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Chemical synthesis

Chemical synthesis is the artificial execution of useful chemical reactions to obtain one or several products. This occurs by physical and chemical manipulations involving one or more reactions. In modern laboratory uses, the process is reproducible and established to work the same in multiple laboratories. A chemical synthesis involves one or more compounds known as reagents or reactants which will undergo a transformation when subjected to certain conditions. Various reaction types can be applied to formulate a desired product; this requires mixing the compounds in a reaction vessel, such as a chemical reactor or a simple round-bottom flask. Many reactions require some form of purification procedure to isolate the final product; the amount of product produced in a chemical synthesis is the reaction yield, expressed as a percentage conversion of the limiting reactant. Chemical yields are expressed as a weight in grams or as a percentage of the total theoretical quantity of product that could be produced based on the limiting reagent.

A side reaction is an unwanted chemical reaction taking place, reducing the yield of the desired product. The word synthesis was first used by the chemist Hermann Kolbe. Many strategies exist in chemical synthesis that go beyond converting reactant A to reaction product B in a single step. In multistep synthesis, a chemical compound is synthesised though a series of individual chemical reactions, each with their own work-up. For example, a laboratory synthesis of paracetamol can consist of three individual synthetic steps. In cascade reactions multiple chemical transformations take place within a single reactant, in multi-component reactions up to 11 different reactants form a single reaction product and in a telescopic synthesis one reactant goes through multiple transformations without isolation of intermediates. Organic synthesis is a special branch of chemical synthesis dealing with the synthesis of organic compounds. In the total synthesis of a complex product it may take multiple steps to synthesize the product of interest, inordinate amounts of time.

Skill in organic synthesis is prized among chemists and the synthesis of exceptionally valuable or difficult compounds has won chemists such as Robert Burns Woodward the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. If a chemical synthesis starts from basic laboratory compounds, it is considered a purely synthetic process. If it starts from a product isolated from plants or animals and proceeds to new compounds, the synthesis is described as a semisynthetic process. Inorganic synthesis and organometallic synthesis are applied to the preparation of compounds with significant non-organic content. An illustrative example is the preparation of the anticancer drug cisplatin from potassium tetrachloroplatinate; the Organic Synthesis Archive Natural product syntheses

Jack Lukosius

Jack Lukosius is a professional Australian rules footballer playing for the Gold Coast Football Club in the Australian Football League. Lukosius was born in South Australia, his father, Robert, is of Lithuanian origin and played professional football for Woodville-West Torrens in the SANFL. Jack grew up playing high level Australian rules football and cricket in Adelaide while attending Henley High School with future Gold Coast teammate Izak Rankine; such was his talent in cricket, he was selected as the opening bowler for South Australia at the 2016-17 U17 national carnival but gave the sport away soon after to focus on football. He made his senior SANFL debut for Woodville-West Torrens in a 2017 preliminary final against Sturt where he finished with 12 disposals, 8 marks and 4 goals. Leading into his final year of junior football, Lukosius was considered a potential number 1 draft pick by many draft analysts and drew comparisons to superstar St Kilda forward Nick Riewoldt. In 2018, he played a big part in South Australia's U18 national championships victory and Henley High School's SA schools championship.

He played for Woodville's senior SANFL side but would once again play in a losing preliminary final that year. He was drafted by Gold Coast with their first selection in the 2018 national draft, the second pick overall. Lukosius made his AFL debut in Gold Coast's one point loss to St Kilda in the opening round of the 2019 AFL season. Jack Lukosius's profile on the official website of the Gold Coast Football Club Jack Lukosius's playing statistics from AFL Tables Jack Lukosius at

List of mayors of Alessandria

The Mayor of Alessandria is an elected politician who, along with the Alessandria's City Council, is accountable for the strategic government of Alessandria in Piedmont, Italy. The current Mayor is Gianfranco Cuttica di Revigliasco, a member of the right-wing populist party Lega Nord, who took office on 27 June 2017. According to the Italian Constitution, the Mayor of Alessandria is member of the City Council; the Mayor is elected by the population of Alessandria, who elects the members of the City Council, controlling the Mayor's policy guidelines and is able to enforce his resignation by a motion of no confidence. The Mayor is entitled to release the members of his government. Since 1993 the Mayor is elected directly by Alessandria's electorate: in all mayoral elections in Italy in cities with a population higher than 15,000 the voters express a direct choice for the mayor or an indirect choice voting for the party of the candidate's coalition. If no candidate receives at least 50% of votes, the top two candidates go to a second round after two weeks.

