The Korean War was a war between North Korea and South Korea. The war began on 25 June 1950 when North Korea invaded South Korea following a series of clashes along the border; as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea had been split into two sovereign states in 1948. A socialist state was established in the north under the communist leadership of Kim Il-sung and a capitalist state in the south under the anti-communist leadership of Syngman Rhee. Both governments of the two new Korean states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of all of Korea, neither accepted the border as permanent; the conflict escalated into warfare when North Korean military forces—supported by the Soviet Union and China—crossed the border and advanced south into South Korea on 25 June 1950. The United Nations Security Council authorized the formation and dispatch of UN forces to Korea to repel what was recognized as a North Korean invasion. Twenty-one countries of the United Nations contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing around 90% of the military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean and U. S. forces dispatched to Korea were on the point of defeat, forced back to a small area in the south known as the Pusan Perimeter. In September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Incheon, cut off many North Korean troops; those who escaped envelopment and capture were forced back north. UN forces approached the Yalu River—the border with China—but in October 1950, mass Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war; the surprise Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951. In these reversals of fortune, Seoul changed hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel; the war in the air, was never a stalemate. North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in air-to-air combat for the first time in history, Soviet pilots covertly flew in defense of their communist allies.
The fighting ended on 27 July 1953. The agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, allowed the return of prisoners. However, no peace treaty was signed, according to some sources the two Koreas are technically still at war, engaged in a frozen conflict. In April 2018, the leaders of North and South Korea met at the demilitarized zone and agreed to work towards a treaty to formally end the Korean War. In South Korea, the war is referred to as "625" or the "6–2–5 Upheaval", reflecting the date of its commencement on June 25. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the "Fatherland Liberation War" or alternatively the "Chosǒn War". In China, the war is called the "War to Resist America and Aid Korea", although the term "Chaoxian War" is used in unofficial contexts, along with the term "Hán War" more used in regions such as Hong Kong and Macau. In the U. S. the war was described by President Harry S. Truman as a "police action" as the United States never formally declared war on its opponents and the operation was conducted under the auspices of the United Nations.
It has been referred to in the English-speaking world as "The Forgotten War" or "The Unknown War" because of the lack of public attention it received both during and after the war, in relation to the global scale of World War II, which preceded it, the subsequent angst of the Vietnam War, which succeeded it. Imperial Japan destroyed the influence of China over Korea in the First Sino-Japanese War, ushering in the short-lived Korean Empire. A decade after defeating Imperial Russia in the Russo-Japanese War, Japan made Korea its protectorate with the Eulsa Treaty in 1905 annexed it with the Japan–Korea Annexation Treaty in 1910. Many Korean nationalists fled the country; the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was founded in 1919 in Nationalist China. It failed to achieve international recognition, failed to unite nationalist groups, had a fractious relationship with its U. S.-based founding president, Syngman Rhee. From 1919 to 1925 and beyond, Korean communists led internal and external warfare against the Japanese.
In China, the Nationalist National Revolutionary Army and the communist People's Liberation Army helped organize Korean refugees against the Japanese military, which had occupied parts of China. The Nationalist-backed Koreans, led by Yi Pom-Sok, fought in the Burma Campaign; the communists, led by Kim Il-sung among others, fought the Japanese in Manchuria. At the Cairo Conference in November 1943, the United Kingdom, the United States all decided that "in due course Korea shall become free and independent". At the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union promised to join its allies in the Pacific War within three months of the victory in Europe. Accordingly, it declared war o
Chen Jiongming romanized as Chan Kwing Ming in Cantonese, was a Shanwei Hokkien revolutionary figure in the early period of the Republic of China. Chen Jiongming was born in 1878 at Haifeng, China, he was by training a lawyer and became a Qing legislator, a republican revolutionary, a military leader, a civil administrator and a federalist who sought to reconstruct China as a democratic republic. He joined the Chinese Revolutionary Alliance in 1909 and obtained the post of commander-in-chief of the Guangdong Army, he became military governor of Guangdong three times and civil governor of Guangdong from 1920–22 and military governor of Guangxi from 1921-22. Chen was instrumental in backing Sun Yat-sen's Constitutional Protection Movement, he restored Sun to power after the Guangdong-Guangxi War. Chen disagreed with Sun about the direction that reform should take—Sun wanted to unite the country by force and institute change through a centralized government based on a one-party system, while Chen advocated multiparty federalism with Guangdong becoming the model province and the peaceful unification of China.
