Hanyu Pinyin abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan. It is used to teach Standard Mandarin Chinese, written using Chinese characters; the system includes four diacritics denoting tones. Pinyin without tone marks is used to spell Chinese names and words in languages written with the Latin alphabet, in certain computer input methods to enter Chinese characters; the pinyin system was developed in the 1950s by many linguists, including Zhou Youguang, based on earlier forms of romanizations of Chinese. It was published by revised several times; the International Organization for Standardization adopted pinyin as an international standard in 1982, was followed by the United Nations in 1986. The system was adopted as the official standard in Taiwan in 2009, where it is used for international events rather than for educational or computer-input purposes, but "some cities and organizations, notably in the south of Taiwan, did not accept this", so it remains one of several rival romanization systems in use.
The word Hànyǔ means'the spoken language of the Han people', while Pīnyīn means'spelled sounds'. In 1605, the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci published Xizi Qiji in Beijing; this was the first book to use the Roman alphabet to write the Chinese language. Twenty years another Jesuit in China, Nicolas Trigault, issued his Xi Ru Ermu Zi at Hangzhou. Neither book had much immediate impact on the way in which Chinese thought about their writing system, the romanizations they described were intended more for Westerners than for the Chinese. One of the earliest Chinese thinkers to relate Western alphabets to Chinese was late Ming to early Qing dynasty scholar-official, Fang Yizhi; the first late Qing reformer to propose that China adopt a system of spelling was Song Shu. A student of the great scholars Yu Yue and Zhang Taiyan, Song had been to Japan and observed the stunning effect of the kana syllabaries and Western learning there; this galvanized him into activity on a number of fronts, one of the most important being reform of the script.
While Song did not himself create a system for spelling Sinitic languages, his discussion proved fertile and led to a proliferation of schemes for phonetic scripts. The Wade–Giles system was produced by Thomas Wade in 1859, further improved by Herbert Giles in the Chinese–English Dictionary of 1892, it was popular and used in English-language publications outside China until 1979. In the early 1930s, Communist Party of China leaders trained in Moscow introduced a phonetic alphabet using Roman letters, developed in the Soviet Oriental Institute of Leningrad and was intended to improve literacy in the Russian Far East; this Sin Wenz or "New Writing" was much more linguistically sophisticated than earlier alphabets, but with the major exception that it did not indicate tones of Chinese. In 1940, several thousand members attended a Border Region Sin Wenz Society convention. Mao Zedong and Zhu De, head of the army, both contributed their calligraphy for the masthead of the Sin Wenz Society's new journal.
Outside the CCP, other prominent supporters included Sun Fo. Over thirty journals soon appeared written in Sin Wenz, plus large numbers of translations, some contemporary Chinese literature, a spectrum of textbooks. In 1940, the movement reached an apex when Mao's Border Region Government declared that the Sin Wenz had the same legal status as traditional characters in government and public documents. Many educators and political leaders looked forward to the day when they would be universally accepted and replace Chinese characters. Opposition arose, because the system was less well adapted to writing regional languages, therefore would require learning Mandarin. Sin Wenz fell into relative disuse during the following years. In 1943, the U. S. military engaged Yale University to develop a romanization of Mandarin Chinese for its pilots flying over China. The resulting system is close to pinyin, but does not use English letters in unfamiliar ways. Medial semivowels are written with y and w, apical vowels with r or z.
Accent marks are used to indicate tone. Pinyin was created by Chinese linguists, including Zhou Youguang, as part of a Chinese government project in the 1950s. Zhou is called "the father of pinyin," Zhou worked as a banker in New York when he decided to return to China to help rebuild the country after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949, he became an economics professor in Shanghai, in 1955, when China's Ministry of Education created a Committee for the Reform of the Chinese Written Language, Premier Zhou Enlai assigned Zhou Youguang the task of developing a new romanization system, despite the fact that he was not a professional linguist. Hanyu Pinyin was based on several existing systems: Gwoyeu Romatzyh of 1928, Latinxua Sin Wenz of 1931, the diacritic markings from zhuyin. "I'm not the father of pinyin," Zhou said years later. It's a lo
Jung Chang is a Chinese-born British writer now living in London, best known for her family autobiography Wild Swans, selling over 10 million copies worldwide but banned in the People's Republic of China. Her 832-page biography of Mao Zedong, Mao: The Unknown Story, written with her husband, the Irish historian Jon Halliday, was published in June 2005. Chang was born 25 March 1952 in Sichuan Province, China, her parents were both Communist Party of China officials, her father was interested in literature. As a child she developed a love of reading and writing, which included composing poetry; as Party cadres, life was good for her family at first. His formal ranking was as a "level 10 official", meaning that he was one of 20,000 or so most important cadres, or ganbu, in the country; the Communist Party provided her family with a dwelling in a guarded, walled compound, a maid and chauffeur, as well as a wet-nurse and nanny for Chang and her four siblings. This level of privilege in China's impoverished 1950s was extraordinary.
