Area code 907
Area code 907 covers the state of Alaska, except for the small southeastern community of Hyder, which uses area codes 236, 250 and 778 of neighboring Stewart, British Columbia. Despite having telephone service to the contiguous US via a terrestrial line from Juneau since 1937, Alaska was not included in the North American Numbering Plan until after the Alaska submarine cable was opened for traffic in 1956; the Alaska numbering plan area was assigned the area code 907, entered service in 1957. The Alaska numbering plan area is geographically the largest of any in the United States, it is the second-largest on the NANP and on the entire North American continent behind 867, which serves Canada's northern territories. Because the Aleutian Islands of Alaska cross longitude 180, the Anti-Meridian, 907 may be considered to be both the farthest west and the farthest east of all area codes in the NANP. Due to Alaska's low population, 907 is one of only 12 remaining area codes serving an entire state.
It is not projected to be exhausted until 2029. Many calls within Alaska are long-distance calls and must be dialed with the leading 1-907, except for cellphone services. Local calls and cellphone calls for long-distance service within Alaska, only require seven-digit dialing. At the time of its creation, area code 907 was one of the two longest area codes to dial on a rotary phone, taking 26 pulses to dial out in an era before the first touch tone phones; this is the same number of pulses as Hawaii's area code 808, introduced the same year. List of NANP area codes NANPA Area Code Map of Alaska List of exchanges from AreaCodeDownload.com, 907 Area Code
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for
'Chitina is a census-designated place in Valdez-Cordova Census Area, United States. At the 2010 census the population was 126, up from 123 in 2000. Chitina is located on the west bank of the Copper River at its confluence with the Chitina River on the Edgerton Highway, junction with the McCarthy Road, it is 106 km southeast of Glennallen. It is outside the western boundary of the Wrangell - Preserve. In 1945, work had begun to convert the CR&NW railroad line, from Cordova to Kennicott, into a highway, but work halted with the 1964 Good Friday earthquake, leaving a significant gap between Chitina and the Million Dollar Bridge near Cordova; the rail route from Chitina to Kennicott is the McCarthy Road. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 95.8 square miles, of which, 84.6 square miles of it is land and 11.1 square miles of it is water. Chitina has a continental subarctic climate. Chitina first appeared on the 1920 U. S. Census as an unincorporated village, it was made a census-designated place in 1980.
As of the census of 2000, there were 123 people, 52 households, 30 families residing in the CDP. The population density was 1.5 people per square mile. There were 54 housing units at an average density of 0.6/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 51.22% White, 33.33% Alaskan Native, 15.45% from two or more races. There were 52 households out of which 23.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 42.3% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.3% were non-families. 36.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 3.07. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 29.3% under the age of 18, 7.3% from 18 to 24, 23.6% from 25 to 44, 30.9% from 45 to 64, 8.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.3 males.
The median income for a household in the CDP was $26,000, the median income for a family was $28,750. Males had a median income of $31,250 versus $17,500 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $10,835. There were 3.3% of families and 12.7% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 15.4% of those over 64. Athabascans have lived in the area around Chitina for centuries as evidenced by the archaeological sites south and east of Chitina. Before 1900, Chitina was the site of large village whose population was decimated by the influx of people and conflicts. Copper ore was discovered in about 1900 along the northern edge of the Chitina River valley; this brought a rush of homesteaders to the area. Stephen Birch homesteaded the site in 1908; the Copper River and Northwestern Railway enabled Chitina to develop into a thriving community by 1914. It had a general store, a clothing store, a meat market, stables, a tinsmith, five hotels, several rooming houses, a pool hall, restaurants, dance halls and a movie theater.