Sun became suspicious that the federalist movement was being exploited by the warlords to justify their military fiefdoms. Relations deteriorated further when Sun became "extraordinary president", a move not condoned by the Provisional Constitution, it was Chen who first invited the Chinese Communist Party to Guangdong against Sun's objection that the Communists might dilute the movement. After the First Zhili-Fengtian War in 1922 there was a strong movement to reunite the northern and southern governments by having both Sun and Xu Shichang resign their rival presidencies in favor of restoring Li Yuanhong as president of a united republic. Chen was enthusiastic but Sun felt the new government would be a powerless puppet of the Zhili clique. Sun Yat-sen and Chen Jiongming soon split over the continuation of the Northern Expedition. Sun conceived it to have begun with the occupation of Guangxi. From there he wished Chen to push into Hunan. After Wu Peifu of the Zhili clique in Beijing recognized his power in the south, Chen abandoned Sun.
Unexpectedly revolting against the Kuomintang militarily in 1922, Chen led his forces to attack Sun's residence as well as office. Sun was forced to delay his Northern Expedition. With the help of Tang Jiyao, the KMT retook Guangzhou in 1923. Chen fled to Huizhou in eastern Guangdong. From 1923-25 the Guangdong government organized two eastern campaigns against him and he fled to Hong Kong, as his remaining forces were wiped out in 1925, he became an ally of Tang Jiyao, after Tang was expelled from the KMT following the Yunnan-Guangxi War. He was elected premier of the China Public Interest Party with Tang as his deputy. From Hong Kong he criticized the Nationalists' single-party system and continued to advocate multiparty federalism. After the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, he attacked Chiang Kai-shek's regime for its refusal to confront Japan and he organized boycotts of Japanese products, he died of typhus on September 22, 1933. Chen is considered a traitor and reactionary warlord by both the Kuomintang and the CCP for his rebellion against Sun in 1922.
Sun's party began to publish literature about Chen to discredit him. The Communists, who had entered into an alliance with Sun and who still regard him as the founding hero of the Chinese Revolution, have continued to characterize Chen as a counter-revolutionary, his party defended him as a true revolutionary and democrat by pointing out the tragedies and corruption caused by centralized, one-party dictatorship. After the China Public Interest Party formed a united front with the Communists in 1947, Chen's role has been obscured to the point of invisibility in the party's official history. Other than his family, his most vocal apologist is Chinese writer Li Ao. Chen Jiongming Chen Jiongming: Anarchism and the Federalist State The Zhuang and the 1911 Revolution Center for Chen Jiongming Studies Center for Chen Jiongming Studies University of Michigan Press Book: Chen Jiongming and the Federalist Movement
Hunan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the middle reaches of the Yangtze watershed in South Central China. With a population of just over 67 million as of 2014 residing in an area of 210,000 km2, it is China's 7th most populous and the 10th most extensive province-level by area; the name Hunan means "south of the lake". The lake, referred to is Dongting Lake, a lake in the northeast of the province, its capital and largest city is Changsha, which abuts the Xiang River. Hunan's primeval forests were first occupied by the ancestors of the modern Miao, Tujia and Yao peoples; the province entered written Chinese history around 350 BC, when under the kings of the Zhou dynasty, the province became part of the State of Chu. After Qin conquered the Chu heartland in 278 BC, the region came under the control of Qin, the Han dynasty. At this time, for hundreds of years thereafter, the province was a magnet for settlement of Han Chinese from the north, who displaced and assimilated the original indigenous inhabitants, cleared forests and began farming rice in the valleys and plains.
The agricultural colonization of the lowlands was carried out in part by the Han state, which managed river dikes to protect farmland from floods. To this day many of the small villages in Hunan are named after the Han families who settled there. Migration from the north was prevalent during the Eastern Jin dynasty and the Northern and Southern dynasties periods, when nomadic invaders pushed these peoples south. During the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, Hunan was home to its own independent regime, Ma Chu. Hunan and Hubei became a part of the province of Huguang until the Qing dynasty. Hunan province was created in 1664 from Huguang, renamed to its current name in 1723. Hunan became an important communications center due to its position on the Yangzi River, it was an important centre of scholarly activity and Confucian thought in the Yuelu Academy in Changsha. It was on the Imperial Highway constructed between northern and southern China; the land produced grain so abundantly. The population continued to climb until, by the nineteenth century, Hunan became overcrowded and prone to peasant uprisings.
