Chemical nomenclature

A chemical nomenclature is a set of rules to generate systematic names for chemical compounds. The nomenclature used most worldwide is the one created and developed by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry; the IUPAC's rules for naming organic and inorganic compounds are contained in two publications, known as the Blue Book and the Red Book, respectively. A third publication, known as the Green Book, describes the recommendations for the use of symbols for physical quantities, while a fourth, the Gold Book, contains the definitions of many technical terms used in chemistry. Similar compendia exist for biochemistry, analytical chemistry, macromolecular chemistry and clinical chemistry; these "color books" are supplemented by shorter recommendations for specific circumstances that are published periodically in the journal Pure and Applied Chemistry. The primary function of chemical nomenclature is to ensure that a spoken or written chemical name leaves no ambiguity concerning which chemical compound the name refers to: each chemical name should refer to a single substance.

A less important aim is to ensure that each substance has a single name, although a limited number of alternative names is acceptable in some cases. Preferably, the name conveys some information about the structure or chemistry of a compound; the American Chemical Society's CAS numbers form an extreme example of names that do not perform this function: each CAS number refers to a single compound but none contain information about the structure. The form of nomenclature used depends on the audience; as such, no single correct form exists, but rather there are different forms that are more or less appropriate in different circumstances. A common name will suffice to identify a chemical compound in a particular set of circumstances. To be more applicable, the name should indicate at least the chemical formula. To be more specific still, the three-dimensional arrangement of the atoms may need to be specified. In a few specific circumstances, it becomes necessary to ensure that each compound has a unique name: This requires the addition of extra rules to the standard IUPAC system, at the expense of having names that are longer and less familiar to most readers.

Another system gaining popularity is the International Chemical Identifier – which reflects a substance's structure and composition, making it more general than a CAS number. The IUPAC system is criticized for the above failures when they become relevant. While IUPAC has a human-readable advantage over CAS numbering, it would be difficult to claim that the IUPAC names for some larger, relevant molecules are human-readable, so most researchers use the informal names, it is understood that the aims of lexicography versus chemical nomenclature vary and are to an extent at odds. Dictionaries of words, whether in traditional print or on the web and report the meanings of words as their uses appear and change over time. For web dictionaries with limited or no formal editorial process, definitions —in this case, definitions of chemical names and terms— can change without concern for the formal or historical meanings. Chemical nomenclature on the other hand is more restrictive: It aims to standardize communication and practice so that, when a chemical term is used it has a fixed meaning relating to chemical structure, thereby giving insights into chemical properties and derived molecular functions.

These differing aims can have profound effects on valid understanding in chemistry with regard to chemical classes that have achieved mass attention. Examples of the impact of these can be seen in considering the examples of: resveratrol, a single compound defined by this common name, but that can be confused, with its cis-isomer, omega-3 fatty acids, a reasonably well-defined chemical structure class, broad as a result of its formal definition, polyphenols, a broad structural class with a formal definition, but where mistranslations and general misuse of the term relative to the formal definition has led to serious usage errors, so ambiguity in the relationship between structure and activity; the rapid pace at which meanings can change on the web, in particular for chemical compounds with perceived health benefits, rightly or wrongly ascribed, complicates the matter of maintaining a sound nomenclature. A further discussion with specific examples appears in the article on polyphenols, where differing definitions are in use, there are various, further web definitions and common uses of the word at odds with any accepted chemical nomenclature connecting polyphenol structure and bioactivity).

The nomenclature of alchemy is rich in description, but does not meet the aims outlined above. Opinions differ about whether this was deliberate on the part of the early practitioners of alchemy or whether it was a consequence of the particular theoretical framework in which they worked. While both explanations are valid to some extent, it is remarkable that the first "modern" system of chemical nomenclature appeared at the same time as the distinction between elements and compounds, in the late eighteenth century; the French chemist Louis-Bernard Guyton de Morveau published his recommendations in 1

Dead by Daylight

Dead by Daylight is an asymmetric survival horror developed by Behaviour Interactive. Dead by Daylight was released for Microsoft Windows in June 2016, released on PlayStation 4 and Xbox One in June 2017, released on Nintendo Switch on September 24, 2019, a mobile port is scheduled for release on iOS and Android in 2020; the game is played as a one versus four online multiplayer where one player takes on the role of the savage killer, the other four players play as survivors, trying to escape the killer and avoid being caught and sacrificed to the Entity. Alongside a handful of original characters, the game includes downloadable characters from several horror franchises such as Halloween, Left 4 Dead, The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, A Nightmare on Elm Street, Evil Dead and Stranger Things; as of January 1, 2018, Behaviour Interactive became the game's publisher, acquiring publishing rights from Starbreeze Studios. A group of up to four survivors must elude one killer; the survivors' perspectives are third-person.