The mines closed in 1938 and the remaining support activities moved to what is now the Glennallen area. Chitina became a virtual ghost town. Otto Adrian Nelson, a surveying engineer for the Kennecott Mines bought up much of the town, he built a unique hydroelectric system. He supplied much of the town center with hot and cold running water. Current activity in Chitina revolves around the dipnet fishing for salmon. Alaskans are allowed to dip a large number of salmon during their spawning runs and Chitina is an accessible and popular place for this activity. In late 1977, jeweler Art Koeninger purchased the "Chitina Tin Shop" with the intention of turning it into a residence. In 1979, the site known as "Fred's Place" and "Schaupp's," was placed on the National Register of Historic Places and has won two historic preservation grants, it houses the Spirit Mountain Artworks
1964 Alaska earthquake
The 1964 Alaskan earthquake known as the Great Alaskan earthquake and Good Friday earthquake, occurred at 5:36 PM AKST on Good Friday, March 27. Across south-central Alaska, ground fissures, collapsing structures, tsunamis resulting from the earthquake caused about 131 deaths. Lasting four minutes and thirty-eight seconds, the magnitude 9.2 megathrust earthquake remains the most powerful earthquake recorded in North American history, the second most powerful earthquake recorded in world history. Six hundred miles of fault ruptured at once and moved up to 60 ft, releasing about 500 years of stress buildup. Soil liquefaction, fissures and other ground failures caused major structural damage in several communities and much damage to property. Anchorage sustained great destruction or damage to many inadequately earthquake-engineered houses and infrastructure in the several landslide zones along Knik Arm. Two hundred miles southwest, some areas near Kodiak were permanently raised by 30 feet. Southeast of Anchorage, areas around the head of Turnagain Arm near Girdwood and Portage dropped as much as 8 feet, requiring reconstruction and fill to raise the Seward Highway above the new high tide mark.
In Prince William Sound, Port Valdez suffered a massive underwater landslide, resulting in the deaths of 32 people between the collapse of the Valdez city harbor and docks, inside the ship, docked there at the time. Nearby, a 27-foot tsunami destroyed the village of Chenega, killing 23 of the 68 people who lived there. Post-quake tsunamis affected Whittier, Seward and other Alaskan communities, as well as people and property in British Columbia, Washington and California. Tsunamis caused damage in Hawaii and Japan. Evidence of motion directly related to the earthquake was reported from Florida and Texas. On March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m. AKST, a fault between the Pacific and North American plates ruptured near College Fjord in Prince William Sound; the epicenter of the earthquake was 12.4 mi north of Prince William Sound, 78 miles east of Anchorage and 40 miles west of Valdez. The focus occurred at a depth of 15.5 mi. Ocean floor shifts created large tsunamis, which resulted in many of the deaths and much of the property damage.
Large rockslides were caused, resulting in great property damage. Vertical displacement of up to 38 feet occurred, affecting an area of 100,000 square miles within Alaska. Studies of ground motion have led to a peak ground acceleration estimate of 0.14–0.18 g. The Alaska earthquake was a subduction zone earthquake, caused by an oceanic plate sinking under a continental plate; the fault responsible was the Aleutian Megathrust, a reverse fault caused by a compressional force. This caused much of the uneven ground, the result of ground shifted to the opposite elevation. Two types of tsunamis were produced by this subduction zone earthquake. There was a tectonic tsunami produced in addition to local tsunamis; these smaller tsunamis were produced by submarine and subaerial landslides and were responsible for the majority of the tsunami damage. Tsunami waves were noted in over 20 countries, including Peru, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Japan and Antarctica; the largest tsunami wave was recorded in Shoup Bay, with a height of about 220 ft. Tremors were detected in water wells in Australia.
As a result of the earthquake, 131 people are believed to have died: Nine died as a result of the earthquake itself, 122 died from the subsequent tsunami in places all around the world, five died from the tsunami in Oregon, 13 died from the tsunami in California. The quake was a reported XI on the modified Mercalli Intensity scale "indicating major structural damage, ground fissures and failures". Property damage was estimated at about $116 million, it is that the toll would have been much higher had the quake not occurred after 5 PM on Good Friday. Most damage occurred in Anchorage, 75 mi northwest of the epicenter. Anchorage was not hit by tsunamis, but downtown Anchorage was damaged, parts of the city built on sandy bluffs overlying "Bootlegger Cove clay" near Cook Inlet, most notably the Turnagain neighborhood, suffered landslide damage; the neighborhood lost 75 houses in the landslide, the destroyed area has since been turned into Earthquake Park. The Government Hill school suffered from the Government Hill landslide, leaving it in two jagged, broken pieces.