Chang writes that she was named Er-hong, which sounds like the Chinese word for "faded red". As communists were "deep red", she asked her father to rename her when she was 12 years old, specifying she wanted "a name with a military ring to it." He suggested "Jung", which means "martial affairs." Like many of her peers, Chang chose to become a Red Guard at the age of 14, during the early years of the Cultural Revolution. In Wild Swans she said she was "keen to do so", "thrilled by my red armband". In her memoirs, Chang states that she refused to participate in the attacks on her teachers and other Chinese, she left after a short period as she found the Red Guards too violent; the failures of the Great Leap Forward had led her parents to oppose Mao Zedong's policies. They were targeted during the Cultural Revolution; when Chang's father criticised Mao by name, Chang writes in Wild Swans that this exposed them to retaliation from Mao's supporters. Her parents were publicly humiliated – ink was poured over their heads, they were forced to wear placards denouncing them around their necks, kneel in gravel and to stand outside in the rain – followed by imprisonment, her father's treatment leading to lasting physical and mental illness.
Their careers were destroyed, her family was forced to leave their home. Before her parents' denunciation and imprisonment, Chang had unquestioningly supported Mao and criticised herself for any momentary doubts, but by the time of his death, her respect for Mao, had been destroyed. Chang wrote that when she heard he had died, she had to bury her head in the shoulder of another student to pretend she was grieving, she explained her change on the stance of Mao with the following comments: The Chinese seemed to be mourning Mao in a heartfelt fashion. But I wondered. People had practiced acting to such a degree. Weeping for Mao was just another programmed act in their programmed lives. Chang's depiction of the Chinese people as having been "programmed" by Maoism would ring forth in her subsequent writings. According to Wild Swans, Chang's life during the Cultural Revolution and the years after the Cultural Revolution was one of both a victim and one of the privileged. Chang attended Sichuan University in 1973 and became one of the so-called "Students of Workers and Soldiers".
Her father's government-sponsored official funeral was held in 1975. Chang was able to leave China and study in the UK on a Chinese government scholarship in 1978, a year before the post-Mao Reforms began; the closing down of the university system led Chang, like most of her generation, away from the political maelstroms of the academy. Instead, she spent several years as a peasant, a barefoot doctor, a steelworker and an electrician, though she received no formal training because of Mao's policy, which did not require formal instruction as a prerequisite for such work; the universities were re-opened and she gained a place at Sichuan University to study English becoming an assistant lecturer there. After Mao's death, she passed an exam which allowed her to study in the West, her application to leave China was approved once her father was politically rehabilitated. Chang left China in 1978 staying first in London, she moved to Yorkshire, studying linguistics at the University of York with a scholarship from the university itself, living in Derwent College.