Some of the uprisings, such as the ten-year Miao Rebellion of 1795–1806, were caused by ethnic tensions. The Taiping Rebellion began in the south in Guangxi Province in 1850; the rebellion spread into Hunan and further eastward along the Yangzi River valley. It was a Hunanese army under Zeng Guofan who marched into Nanjing to put down the uprising in 1864. Hunan was quiet until 1910 when there were uprisings against the crumbling Qing dynasty, which were followed by the Communist's Autumn Harvest Uprising of 1927, it was led by Hunanese native Mao Zedong, established a short-lived Hunan Soviet in 1927. The Communists maintained a guerrilla army in the mountains along the Hunan-Jiangxi border until 1934. Under pressure from the Nationalist Kuomintang forces, they began the Long March to bases in Shaanxi Province. After the departure of the Communists, the KMT army fought against the Japanese in the second Sino-Japanese war, they defended Changsha until it fell in 1944. Japan launched a plan to control the railroad from Wuchang to Guangzhou.
Hunan was unscathed by the civil war that followed the defeat of the Japanese in 1945. In 1949, the Communists returned once more; as Mao Zedong's home province, Hunan supported the Cultural Revolution of 1966–1976. However, it was slower than most provinces in adopting the reforms implemented by Deng Xiaoping in the years that followed Mao's death in 1976. In addition to Mao Zedong, a number of other first-generation communist leaders were from Hunan: President Liu Shaoqi. An example of a more recent leader from Hunan is former Premier Zhu Rongji. Hunan is located on the south bank of the Yangtze River, about half way along its length, situated between 108° 47'–114° 16' east longitude and 24° 37'–30° 08' north latitude. Hunan covers an area of 211,800 square kilometres, making it the 10th largest provincial-level division; the east and west sides of the province are surrounded by mountains and hills, such as the Wuling Mountains to the northwest, the Xuefeng Mountains to the west, the Nanling Mountains to the south, the Luoxiao Mountains to the east.
Mountains and hills occupy more than 80% of the province, plains less than 20%. At 2115.2 meters above sea level, the highest point in Hunan province is Lingfeng. The Xiang, the Zi, the Yuan and the Lishui Rivers converge on the Yangtze River at Lake Dongting in the north of Hunan; the center and northern parts are somewhat low and a U-shaped basin, open in the north and with Lake Dongting as its center. Most of Hunan lies in the basins of four major tributaries of the Yangtze River. Lake Dongting is the second largest freshwater lake of China; the Xiaoxiang area and Lake Dongting figure
Second Sino-Japanese War
The Second Sino-Japanese War was a military conflict fought between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from July 7, 1937, to September 2, 1945. It began with the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in 1937 in which a dispute between Japanese and Chinese troops escalated into a battle; some sources in the modern People's Republic of China date the beginning of the war to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in 1931. China fought Japan with aid from the United States. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in 1941, the war merged with other conflicts of World War II as a major sector known as the China Burma India Theater; some scholars consider the start of the full-scale Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937 to have been the beginning of World War II. The Second Sino-Japanese War was the largest Asian war in the 20th century, it accounted for the majority of civilian and military casualties in the Pacific War, with between 10 and 25 million Chinese civilians and over 4 million Chinese and Japanese military personnel dying from war-related violence and other causes.
The war was the result of a decades-long Japanese imperialist policy to expand its influence politically and militarily in order to secure access to raw material reserves and labor. The period after World War I brought about increasing stress on the Japanese polity. Leftists sought universal suffrage and greater rights for workers. Increasing textile production from Chinese mills was adversely affecting Japanese production; the Great Depression brought about a large slowdown in exports. All of this contributed to militant nationalism, culminating in the rise to power of a militarist fascist faction; this faction was led at its height by the Hideki Tojo cabinet of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association under edict from Emperor Hirohito. In 1931, the Mukden Incident helped spark the Japanese invasion of Manchuria; the Chinese were defeated and Japan created a new puppet state, Manchukuo. This view has been adopted by the PRC government. From 1931 to 1937, China and Japan continued to skirmish in small, localized engagements, so-called "incidents".