Land overlooking the Ship Creek valley near the Alaska Railroad yards slid, destroying many acres of buildings and city blocks in downtown Anchorage. Most other areas of the city were only moderately damaged; the 60-foot concrete control tower at Anchorage International Airport was not engineered to withstand earthquake activity and collapsed, killing William George Taylor, the Federal Aviation Agency air traffic controller on duty in the tower cab at the time the earthquake began. One house on W. 10th Avenue suffered peripheral damage, but only one block away the completed Four Seasons Building on Ninth Avenue collapsed with the concrete elevator shafts sticking up out of the rubble like a seesaw. The hamlets of Girdwood and Portage, located 30 and 40 mi southeast of central Anchorage on the Turnagain Arm, were destroyed by subsidence and subsequent tidal action. Girdwood was relocated inland and Portage was abandoned
'Chisana is a ghost town abandoned and a census-designated place in the Valdez-Cordova Census Area in the U. S. state of Alaska. As of the 2010 Census, the population of the CDP was 0; the English name Chisana derives from the Ahtna Athabascan name Tsetsaan' Na', meaning literally'copper river'. The Chisana River joins the Nabesna River just north of Northway Junction, Alaska, to form the Tanana River, a major tributary of the Yukon River; the Chisana Airport consists of a turf and gravel runway, serviced by flights from Tok, Alaska. In 1985, the community was listed as Chisana Historic District on the National Register of Historic Places as a historic district. In 1998 the Chisana Historic Mining Landscape historic district, comprising the community and a wide 27,000 acres area located in Valdez-Cordova Census Area and in Southeast Fairbanks Census Area, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 86.7 square miles, of which 86.7 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water.
The total area is 0.10% water. Chisana is the highest community in Alaska at 3,318 feet above sea level. Chisana first appeared on the 1920 U. S. Census as an unincorporated community, it appeared twice more in 1930 and 1940. It would not appear again until 2000. However, in both 2000 and 2010, it reported no residents. National Register of Historic Places listings in Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve National Register of Historic Places listings in Valdez-Cordova Census Area, Alaska National Register of Historic Places listings in Southeast Fairbanks Census Area, Alaska Chisana Airport Historic American Landscapes Survey No. AK-6, "Scenic views, Valdez-Cordova Census Area, AK", 3 color transparencies, 1 photo caption page
The Alutiiq people called by their ancestral name Sugpiaq, as well as Pacific Eskimo or Pacific Yupik, are a southern coastal people of Alaska Natives. They are not to be confused with the Aleuts, who live further to the southwest, including along the Aleutian Islands, their traditional homelands include Prince William Sound and outer Kenai Peninsula, the Kodiak Archipelago and the Alaska Peninsula. In the early 1800s there were more than 60 Alutiiq villages in the Kodiak archipelago, with an estimated population of 13,000 people. Today more than 4,000 Alutiiq people live in Alaska. At present, the most used title is Alutiiq, Alutiit; these terms derive from the names that Russian fur traders and settlers gave to the native people in the region. Russian occupation began in 1784, following their massacre of hundreds of Sugpiat at Refuge Rock just off the coast of Sitkalidak Island near the present-day village of Old Harbor. Given the violence underlying the colonial period, confusion because the Sugpiaq term for Aleut is Alutiiq, some Alaska Natives from the region have advocated use of the terms that the people themselves use to describe their people and language: Sugpiaq, Sugpiat — to identify the people, Sugstun, Sugt'stun, or Sugtestun to refer to the language.
All three names are used now, according to personal preference. Over time, many other ethnonyms were used to refer to this people; the people traditionally lived a coastal lifestyle, subsisting on ocean resources such as salmon and whale. They supplemented these maritime foods such as berries and land mammals. Before contact with Russian fur traders, they lived in semi-subterranean homes called ciqlluaq. Today, in the 21st century, the Alutiiq live in coastal fishing communities in more modern housing, they work in all aspects of the modern economy, while maintaining the cultural value of subsistence. In 2010 the high school in Kodiak responded to requests from Alutiiq students and agreed to teach the Alutiiq language, it is one of the Eskimo languages, belonging to the Yup'ik branch of these languages. The Kodiak dialect of the language was being spoken by only about 50 persons, all of them elderly, the dialect was in danger of being lost entirely. Alvin Eli Amason and sculptor Sven Haakanson, executive director of the Alutiiq Museum, winner of a 2007 MacArthur Fellowship.