She received her PhD in linguistics from York in 1982, becoming the first person from the People's Republic of China to be awarded a PhD from a British university. In 1986, she and Jon Halliday published a biography of Sun Yat-Sen's widow, she has been awarded honorary doctorates from the University of Buckingham, the University of York, the University of Warwick, Dundee University, Bowdoin College, the Open University. She lectured for some time at the School of Oriental and African Studies in London, before leaving in the 1990s to concentrate on her writing. In 2003, Jung Chang wrote a new foreword to Wild Swans, describing her early life in Britain and explaining why she wrote the book. Having lived in China during the 1960s and 1970s, she found Britain exciting and loved the country its diverse range of culture and arts
Zixing is a county-level city in Hunan Province, China, it is under the administration of Chenzhou prefecture-level City. Located on the southeast of the province, it is near to the north of the Chenzhou city proper; the city is bordered to the northwest by Yongxing and Anren Counties, to the northeast by Yanling County, to the east by Guidong County, to the southeast by Rucheng County, to the southwest by Yizhang County, to the west by Suxian District. Zixing City covers 2,730.44 km2, as of 2015, It had a registered population of 378,400 and a resident population of 345,100. The city has 2 subdistricts, 9 towns and 2 townships under its jurisdiction, the government seat is Tangdong Subdistrict
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W and atomic number 74. The name tungsten comes from the former Swedish name for the tungstate mineral scheelite, tung sten or "heavy stone". Tungsten is a rare metal found on Earth exclusively combined with other elements in chemical compounds rather than alone, it was identified as a new element in 1781 and first isolated as a metal in 1783. Its important ores include scheelite; the free element is remarkable for its robustness the fact that it has the highest melting point of all the elements discovered, melting at 3422 °C. It has the highest boiling point, at 5930 °C, its density is 19.3 times that of water, comparable to that of uranium and gold, much higher than that of lead. Polycrystalline tungsten is an intrinsically hard material, making it difficult to work. However, pure single-crystalline tungsten can be cut with a hard-steel hacksaw. Tungsten's many alloys have numerous applications, including incandescent light bulb filaments, X-ray tubes, electrodes in gas tungsten arc welding and radiation shielding.
Tungsten's hardness and high density give it military applications in penetrating projectiles. Tungsten compounds are often used as industrial catalysts. Tungsten is the only metal from the third transition series, known to occur in biomolecules that are found in a few species of bacteria and archaea, it is the heaviest element known to be essential to any living organism. However, tungsten interferes with molybdenum and copper metabolism and is somewhat toxic to more familiar forms of animal life. In its raw form, tungsten is a hard steel-grey metal, brittle and hard to work. If made pure, tungsten retains its hardness, becomes malleable enough that it can be worked easily, it is worked by drawing, or extruding. Tungsten objects are commonly formed by sintering. Of all metals in pure form, tungsten has the highest melting point, lowest vapor pressure, the highest tensile strength. Although carbon remains solid at higher temperatures than tungsten, carbon sublimes at atmospheric pressure instead of melting, so it has no melting point.
Tungsten has the lowest coefficient of thermal expansion of any pure metal. The low thermal expansion and high melting point and tensile strength of tungsten originate from strong covalent bonds formed between tungsten atoms by the 5d electrons. Alloying small quantities of tungsten with steel increases its toughness. Tungsten exists in two major crystalline forms: α and β; the former is the more stable form. The structure of the β phase is called A15 cubic. Contrary to the α phase which crystallizes in isometric grains, the β form exhibits a columnar habit; the α phase has one third of the electrical resistivity and a much lower superconducting transition temperature TC relative to the β phase: ca. 0.015 K vs. 1–4 K. The TC value can be raised by alloying tungsten with another metal; such tungsten alloys are sometimes used in low-temperature superconducting circuits. Occurring tungsten consists of four stable isotopes and one long-lived radioisotope, 180W. Theoretically, all five can decay into isotopes of element 72 by alpha emission, but only 180W has been observed to do so, with a half-life of ×1018 years.
The other occurring isotopes have not been observed to decay, constraining their half-lives to be at least 4 × 1021 years. Another 30 artificial radioisotopes of tungsten have been characterized, the most stable of which are 181W with a half-life of 121.2 days, 185W with a half-life of 75.1 days, 188W with a half-life of 69.4 days, 178W with a half-life of 21.6 days, 187W with a half-life of 23.72 h. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than 3 hours, most of these have half-lives below 8 minutes. Tungsten has 11 meta states, with the most stable being 179mW. Elemental tungsten resists attack by oxygen and alkalis; the most common formal oxidation state of tungsten is +6, but it exhibits all oxidation states from −2 to +6. Tungsten combines with oxygen to form the yellow tungstic oxide, WO3, which dissolves in aqueous alkaline solutions to form tungstate ions, WO2−4. Tungsten carbides are produced by heating powdered tungsten with carbon. W2C is resistant to chemical attack, although it reacts with chlorine to form tungsten hexachloride.