The Japanese scored major victories, capturing both Shanghai and the Chinese capital of Nanjing in 1937. After failing to stop the Japanese in the Battle of Wuhan, the Chinese central government was relocated to Chongqing in the Chinese interior. By 1939, after Chinese victories in Changsha and Guangxi, with Japan's lines of communications stretched deep into the Chinese interior, the war reached a stalemate; the Japanese were unable to defeat the Chinese communist forces in Shaanxi, which waged a campaign of sabotage and guerrilla warfare against the invaders. While Japan ruled the large cities, they lacked sufficient manpower to control China's vast countryside. During this time, Chinese communist forces launched a counter offensive in Central China while Chinese nationalist forces launched a large scale winter offensive. On December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, the following day the United States declared war on Japan; the United States began to aid China by airlifting material over the Himalayas after the Allied defeat in Burma that closed the Burma Road.
In 1944 Japan launched Operation Ichi-Go, that conquered Henan and Changsha. However, this failed to bring about the surrender of Chinese forces. In 1945, the Chinese Expeditionary Force resumed its advance in Burma and completed the Ledo Road linking India to China. At the same time, China launched large counteroffensives in South China and retook West Hunan and Guangxi. Despite continuing to occupy part of China's territory, Japan surrendered on September 2, 1945, to Allied forces following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Soviet invasion of Japanese-held Manchuria; the remaining Japanese occupation forces formally surrendered on September 9, 1945, with the following International Military Tribunal for the Far East convened on April 29, 1946. At the outcome of the Cairo Conference of November 22–26, 1943, the Allies of World War II decided to restrain and punish the aggression of Japan by restoring all the territories that Japan annexed from China, including Manchuria, Taiwan/Formosa, the Pescadores, to China, to expel Japan from the Korean Peninsula.
China was recognized as one of the Big Four of the Allies during the war and became one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. In China, the war is most known as the "War of Resistance against Japan", shortened to the "Resistance against Japan" or the "War of Resistance", it was called the "Eight Years' War of Resistance", but in 2017 the Chinese Ministry of Education issued a directive stating that textbooks were to refer to the war as the "Fourteen Years' War of Resistance", reflecting a focus on the broader conflict with Japan going back to 1931. It is referred to as part of the "Global Anti-Fascist War", how World War II is perceived by the Communist Party of China and the PRC government. In Japan, the name "Japan–China War" is most used because of its perceived objectivity; when the invasion of China proper began in earnest in July 1937 near Beijing, the government of Japan used "The North China Incident", with the outbreak of the Battle of Shanghai the following month, it was changed to "The China Incident"
Xuzhou, known as Pengcheng in ancient times, is a major city in Jiangsu province, China. The city, with a recorded population of 8,577,225 at the 2010 census, is a national complex transport hub and the central city of Huaihai Economic Zone; the city is designated as National Famous Historical and Cultural City since 1986 for its relics the terracotta armies, the Mausoleums of the princes and the art of relief of Han dynasty. Before the adoption of Hanyu Pinyin, the city's name was romanized as Suchow or Süchow, though it appeared as Siu Tcheou, Hsu-chou, Hsü-chow; the early prehistoric relics around Xuzhou are classified as Dawenkou culture system. Liulin site together with Dadunzi site, Huating site, Liangwangcheng site correspond to the initial and late stages of this culture, respectively. While the remains of sacrificial rituals performed to Tudi deity found at Qiuwan site and Gaohuangmiao site, both of them are in the outskirts of the city, indicate that Shang dynasty affected the area.
History relates that Peng or Great Peng, the transitions from a tribe to a chiefdom contained within the boundary of the city. Peng Zu is believed to be the first chief, while the state was conquered by King Wu Ding of Shang in around 1208 BC. During the Western Zhou, a chiefdom called Xuyi or Xu rose and controlled the Lower Yellow River Valley. Allied with Huaiyi, Xuyi fought against its vassals at irregular intervals. Since its declining, Xuyi once moved the capital to the area of Xuzhou and populated it with people who were migrated southwards. Pengcheng, a city at the junction of the ancient Bian and Si Rivers, was founded by Lü. Chu took the city in the war of 573 BCE, but ceded the city back to Song in the next year, as a coercive measure. In 208 BC, Xiang Yu and Liu Bang pull their troops into Pengcheng, to where the Emperor Yi of Chu transferred his capital from Xuyi after Xiang Liang’s death; the Emperor Yi was exiled to the southern China by Xiang Yu in 206 BC, the latter proclaimed himself the Hegemon-King of Western Chu, established his capital in Pengcheng too, until 202 BC.
