SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Chemical reaction

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. Classically, chemical reactions encompass changes that only involve the positions of electrons in the forming and breaking of chemical bonds between atoms, with no change to the nuclei, can be described by a chemical equation. Nuclear chemistry is a sub-discipline of chemistry that involves the chemical reactions of unstable and radioactive elements where both electronic and nuclear changes can occur; the substance involved in a chemical reaction are called reactants or reagents. Chemical reactions are characterized by a chemical change, they yield one or more products, which have properties different from the reactants. Reactions consist of a sequence of individual sub-steps, the so-called elementary reactions, the information on the precise course of action is part of the reaction mechanism. Chemical reactions are described with chemical equations, which symbolically present the starting materials, end products, sometimes intermediate products and reaction conditions.

Chemical reactions happen at a characteristic reaction rate at a given temperature and chemical concentration. Reaction rates increase with increasing temperature because there is more thermal energy available to reach the activation energy necessary for breaking bonds between atoms. Reactions may proceed in the forward or reverse direction until they go to completion or reach equilibrium. Reactions that proceed in the forward direction to approach equilibrium are described as spontaneous, requiring no input of free energy to go forward. Non-spontaneous reactions require input of free energy to go forward. Different chemical reactions are used in combinations during chemical synthesis in order to obtain a desired product. In biochemistry, a consecutive series of chemical reactions form metabolic pathways; these reactions are catalyzed by protein enzymes. Enzymes increase the rates of biochemical reactions, so that metabolic syntheses and decompositions impossible under ordinary conditions can occur at the temperatures and concentrations present within a cell.

The general concept of a chemical reaction has been extended to reactions between entities smaller than atoms, including nuclear reactions, radioactive decays, reactions between elementary particles, as described by quantum field theory. Chemical reactions such as combustion in fire and the reduction of ores to metals were known since antiquity. Initial theories of transformation of materials were developed by Greek philosophers, such as the Four-Element Theory of Empedocles stating that any substance is composed of the four basic elements – fire, water and earth. In the Middle Ages, chemical transformations were studied by Alchemists, they attempted, in particular, to convert lead into gold, for which purpose they used reactions of lead and lead-copper alloys with sulfur. The production of chemical substances that do not occur in nature has long been tried, such as the synthesis of sulfuric and nitric acids attributed to the controversial alchemist Jābir ibn Hayyān; the process involved heating of sulfate and nitrate minerals such as copper sulfate and saltpeter.

In the 17th century, Johann Rudolph Glauber produced hydrochloric acid and sodium sulfate by reacting sulfuric acid and sodium chloride. With the development of the lead chamber process in 1746 and the Leblanc process, allowing large-scale production of sulfuric acid and sodium carbonate chemical reactions became implemented into the industry. Further optimization of sulfuric acid technology resulted in the contact process in the 1880s, the Haber process was developed in 1909–1910 for ammonia synthesis. From the 16th century, researchers including Jan Baptist van Helmont, Robert Boyle, Isaac Newton tried to establish theories of the experimentally observed chemical transformations; the phlogiston theory was proposed in 1667 by Johann Joachim Becher. It postulated the existence of a fire-like element called "phlogiston", contained within combustible bodies and released during combustion; this proved to be false in 1785 by Antoine Lavoisier who found the correct explanation of the combustion as reaction with oxygen from the air.

Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac recognized in 1808 that gases always react in a certain relationship with each other. Based on this idea and the atomic theory of John Dalton, Joseph Proust had developed the law of definite proportions, which resulted in the concepts of stoichiometry and chemical equations. Regarding the organic chemistry, it was long believed that compounds obtained from living organisms were too complex to be obtained synthetically. According to the concept of vitalism, organic matter was endowed with a "vital force" and distinguished from inorganic materials; this separation was ended however by the synthesis of urea from inorganic precursors by Friedrich Wöhler in 1828. Other chemists who brought major contributions to organic chemistry include Alexander William Williamson with his synthesis of ethers and Christopher Kelk Ingold, among many discoveries, established the mechanisms of substitution reactions. Chemical equations are used to graphically illustrate chemical reactions, they consist of chemical or structural formulas of the reactants on the left and those of the products on the right.