The election of the City Council is based on a direct choice for the candidate with a preference vote: the candidate with the majority of the preferences is elected. The number of the seats for each party is determined proportionally. From 1946 to 1993, the Mayor of Alessandria was elected by the City's Council. Since 1993, under provisions of new local administration law, the Mayor of Alessandria is chosen by direct election

Emperor of the Daleks

Emperor of the Daleks is a black-and-white comic strip based on the television series Doctor Who. It ran in the pages of Doctor Who Magazine, written by John Freeman and novelist and future television series writer Paul Cornell; the story used elements of previous television continuity, as well as the continuity used by the comic strip, reviving popular characters such as "Dalek Killer" Abslom Daak and the Star Tigers. It attempted to bridge the gap between Revelation of the Daleks and Remembrance of the Daleks. On the Daleks' homeworld of Skaro, the Daleks place their creator Davros on trial for crimes against their race. Coming to his aid is the sixth incarnation of Davros' eternal enemy the Doctor, who offers to take Davros to a planet where he can create new lifeforms for good if he is willing to change. During the rescue, the Doctor makes a sly reference to the Hand of Omega. Incensed with yet another humiliating delay at the hands of the Doctor, the Emperor Dalek makes use of his empire's delicate time-travel capabilities to snatch Abslom Daak from the brink of death, pose as humanoid delegates of Earth.

They deceive Daak and offer a way of reviving his long-lost love Taiyan in exchange for the capture of the Doctor. Daak agrees; the TARDIS materialises on the planet "Hell", a world the Doctor had visited earlier in his seventh incarnation in Daak's previous appearance, Nemesis of the Daleks. The Doctor is now accompanied by Bernice Summerfield, it is not long before the two discover that Daak's former team the "Star Tigers" are alive and well, having been presumed dead when their vessel crashed in the previous story. Drunk and downbeat, the Tigers are ill-prepared for the return of Daak, who soon captures the Doctor and Benny, as well as his old teammates, returns all of them to the "Earth Delegates", who reveal themselves as Daleks and capture all of them; the Doctor agrees to take the Daleks to the planet where he has hidden Davros, but both groups discover that the world was Spiridon. Davros has activated the long-dormant Dalek army hidden there, converting them to the white and gold colour scheme applied to the Daleks he created on the planet Necros in Revelation of the Daleks.

Davros leads a successful coup d'état on Skaro, destroying the Emperor Dalek, but his wheelchair is split in half by Abslom Daak's chainsword, triggering his self-destruct mechanism which obliterates the Dalek city. The Doctor, the Star Tigers, Daak escape the city in the TARDIS. Shortly afterwards, the Seventh Doctor meets up with his sixth incarnation at a bar as his group of friends celebrate, he assures the Sixth Doctor. Back on Skaro, Davros' body is pieced together by his loyal Dalek forces with a new casing, they inform Davros he has claimed the mantle of "Emperor". Much of Davros' memory has been affected by the explosion, but as he regains his composure, he recalls the Doctor referencing the Hand of Omega, vows to find it when he faces the Doctor in what he believes will be their next and final confrontation. Davros and the Sixth Doctor's experiences following their departure from Skaro is explored further in a prequel strip, "Up Above The Gods", published several months after this story had concluded.

The entire story was reprinted in a graphic novel entitled Emperor of the Daleks in 2017. Dalek comic strips, illustrated annuals and graphic novels Emperor of the Daleks on Tardis Data Core, an external wiki Emperor of the Daleks at the Dr Who Guide Emperor of the Daleks at the Comic Book DB

Petros Mantalos

Petros Mantalos is a Greek professional footballer who plays as an attacking midfielder for AEK Athens, for which he is captain, the Greece national team. Petros Mantalos began playing professional football for Superleague club Skoda Xanthi, he played a total of 90 games in all competitions and represented his country at under-19 and under-21 levels. His performances attracted the interest of Greek giants Olympiacos, Panathinaikos and AEK Athens, the latter club newly relegated from the Superleague and making a fresh start in the third-tier Football League 2. In July 2013, Mantalos agreed to join AEK from the 2014–15 season; the fee was reported as around €500,000. He remained with Xanthi for the 2013–14 season, making 30 Superleague appearances as well as playing in the UEFA Europa League. By the time Mantalos joined up with AEK, they had been promoted to the second-tier Football League, he made his debut on 12 September in the first round of the Greek Cup, his first league appearance on 19 October 2014 at home to Apollon Smyrnis: with his team losing 1–0, Mantalos took the free kick from which Alexandre D'Acol equalised and converted a penalty to complete a 2–1 win.

He went on to provide 15 assists in 22 games in League and Cup combined. Mantalos himself missed the last few weeks of the season, having ruptured his anterior cruciate ligament while playing in a cup derby against Olympiacos in March 2015, he said afterwards that it was his first major injury, he was not going to rush his recovery, that AEK could manage well enough without him. This they proved, finishing top of the South Group and winning the play-offs. After six months out, Mantalos returned to competitive action and continued as a regular in the first team, helping AEK finish third in the 2015–16 Superleague and qualify for the Europa League, he scored the only goal of the first leg of the Greek Cup semifinal against Atromitos, captained the side in the final at the Olympic Stadium. His first-half headed goal contributed to AEK's 2–1 defeat of champions Olympiacos to win the competition for the 15th time, he was named MVP of the match. According to an end-of-season profile, Mantalos "endured a difficult start to the campaign", interrupted by the need for surgery on a nose broken in training, "but seemed rejuvenated once Manolo Jiménez took over the team" in January 2017.