In aqueous solution, tungstate gives the heteropoly acids and polyoxometalate anions under neutral and acidic conditions. As tungstate is progressively treated with acid, it first yields the soluble, metastable "paratungstate A" anion, W7O6–24, which over time converts to the less soluble "paratungstate B" anion, H2W12O10–42. Further acidification produces the soluble metatungstate anion, H2W12O6–40, after which equilibrium is reached; the metatungstate ion exists as a symmetric cluster of twelve tungsten-oxygen octahedra known as the Keggin anion. Many other polyoxometalate anions exist as metastable species; the inclusion of a different atom such as phosphorus in place of the two central hydrogens in metatungstate produces a wide v
Wugai Mountain Hunting Field
Wugai Mountain Hunting Field is located close to Chenzhou, in Hunan Province in China. This park space is a hunting area, it has an area of 80 square kilometres. The Wugai Mountain Hunting Field is one of the only two hunting fields in China, it is the sole hunting-permitted area south of the Yangtze. Forests covers 78 per cent of the total area of the Wugai Mountain Hunting Field. A total of 130 species of animals have been recorded from this area all of them existing in substantial numbers. Out of the 130, only 26 species are allowed to be hunted; some of these include wild boar, South China rabbit and badger. The Wugai Mountain Hunting Field has a mild climate and temperatures do not go to the extreme in either winter or summer, making it popular among holidayers, adventure seekers, scientists alike
Molybdenum is a chemical element with symbol Mo and atomic number 42. The name is from Neo-Latin molybdaenum, from Ancient Greek Μόλυβδος molybdos, meaning lead, since its ores were confused with lead ores. Molybdenum minerals have been known throughout history, but the element was discovered in 1778 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele; the metal was first isolated in 1781 by Peter Jacob Hjelm. Molybdenum does not occur as a free metal on Earth; the free element, a silvery metal with a gray cast, has the sixth-highest melting point of any element. It forms hard, stable carbides in alloys, for this reason most of world production of the element is used in steel alloys, including high-strength alloys and superalloys. Most molybdenum compounds have low solubility in water, but when molybdenum-bearing minerals contact oxygen and water, the resulting molybdate ion MoO2−4 is quite soluble. Industrially, molybdenum compounds are used in high-pressure and high-temperature applications as pigments and catalysts. Molybdenum-bearing enzymes are by far the most common bacterial catalysts for breaking the chemical bond in atmospheric molecular nitrogen in the process of biological nitrogen fixation.
At least 50 molybdenum enzymes are now known in bacteria and animals, although only bacterial and cyanobacterial enzymes are involved in nitrogen fixation. These nitrogenases contain molybdenum in a form different from other molybdenum enzymes, which all contain oxidized molybdenum in a molybdenum cofactor; these various molybdenum cofactor enzymes are vital to the organisms, molybdenum is an essential element for life in all higher eukaryote organisms, though not in all bacteria. In its pure form, molybdenum is a silvery-grey metal with a Mohs hardness of 5.5, a standard atomic weight of 95.95 g/mol. It has a melting point of 2,623 °C, it has one of the lowest coefficients of thermal expansion among commercially used metals. The tensile strength of molybdenum wires increases about 3 times, from about 10 to 30 GPa, when their diameter decreases from ~50–100 nm to 10 nm. Molybdenum is a transition metal with an electronegativity of 2.16 on the Pauling scale. It does not visibly react with water at room temperature.
Weak oxidation of molybdenum starts at 300 °C. Like many heavier transition metals, molybdenum shows little inclination to form a cation in aqueous solution, although the Mo3+ cation is known under controlled conditions. There are 35 known isotopes of molybdenum, ranging in atomic mass from 83 to 117, as well as four metastable nuclear isomers. Seven isotopes occur with atomic masses of 92, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 100. Of these occurring isotopes, only molybdenum-100 is unstable. Molybdenum-98 is the most abundant isotope, comprising 24.14% of all molybdenum. Molybdenum-100 has a half-life of about 1019 y and undergoes double beta decay into ruthenium-100. Molybdenum isotopes with mass numbers from 111 to 117 all have half-lives of 150 ns. All unstable isotopes of molybdenum decay into isotopes of niobium and ruthenium; as noted below, the most common isotopic molybdenum application involves molybdenum-99, a fission product. It is a parent radioisotope to the short-lived gamma-emitting daughter radioisotope technetium-99m, a nuclear isomer used in various imaging applications in medicine.