They are separated by an arrow which indicates the type of the reaction.

Pindi Pindi

Pindi Pindi is a small rural locality in Mackay Region, Australia. The locality of Pindi Pindi is bounded to the south and east by Blackrock Creek and to the north and west by Catherine Creek. Apart from a few small hills which are undeveloped, the flat locality is used for farming sugar cane; the Bruce Highway runs from south-east to north-west through the locality. The North Coast railway line runs parallel and north of the highway; the locality has a network of operated tramway lines for transporting sugar cane to the sugar mill. The town is located in the south-east of the locality on the boundary to neighbouring Calen, where the school, the former brickworks, some houses cluster around the former Pindi Pindi railway station; the former Wagoora railway station is located in the north-west of the locality with a small cluster of houses around it. The name Pindi Pindi was assigned to the local railway station in 1915, is an Aboriginal word, indicating creek or flowing water. Pindi Pindi State School opened on 24 March 1928.

Pindi Pindi Post Office opened by 1935 and closed in 1981. In the 2011 census, Pindi Pindi had too small a population to be separately reported. However, the combined localities of Pindi Pindi and its neighbours Yalboroo and Mentmore had a population of 376. Pindi Pindi has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Off the Bruce Highway: Pindi Pindi Brickworks Pindi Pindi State School is a government co-educational primary school located on the Bruce Highway. In 2015, the school had an enrolment of 27 students with 3 teachers. Calen District State College in neighbouring Calen is the nearest secondary school

Zbigniew SuszyƄski

Zbigniew Suszyński is a Polish film and theater actor. He has provided voice-overs for commercials and television programs, he has been in dubbing roles in many animated films and TV shows, such as in The Brave Little Toaster as Radio, in SpongeBob SquarePants as Squidward Tentacles and in TUFF Puppy as Verminous Snaptrap. He made his first TV appearance in the television series Jan Serce. Whilst he was still studying acting, on 15 November 1986 he made his theatrical debut, playing the role of Orlando in a performance of Shakespeare's As You Like It at the Julian Tuwim Studyjnego'83 Theatre in Łódź. In 1987 he graduated from the Acting Department of the National Film School in Łódź. Between 1987-1990 he worked at the Stefan Jaracz Theatre in Łódź. Subsequently he performed in theaters in Warsaw: New Theatre - Nowy, Scena Prezentacje, the Tadeusz Łomnicki Theatre - Na Woli and the Warsaw Contemporary Theatre - Teatr Współczesny, his most well known role as the lead actor was playing Krzysztof Buk in the film "The Last Bell" - Ostatni dzwonek.

He has played on screen as a supporting actor and made appearances as an extra. In the Polsat TV series Samo Życie he played the role of a journalist and the Head of Sport at the fictional newspaper Samo Życie. In the series, Criminal Bureau - Biuro kryminalne, he was seen in other popular TV series: Extradition - Ekstradycja, 13 posterunek, M jak miłość, Fala zbrodni, Kasia i Tomek, Wild - Dziki Far from the stretcher - Daleko od noszy Pensjonat pod Różą, Pierwsza miłość, Magda M. and on Na dobre i na złe. He has played several roles on the big screen including in Samowolka, Młode wilki, Młode wilki 1/2 and E=mc2. Suszyński has portrayed several dark characters, such as the ruthless and vile husband of Ewa, lawyer Bogdan Werner in Adam and Eve - Adam i Ewa, he voiced the main character in the game "The Feeble Files". He is married to a teacher, they have a daughter, a graduate of the Aleksander Zelwerowicz National Academy of Dramatic Art in Warsaw. Zbigniew Suszyński on filmweb.pl Zbigniew Suszyński on filmpolski.pl Zbigniew Suszyński on e-teatr.pl Zbigniew Suszyński on IMDb