He finished the season with a goal and an assist in a 2–1 win against Panionios in the play-offs that confirmed AEK's place in the UEFA Champions League third qualifying round, was voted best Greek footballer in the Superleague at the PSAP awards. In light of interest from Spanish clubs, AEK were reported to be unwilling to sell at less than €5 or €6 million, as the player still had two years left on his contract. AEK went top of the Superleague three weeks into the 2017–18 season after a 4–0 win over Larissa, in which Mantalos opened the scoring with a fourth-minute bicycle kick. Although AEK failed to progress in the Champions League, they qualified for the Europa League group stage. A few days he scored an 89th-minute winner as they came back from 2–0 down after 63 minutes to beat reigning champions Olympiacos 3–2. At the end of October, Mantalos suffered this time in his left knee; as a gesture of support, the club offered Mantalos a contract extension until 2022, which he accepted. He returned to action as a substitute on 21 April as AEK beat Levadiakos to clinch their first Superleague title since 1994.

Mantalos converted a penalty in a 1–1 draw in the Champions League play-off round second leg against Vidi that, despite having two men sent off, was enough to progress to the group stage on aggregate. Two days after reports emerged that the club had rejected a bid valued at €10 million for Mantalos from English Championship club West Bromwich Albion, he scored his first goal of the 2018–19 Superleague season, a penalty, that gave AEK a 1–0 win away to Asteras Tripolis, his fourth league goal, which opened the scoring in a 2–0 win away to Panionios in January 2019, was controversial as he appeared to handle the ball when controlling the final pass. Mantalos scored twice against Atromitos in the quarter-final of that season's Greek Cup as AEK went on to reach and lose to PAOK in the final for the third year running. Mantalos scored in both legs of AEK's 2019–20 Europa League qualifier against Universitatea Craiova, but despite his goal in the play-off round against Trabzonspor, the tie ended 3–3 on aggregate and AEK were eliminated on away goals.

On 20 October 2019, he scored a brace sealing a vital 3–2 home win game against Volos. It was elected MVP of the game. On 7 December 2019, he scored with an excellent kick in a hammering 5–0 home win game against Panionios. On 18 December 2019, Mantalos opened the scoring from the penalty spot after six minutes to put Massimo Carrera’s AEK in front in a 2–1 home win game against Asteras Tripolis. On 23 February 2020, Mantalos scored with a diagonal header into the corner, after five minutes from a Marko Livaja's cross, in a 3–0 home win game against OFI; as a "second division" player Mantalos' international call in Greece national football team was a big surprise by Claudio Ranieri. On September 7, 2014 Mantalos made his international debut in a match against Romania for the European Qualifiers 2016. Mantalos scored his first international goal on 7 June 2016 in Melbourne Australia, against Australia in an eventual 2–1 win. On 7 October 2016, he scored the second goal sealing a 2–0 home win against Cyprus for UEFA World Cup 2018 preliminary round.

As of 23 February 2020 As of 18 November 2019 As of match played 18 November 2019. Greece score listed first, score column indicates score

Katarina Dalayman

Katarina Dalayman is a Swedish former soprano that has transitioned into a mezzosoprano. She has found critical acclaim singing major operatic roles by composers such as Wagner, Berg and Bartók, among others. In a recent interview, she commented that Wagner's music " always been closest to my heart, since I started singing". In 2000 she was made a Swedish Court Singer by His Majesty Carl XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden; the daughter of a seamstress, who had herself considered a career in acting, Dalayman went on to become a student at the Stockholm Opera Conservatory. Whilst still at college, she had sung Sieglinde in public, her debut was as Amelia in Verdi's Simon Boccanegra at the Royal Opera Stockholm in 1991. Since notable engagements have included Marie in Wozzeck at Stuttgart, Metropolitan Opera and the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, Brangäne in Tristan und Isolde at New York Met, Kundry in Parsifal at Paris Opera and Dresden, Sieglinde at Covent Garden, Brünnhilde in the Stockholm Ring Cycle.

Engagements included Brünnhilde in Aix en Provence and at the Metropolitan Opera and at the Osterfestspiele Salzburg. After training to a mezzosoprano, she returned and sang Fricka and Waltraute in the 2017 brief revival of Valdemar-Holm's Wagner Ring Cycle in Stockholm. In the beginning of 2018 she created a well reviewed Klytaemnestra in the revival of Valdemar Holm's Elektra in Stockholm. Dalayman's recordings include: Berg – Wozzeck, Berwald – Estrella de Soria, Johan Hammerth – Stockholms Kantat, Korngold – Die Tote Stadt, Wagner – Götterdämmerung, Wagner – Tristan und Isolde, Wagner – Parsifal. With her sister Maria Dalayman and tenor Thomas Sunnegårdh Dalayman runs the opera agency Good Company. Dalayman lives in Stockholm and has two sons. 2000: appointed Hovsångerska by H. M. the King of Sweden David M. Cummings, International Who's Who in Classical Music, 2003. ISBN 1-85743-174-X. Haydn Rawstron Limited, Katarina Dalayman. Retrieved on 2008-02-23. Good Company website