Loren Leman, Lieutenant-governor of Alaska, 2002-2006 Cungagnaq known as Peter the Aleut, an Eastern Orthodox saint from Kodiak Island. Chugach Awa'uq Massacre Alutiiq Museum Alaska Native Language Center: Alaska Native Languages Map Alaskan Orthodox Christian texts Alutiiq Museum List of Native American peoples in the United States
Alaska is a U. S. state in the northwest extremity of North America, just across the Bering Strait from Asia. The Canadian province of British Columbia and territory of Yukon border the state to the east and southeast, its most extreme western part is Attu Island, it has a maritime border with Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. To the north are the Chukchi and Beaufort seas—southern parts of the Arctic Ocean; the Pacific Ocean lies to southwest. It is the largest U. S. state by the seventh largest subnational division in the world. In addition, it is the most sparsely populated of the 50 United States. Half of Alaska's residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. Alaska's economy is dominated by the fishing, natural gas, oil industries, resources which it has in abundance. Military bases and tourism are a significant part of the economy; the United States purchased Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for 7.2 million U. S. dollars at two cents per acre. The area went through several administrative changes before becoming organized as a territory on May 11, 1912.
It was admitted as the 49th state of the U. S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" was introduced in the Russian colonial period when it was used to refer to the Alaska Peninsula, it was derived from an Aleut-language idiom. It means object to which the action of the sea is directed. Alaska is the northernmost and westernmost state in the United States and has the most easterly longitude in the United States because the Aleutian Islands extend into the Eastern Hemisphere. Alaska is the only non-contiguous U. S. state on continental North America. It is technically part of the continental U. S. but is sometimes not included in colloquial use. S. called "the Lower 48". The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system; the state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south and southwest, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north.
Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian Big Diomede Island and Alaskan Little Diomede Island are only 3 miles apart. Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U. S. states combined. Alaska is the largest state in the United States by total area at 663,268 square miles, over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries. Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas and Montana, it is larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U. S. states. There are no defined borders demarcating the various regions of Alaska, but there are six accepted regions: The most populous region of Alaska, containing Anchorage, the Matanuska-Susitna Valley and the Kenai Peninsula. Rural unpopulated areas south of the Alaska Range and west of the Wrangell Mountains fall within the definition of South Central, as do the Prince William Sound area and the communities of Cordova and Valdez.
Referred to as the Panhandle or Inside Passage, this is the region of Alaska closest to the rest of the United States. As such, this was where most of the initial non-indigenous settlement occurred in the years following the Alaska Purchase; the region is dominated by the Alexander Archipelago as well as the Tongass National Forest, the largest national forest in the United States. It contains the state capital Juneau, the former capital Sitka, Ketchikan, at one time Alaska's largest city; the Alaska Marine Highway provides a vital surface transportation link throughout the area, as only three communities enjoy direct connections to the contiguous North American road system. Designated in 1963; the Interior is the largest region of Alaska. Fairbanks is the only large city in the region. Denali National Park and Preserve is located here. Denali is the highest mountain in North America. Southwest Alaska is a sparsely inhabited region stretching some 500 miles inland from the Bering Sea. Most of the population lives along the coast.
Kodiak Island is located in Southwest. The massive Yukon–Kuskokwim Delta, one of the largest river deltas in the world, is here. Portions of the Alaska Peninsula are considered part of Southwest, with the remaining portions included with the Aleutian Islands; the North Slope is tundra peppered with small villages. The area is known for its massive reserves of crude oil, contains both the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska and the Prudhoe Bay Oil Field; the city of Utqiagvik known as Barrow, is the northernmost city in the United States and is located here. The Northwest Arctic area, anchored by Kotzebue and containing the Kobuk River valley, is regarded as being part of this region. However, the respective Inupiat of the No