The survivors can only survive by running away and evading them. They must use obstacles in the form of wooden pallets and items that they either find inside chests or bring before the match starts to run from the killer for as long as they can. In order to escape, survivors must repair 5 generators scattered across the entire map to power the exit gates they must open the exit gates and leave the area themselves or find a hatch to jump into. Players assume the role of one of the 21 survivors: Dwight Fairfield, Meg Thomas, Claudette Morel, Jake Park, Nea Karlsson, Laurie Strode, William'Bill' Overbeck, Ace Visconti, Feng Min, David King, Quentin Smith, David Tapp, Kate Denson, Adam Francis, Jeffrey'Jeff' Johansen, Jane Romero, Ashley'Ash' Williams, Steve Harrington, Nancy Wheeler, Yui Kimura, or Zarina Kassir; the goal of the survivors is to escape the enclosed area, which can be done in one of two ways: either by repairing five disabled generators to provide power to the switch boxes of two exit gates leading out of the trial grounds.

The hatch opens only. The survivors will need a key to open the hatch. If the killer closes the hatch before the survivor reaches it the Endgame Collapse will initiate, giving the survivor only two minutes to open one of the exit gates before the timer runs out or if they are caught by the killer; the survivors' movement options consist of sprinting, crouch-walking, or crawling. They must elude the killer by losing their line of sight in a chase or by hiding from them. Alternatively, players assume the role of one of the 19 killers: the Trapper, the Wraith, the Hillbilly, the Nurse, the Shape, the Hag, the Doctor, the Huntress, the Cannibal, the Nightmare, the Pig, the Clown, the Spirit, the Legion, the Plague, the Ghost Face, the Demogorgon, the Oni, or the Deathslinger. Most killers only have one form of locomotion, moving at a fast pace, moderately faster than the pace of a sprinting survivor, the average killer speed being 4.6 m/s compared to survivors' 4 m/s. When hunting the survivors, the killer must capture them by either striking them twice with their weapon or grabbing them in one move by either catching them inside lockers, while attempting to vault over pallets or through windows, while repairing a generator, or trying to rescue a fellow survivor from a hook.

Some killers have secondary attacks that deal double-damage and put survivors into the "dying" state in one strike. Every killer has a secondary ability, called a killer power; each killer power is unique. For instance, the Wraith can "cloak", turning invisible and moving faster, the Hillbilly wields a chainsaw which allows him to dash along the map and knock down survivors it comes into contact with; the powers can be augmented using add-ons. The killer's goal is to sacrifice survivors to the Entity, a malevolent being which rules over the realm in which Dead by Daylight takes place. Caught survivors are put onto meathooks located throughout the trial grounds, which starts the sacrifice process, which will take two minutes to complete without any outside influences; some special add-ons, perks or the'Memento Mori' offerings allow the killer to bypass the sacrifice process and kill a survivor directly, with a special animation. The first time a survivor is hooked, they enter the first phase. In this phase only, the survivor can try for a low chance of escaping from the hook at the cost of tremendously accelerating the sacrifice process upon failure to escape.

Hooked survivors can be rescued by fellow survivors. If the survivor escapes or is saved and hooked a second time, they will enter the'struggle phase', in which the survivor has to resist the Entity trying to stab them by pressing the spacebar, X, or A, depending on the platform, until they are either saved by an ally or killed by the'Entity'. If the survivor is saved during the'struggle phase' and is hooked a third time, they will die with no opportunity of survival; the killer, despite walking at a fast pace, is slower than survivors in most other movements: after striking a survivor, the killer will slow their movement to wipe the blood off of their weapon. The killer is slower in vaulting through windows and cannot leap over pal

Sandra Corleone

Sandrinella "Sandra" Corleone is a fictional character appearing in Mario Puzo's novel The Godfather, the Godfather film trilogy, the Godfather video game. She was portrayed by Julie Gregg in the first film. Born in 1917, she married Sonny Corleone, with whom she had four children: Francesca Corleone, Kathryn Corleone, Frank Corleone, Santino Corleone Jr, she and Sonny live in a house in the Corleone Mall. After Sonny's death, she takes her children to live with her parents in Florida, she is depicted as a large-breasted woman. She does not enjoy sex with Sonny. Sonny has Lucy Mancini. In the films, they have Vincent. Sandra appears in a deleted scene in The Godfather Part II, trying to gain her brother-in-law Michael's blessing for her daughter Francesca's engagement. Michael suggests that her fiance changes his college major. In a deleted subplot, Sandra becomes Tom Hagen's mistress, a fact that Michael uses to blackmail Hagen into remaining loyal to the family, despite Sandra urging Hagen to abandon the Corleone family.

Sandra is a minor character in The Godfather Returns and The Godfather's Revenge, Mark Winegardner's sequels to Puzo's novel. In The Family Corleone, she appears as a teenager, the granddaughter of Signora Colombo, a minor character in the original novel. Vito Corleone—Father-in-law.