Liu Jiao, the younger half-brother of Liu Bang, became the Prince of Chu. His grandson, Wu succeeded the title. Wu participated the Rebellion of the Seven Princes, he was defeated afterwards and his power was diminish by reducing the fief. By the end of the 2nd century, a prosperous Buddhist community had been settled at Pengcheng. At the turn of the 2nd century, Pengcheng changed hands several times among Cao Cao and his rivals before being annexed to Cao Wei in about 200. In the intervening years, the seat of Xuzhou was transferred from Tancheng to Xiapi, which located in the northwest of Suining. While Pengcheng became the seat than 220. With the invasions of the Five Barbarians, considerable local households migrated to the south, a Liu clan from Pengcheng ascended to the gentry, its most well known descendant is Liu Yu, the Emperor Wu of Liu Song. Pengcheng was taken by the Northern dynasties later. Liu Yu recaptured the lost territory in the north of the Huai River in about 408. Xuzhou was divided into two parts: Beixuzhou and Xuzhou in 411.
North Xuzhou whose seat was Pengcheng bounded on the south by the Huai River. Beixuzhou was restored as Xuzhou a decade while its south counterpart was renamed Nanxuzhou. Since Pengcheng remained being the seat of Xuzhou until it was eliminated in the early Ming; the raging wars inflicted upon Xuzhou until the Emperor Taizong of Tang's enthronement in 626. Keeping the northern rebellions and warfare a distance gave Xuzhou scope for developing during the most period of the Tang dynasty. According to the Old Book of Tang and the New book of Tang, in 639, the total population of Pengcheng County, Fei County and Pei County was only 21,768, versus 205,286 in 742. In 781, Li Na marched south to besiege Xuzhou. Although his revolt was quell soon, the halt of the transport by the Bian Canal impelled the court to secure the area; the prefect of Xuzhou, Zhang Jianfeng was designated as the first military governor of Xuzhou-Sizhou-Haozhou, headquartered in Xuzhou since 788. The title was renamed Wuning in 805, after an interval of five years.
Wang Zhixing, another military governor of Wuning, established several battalions in the Army for select recruits. These soldiers not only defy military discipline but show defiant towards the successors to Wang. In 832, Li Ting received a threatening letter prior to his induction in there, made him resigned immediately. Wuning suffered mutinies in 849, 859 and again in 862. Another two governors were expelled. Wang Shi was appointed, under the circumstances, he put the mutiny down by executing part of the garrison troops and disbanded the rest, which became thugs and loot later. In 864, the court declared an amnesty in the area, promised that all thugs who willingly re-enrolled would be sent for a tour of duty in the southern, presumably, returned to regular army service in the north. Three thousand men surrendered and were sent to the south to join the two thousand former Wuning soldiers there; the breached pledge irritated them. Led by Pang Xun, some soldiers marched back north, they have unimpeded access to the area by the winter of 868.
The local civil governor refused Pang's demand to have the hatred officers removed, a military confrontation ensued. Thousands of local peasants joined the rebels, they took the prefectural city of Xuzhou, captured the civil governor, killed those office
The Kuomintang of China is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei, founded in 1911, is an opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan. The predecessor of the Kuomintang, the Revolutionary Alliance, was one of the major advocates of the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the subsequent declaration of independence in 1911 that resulted in the establishment of the Republic of China; the KMT was founded by Song Jiaoren and Sun Yat-sen shortly after the Xinhai Revolution of 1911. Sun was the provisional President, but he ceded the presidency to Yuan Shikai. Led by Chiang Kai-shek, the KMT formed the National Revolutionary Army and succeeded in its Northern Expedition to unify much of mainland China in 1928, ending the chaos of the Warlord Era, it was the ruling party in mainland China until 1949, when it lost the Chinese Civil War to the rival Communist Party of China. The KMT fled to Taiwan; this government retained China's UN seat until 1971. Taiwan ceased to be a single-party state in 1986, political reforms beginning in the 1990s loosened the KMT's grip on power.
