny chemical which through its chemical action on life processes can cause death, temporary incapacitation or permanent harm to humans or animals; this includes all such chemicals, regardless of their origin or of their method of production, regardless of whether they are produ

Fat Girl

À ma sœur! is a 2001 French drama film written and directed by Catherine Breillat, starring Anaïs Reboux and Roxane Mesquida. It was released in some English-speaking countries under the alternative titles For My Sister, Fat Girl and Story of a Whale. Anaïs and her older sister, are vacationing with their parents on the French seaside. Bored of staying in their vacation home, the two walk into town while discussing relationships and their virginity. Although the attractive Elena has been promiscuous, she is saving herself for someone who loves her, while heavy-set, overweight Anaïs thinks it is better to lose one's virginity to a "nobody" just to get it over with, they meet Fernando, at a cafe. While Elena flirts with him, Anaïs orders a banana split. Fernando sneaks into the girls' bedroom for a liaison with Elena. Anaïs watches their entire interaction. After a conversation about Fernando's previous relationships with other women, Elena consents to have sex with him, but backs out at the last minute.

Frustrated, Fernando pressures her through various means, including threatening to sleep with some other woman just to alleviate himself. Elena is coerced into anal sex as a "proof of love", although it is a painful experience for her. In the morning, Fernando asks for oral sex from Elena before he leaves, but Anaïs has had enough and tells them to let her sleep in peace; the next day, the girls and Fernando go to the beach. Anaïs sits in the ocean in her new dress and sings to herself while Elena and Fernando go off alone together; as the girls are reminiscing about their childhood together back at the house, Elena reveals that Fernando has given her a mauve opal engagement ring while at the beach. That night, Elena gives up her virginity to Fernando as Anaïs silently cries on the other side of the room. Fernando's mother arrives at the house that Anaïs and her family are renting, asking for the girl's mother to return the mauve opal ring, their mother discovers Elena's and Fernando's relationship, angrily decides to drive back to Paris.

On the way back, she becomes tired and decides to sleep at a rest stop, where an axe murderer arrives, killing Elena with an axe and strangling her mother. He rapes her; when the police arrive the next morning, Anaïs insists. Anaïs Reboux as Anaïs Pingot Roxane Mesquida as Elena Pingot Libero De Rienzo as Fernando Arsinée Khanjian as Mrs. Pingot Romain Goupil as François Pingot Laura Betti as Fernando's mother Albert Goldberg as The Killer Breillat's experience during principal photography inspired her 2002 film Sex Is Comedy, which revolves around shooting a sex scene from the film. Mesquida reprised the scene for the film; the film received positive reviews from critics. Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports an approval rating of 73% based on 86 reviews, with an average rating of 6.4/10. The site's consensus reads: "The controversial Fat Girl is an unflinchingly harsh but powerful look at female adolescence." On Metacritic, the film has a weighted average score of 77 out of 100, based on 24 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".

Fat Girl was banned in Ontario by the Ontario Film Review Board in late 2001 due to objections regarding the frank representation of teenage sexuality. American film critic Wheeler Winston Dixon noted that the film was not only banned in Ontario, but was "severely restricted to adult audiences throughout the world". Dixon described the film as a "harrowing tale of a 13-year-old girl's coming of age as her 15-year-old sister embarks on a series of sexual relationships", featuring "explicit sexual scenes" in a "brutal narrative structure." The ban in Canada was overturned and the film played in several theatres in 2003. In 2001, the film won the Manfred Salzgeber Award at the 51st Berlin International Film Festival and the France Culture Award at the 2001 Cannes Film Festival. Fat Girl on IMDb Fat Girl at AllMovie Fat Girl at Rotten Tomatoes Fat Girl: Sisters and Sitcom an essay by Ginette Vincendeau at the Criterion Collection Fat Girl: About the Title an essay by Catherine Breillat at the Criterion Collection

Nick Leckey

Nicholas Nathan Leckey is a former American football center who played in the National Football League. He was drafted by the Arizona Cardinals in the sixth round of the 2004 NFL Draft, he played college football at Kansas State University. Leckey played for St. Louis Rams and the Arizona Cardinals. Leckey attended Grapevine High School in Grapevine and was a letterwinner in football and wrestling. In football, he was a three-year starter. In wrestling, he won the State Championship as a senior. Leckey graduated from Grapevine High School in 2000. Leckey played college football at Kansas State University where during his career, he did not allow a sack, he majored in hotel/restaurant management. He began his career at guard before switching to center, he started 41 consecutive games. He earned first-team All-America honors from ESPN and Sports Illustrated as a senior. Earned consensus All-Big 12 first-team choice and named Kansas State's Offensive Lineman of the Year, he was a finalist for the Rimington Trophy, which went to Jake Grove of Virginia Tech.