The KMT remains one of Taiwan's main political parties, with Ma Ying-jeou, elected in 2008 and re-elected in 2012, being the seventh KMT member to hold the office of the presidency. However, in the 2016 general and presidential election the Democratic Progressive Party gained control of both the Legislative Yuan and the presidency, Tsai Ing-wen being elected President; the party's guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, advocated by Sun Yat-sen. The KMT is a member of the International Democrat Union. Together with the People First Party and New Party, the KMT forms what is known as the Taiwanese Pan-Blue Coalition, which supports eventual unification with the mainland. However, the KMT has been forced to moderate its stance by advocating the political and legal status quo of modern Taiwan, as political realities make the reunification of China unlikely; the KMT holds to a "One China Principle": it considers that there is only one China, but that the Republic of China rather than the People's Republic of China is its legitimate government under the 1992 Consensus.
In order to ease tensions with the PRC, the KMT has since 2008 endorsed the "Three Noes" policy as defined by Ma Ying-jeou: no unification, no independence and no use of force. The KMT traces its ideological and organizational roots to the work of Sun Yat-sen, a proponent of Chinese nationalism and democracy, who founded Revive China Society at the capital of the Republic of Hawaii, Honolulu, on 24 November 1894. In 1905, Sun joined forces with other anti-monarchist societies in Tokyo, Empire of Japan to form the Tongmenghui on 20 August 1905, a group committed to the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty and the establishment of a republic style government; the group planned and supported the Xinhai Revolution of 1911 and the founding of the Republic of China on 1 January 1912. However, Sun did not have military power and ceded the provisional presidency of the republic to Yuan Shikai, who arranged for the abdication of Puyi, the last Emperor, on 12 February. On 25 August 1912, the Nationalist Party was established at the Huguang Guild Hall in Peking, where Tongmenghui and five smaller pro-revolution parties merged to contest the first national elections.
Sun was chosen as the party chairman with Huang Xing as his deputy. The most influential member of the party was the third ranking Song Jiaoren, who mobilized mass support from gentry and merchants for the Nationalists to advocate a constitutional parliamentary democracy; the party sought to check the power of Yuan. The Nationalists won an overwhelming majority of the first National Assembly election in December 1912. However, Yuan soon began to ignore the parliament in making presidential decisions. Song Jiaoren was assassinated in Shanghai in 1913. Members of the Nationalists led by Sun Yat-sen suspected that Yuan was behind the plot and thus staged the Second Revolution in July 1913, a poorly planned and ill-supported armed rising to overthrow Yuan, failed. Yuan, claiming subversiveness and betrayal, expelled adherents of the KMT from the parliament. Yuan dissolved the Nationalists in November and dismissed the parliament early in 1914. Yuan Shikai proclaimed himself emperor in December 1915.
While exiled in Japan in 1914, Sun established the Chinese Revolutionary Party on 8 July 1914, but many of his old revolutionary comrades, including Huang Xing, Wang Jingwei, Hu Hanmin and Chen Jiongming, refused to join him or support his efforts in inciting armed uprising against Yuan. In order to join the Revolutionary Party, members had to take an oath of personal loyalty to Sun, which many old revolutionaries regarded as undemocratic and contrary to the spirit of the revolution; as a result, he became sidelined within the Republican movement during this period. Sun returned to China in 1917 to establish a military junta at Canton, in order to oppose the Beiyang government, but was soon forced out of office and exiled to Shanghai. There, with renewed support, he resurrected the KMT on 10 October 1919, under the name Kuomintang of China and established its headquarters in Canton in 1920. In 1923, the KMT and its Canton government accepted aid from the Soviet Union after being denied recognition by the western powers.