Leckey was selected by the Arizona Cardinals in the sixth round in the 2004 NFL Draft. He made his NFL debut at the St. Louis Rams on September 12. During his time at the Cardinals, he played in 44 games making 20 starts. Leckey was signed by the St. Louis Rams as a free agent on June 6, 2007, he played in three games for the team in 2007 and started all 10 games in which he appeared in 2008. Leckey signed a one-year contract with the New Orleans Saints as an unrestricted free agent on March 17, 2009, he was waived on September 26 to make room for Chase Daniel, signed off the practice squad. He was re-signed by the Saints on September 29, he played in eight regular season games and all three postseason games in 2009 on special teams with some work at center. He was re-signed on March 7, 2010, he was released on September 4, 2010. Leckey is married to Erin Kathleen Leckey. After retiring from football, he returned to Kansas State and received his degree in hotel and restaurant management in December 2012.

Arizona Cardinals bio Kansas State Wildcats bio New Orleans Saints bio St. Louis Rams bio

Princess Charlotte of Hesse-Darmstadt

Charlotte Wilhelmine Christiane Marie of Hesse-Darmstadt, was by marriage Duchess of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. Charlotte was a daughter of Prince George William of Hesse-Darmstadt from his marriage to Countess Maria Louise Albertine of Leiningen-Falkenburg-Dagsburg, daughter of Count Christian Karl Reinhard of Leiningen-Dachsburg-Falkenburg-Heidesheim; the princess was first engaged with the hereditary prince Peter Frederick William of Oldenburg, but the engagement was dissolved again as a result of the onset of Peter's mental illness. Charlotte married Charles of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, on 28 September 1784 in Darmstadt, he was married to Charlotte's older sister Friederike, who had died in childbirth. She thus became stepmother for her sister's five surviving children - nephews; the couple lived in Hanover, where Charles served as Governor-General for his brother-in-law, King George. Charlotte died after the birth of her only child, a year after their marriage. Charles resigned from his post in Hanover and moved to Charlotte's mother in Darmstadt, who took care of his children.

Her only child from her marriage to Charles was: Charles and President of the Prussian State Council Carl Friedrich Günther: Anecdotes, character descriptions and memoirs from the Hessian area... p. 172 Political Journal, p. 1274 Luise Schorn-Schütte: Queen Louise, p. 12

Network arch bridge

A network arch bridge is a tied arch bridge with inclined hangers that cross each other at least twice. The inclined hangers with multiple intersections make the network arch bridge act like a truss, with only axial compressible and tensile forces. Bending moments and shear forces are small in network arches; the hanger arrangement is what separates network tied arch structures from other types of tied arches, such as those with vertical hangers. It is defined by the number of hanger inclination and hanger distance. A radial hanger arrangement provides an efficient structure, as shown by Benjamin Brunn and Frank Schanack in 2003. In the radial hanger arrangement the distances between the upper hanger nodes and the angle between hangers and arch remain constant. In order to avoid too long hangers this angle may be increased towards the bridge ends; the network arch idea was developed by the Norwegian engineer Per Tveit in the end of the 1950s. Because both the arch and the tie are subject to axial forces, their cross sections can be small.

Transverse bending in the deck is bigger than bending in longitudinal direction. Therefore, a concrete deck that spans between the arches is a good solution for bridges with arch distances that are not too large; the concrete deck has longitudinal prestressing tendons in the arch planes. In Japan, tied arch bridges with crossing hangers are wrongly called Nielsen-Lohse bridge. Engineer Octavius F. Nielsen applied for a patent on tied arches with inclined hanger rods in 1926; this bridge type was built about 60 times in Sweden. None of these bridges had crossed hangers. A drawback to the Nielsen type is that if there are dynamic loads on the bridge, the tension on some of these hangers may be reduced putting the hanger into compression; the network arch type, with multiple crossings, i.e. overlap in the horizontal axis, was developed by Per Tveit to avoid this. Lohse bridges have a tie conversely curved to the arch; the bridge deck is supported by a third structural element hanging underneath. They are named for the German engineer Hermann Lohse.

Thus, it can be recognised that the name Nielse-Lohse is not correct for tied arches with inclined hanger crossing each other multiple times. Furthermore, the archetype of the Japanese network arches is the Fehmarnsund Bridge, which itself is based on the network arch idea; the correct name of tied arch bridges with inclined hangers that cross each other at most once is Nielsen bridge. Tied arches with hangers with multiple intersections are network arch bridges; this strict rule is justified. Bolstadstraumen Bridge, Norway Fehmarnsund Bridge, Germany Lake Champlain Bridge USA, 2011 Providence River Bridge, USA Steinkjer Bridge, Norway Blennerhassett Island Bridge, USA George C. King Bridge, Canada Troja Bridge, Czech Republic Bugrinsky Bridge, Siberia Ordsall Chord, United Kingdom. Http://www.network-arch.com http://home.uia.no/pert/ http://www.pineapplestudios.com/IWAYSite

Seminaries of the Lutheran Church – Missouri Synod

The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod operates two seminaries for the formation of its pastors: Concordia Seminary in St. Louis and Concordia Theological Seminary in Fort Wayne, Indiana. Both seminaries grant the Master of Divinity degree, ordinarily required to be ordained in the LCMS, they offer a "colloquy" program for pastors who were ordained in other church bodies and want to join the LCMS. Advanced degrees such as Doctor of Philosophy and Master of Sacred Theology are offered; the seminaries operate independently of the Concordia University System, which comprises ten undergraduate institutions of the LCMS. Concordia Seminary, St. Louis Concordia Theological Seminary, Fort Wayne