Soviet advisers - the most prominent of whom was Mikhail Borodin, an agent of the Comintern – arrived in China in 1923 to aid in the reorgan
Hundred Regiments Offensive
The Hundred Regiments Offensive was a major campaign of the Communist Party of China's National Revolutionary Army divisions commanded by Peng Dehuai against the Imperial Japanese Army in Central China. The battle had long been the focus of propaganda in the history of Chinese Communist Party but had become Peng Dehuai's "crime" during the Cultural Revolution. Certain issues regarding its launching and consequences are still controversial. In 1939–1940, the Japanese launched more than 109 small campaigns involving around 1,000 combatants each and 10 large campaigns of 10,000 men each to wipe out Communist guerrillas in the Hebei and Shandong plains. In addition, the army of Wang Jingwei's collaborationist Reorganized National Government had its offensive against the CCP guerrillas. There was a general sentiment among the anti-Japanese resistance forces - in the Kuomintang - that the CCP was not contributing enough to the war effort, that they were only interested in expanding their power base.
It was out of these circumstances that the CCP planned to stage a great offensive to prove that they were helping the war effort and to mend KMT-CCP relations. The Japanese North China Area Army estimated the strength of communist regulars to be about 88,000 in December 1939. Two years they revised the estimate to 140,000. On the eve of the battle, the Communist forces grew to 400,000 men strong, in 105 regiments; the extraordinary success and expansion of the 8th Route Army against the Japanese had Zhu De and the rest of the military leadership hoping that they could engage the Japanese army and win. By 1940, growth was so impressive that Zhu De ordered a coordinated offensive by most of the communist regulars against the Japanese-held cities and the railway lines linking them. According to CCP's official statement the battle started on 20 August. From 20 August to 10 September, communist forces attacked the railway line that separated the communist base areas, chiefly those from Dezhou to Shijiazhuang in Hebei, Shijiazhuang to Taiyuan in central Shanxi, Taiyuan to Datong in northern Shanxi.
Peng's order of battle consisted of 20 regiments and on 22 August he found more that 80 regiments took part in without telling him. They succeeded in blowing up bridges and tunnels and ripping up track, went on for the rest of September to attack Japanese garrisons frontally. About 600 mi of railways were destroyed, the Jingxing coal mine—which was important to the Japanese war industry—was rendered inoperative for six months, it was the greatest victory the CCP won during the war. However, from October to December, the Japanese responded in force, reasserting control of railway lines and conducting aggressive "mopping up operations" in the rural areas around them. On 22 December, Mao Zedong told. Chiang Kai-shek is launching anti-communist climax and we need the influence of Hundred Regiment Battle to win propaganda." The Eighth Army had left two reports that are both based on statistics before December 5, one claiming killing/injuring 12,645 Japanese and 5,153 puppet troops. The other one claimed killing/injuring 20,645 Japanese and 5,155 puppet troops.
These two records were both based on the same figure but separated to two different records for unknown reason. This amounted to 46,000 combat successes respectively. In 2010, a Chinese article by Pan Zeqin emerged to say the combat success result should be more than 50,000. No figure about total casualties in Japanese military record but it was recorded 276 KIAs from 4th Independent Mixed Brigade and 133 KIA and 31 MIA from 2nd Independent Mixed Brigade. A western source recorded 20,900 Japanese casualties and about 20,000 collaborator casualties Chinese recorded 474 km of railway and 1502 km of road sabotaged, 213 bridges and 11 tunnels blown up, 37 stations destroyed, but Japanese record gives 73 bridges, 3 tunnels, 5 water towers blown up. The damage regarding communication systems are 1,333 cut down and 1,107 capsized cable posts, up to 146 km long cable cut. One mining site of Jingxing Coal Mine stopped operating for half a year; when General Yasuji Okamura took command of the North China Area Army in the summer 1941, the new strategy was "Three All", meaning "kill all, burn all, destroy all" in those areas containing Anti-Japanese forces.
Peng and Mao had disagreed over how directly to confront the Japanese since at least the Luochuan Conference in August 1937, with Mao concerned about Communist losses to the well equipped Japanese. After the establishment of the People's Republic Mao is alleged to have said to Lin Biao that "allowing Japan to occupy more territory is the only way to love your country. Otherwise, it would have become a country that loved Chiang Kai-shek." Thus, the Hundred Regiments Offensive became the last of the two major Communist frontal engagements against the Japanese during the war. There had been controversy that Peng had no authorization no knowledge of the Central Military Committee and Mao Zedong; as early as 1945 the accusation of launching battle without telling Mao had appeared in the North China Conference. During the Great Leap Forward, Peng's opposition to Mao's policies led to his downfall and the launching of the battle became yet again a criminal action in the Cultural Revolution. In 1967, the Red Guard group