In 2008, the Delft University of Technology applied for a patent on the molybdenum-98-based production of molybdenum-99. Molybdenum forms chemical compounds in oxidation states from -II to +VI. Higher oxidation states are more relevant to its terrestrial occurrence and its biological roles, mid-level oxidation states are associated with metal clusters, low oxidation states are associated with organomolybdenum compounds. Mo and W chemistry shows strong similarities; the relative rarity of molybdenum, for example, contrasts with the pervasiveness of the chromium compounds. The highest oxidation state is seen in molybdenum oxide, whereas the normal sulfur compound is molybdenum disulfide MoS2. From the perspective of commerce, the most important compounds are molybdenum disulfide and molybdenum trioxide; the black disulfide is the main mineral. It is roasted in air to give the trioxide: 2 MoS2 + 7 O2 → 2 MoO3 + 4 SO2The trioxide, volatile at high temperatures, is the precursor to all other Mo compounds as well as alloys.
Molybdenum has several oxidation states, the most stable being +4 and +6. Molybdenum oxide is soluble in strong alkaline water, forming molybdates. Molybdates are weaker oxidants than chromates, they tend to form structurally complex oxyanions by condensation at lower pH values, such as 6− and 4−. Polymolybdates can incorporate other ions; the dark-blue phosphorus-containing heteropolymolybdate P3− is used for the spectroscopic detection of phosphorus. The broad range of oxidation states of molybdenum is reflected in various molybdenum chlorides: Molybdenum chloride MoCl2, which exists as the hexamer Mo6Cl12 and the related dianion 2-. Molybdenum chloride MoCl3, a dark red solid, which converts to the anion trianionic complex 3-. Molybdenum chloride MoCl4, a black solid, which adopts a polymeric structure. Molybdenum chloride MoCl5 dark green solid that
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83. It is a pentavalent post-transition metal and one of the pnictogens with chemical properties resembling its lighter homologs arsenic and antimony. Elemental bismuth may occur although its sulfide and oxide form important commercial ores; the free element is 86% as dense as lead. It is a brittle metal with a silvery white color when freshly produced, but surface oxidation can give it a pink tinge. Bismuth is the most diamagnetic element, has one of the lowest values of thermal conductivity among metals. Bismuth was long considered the element with the highest atomic mass, stable, but in 2003 it was discovered to be weakly radioactive: its only primordial isotope, bismuth-209, decays via alpha decay with a half-life more than a billion times the estimated age of the universe; because of its tremendously long half-life, bismuth may still be considered stable for all purposes. Bismuth metal has been known since ancient times, although it was confused with lead and tin, which share some physical properties.
The etymology is uncertain, but comes from Arabic bi ismid, meaning having the properties of antimony or the German words weiße Masse or Wismuth, translated in the mid-sixteenth century to New Latin bisemutum. Bismuth compounds account for about half the production of bismuth, they are used in cosmetics, a few pharmaceuticals, notably bismuth subsalicylate, used to treat diarrhea. Bismuth's unusual propensity to expand as it solidifies is responsible for some of its uses, such as in casting of printing type. Bismuth has unusually low toxicity for a heavy metal; as the toxicity of lead has become more apparent in recent years, there is an increasing use of bismuth alloys as a replacement for lead. The name bismuth dates from around the 1660s, is of uncertain etymology, it is one of the first 10 metals to have been discovered. Bismuth appears in the 1660s, from obsolete German Bismuth, Wissmuth; the New Latin bisemutum is from the German Wismuth from weiße Masse, "white mass". The element was confused in early times with tin and lead because of its resemblance to those elements.
Bismuth has been known since ancient times, so no one person is credited with its discovery. Agricola, in De Natura Fossilium states that bismuth is a distinct metal in a family of metals including tin and lead; this was based on observation of their physical properties. Miners in the age of alchemy gave bismuth the name tectum argenti, or "silver being made," in the sense of silver still in the process of being formed within the Earth. Beginning with Johann Heinrich Pott in 1738, Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Torbern Olof Bergman, the distinctness of lead and bismuth became clear, Claude François Geoffroy demonstrated in 1753 that this metal is distinct from lead and tin. Bismuth was known to the Incas and used in a special bronze alloy for knives. Bismuth is a brittle metal with a white, silver-pink hue with an iridescent oxide tarnish showing many colors from yellow to blue; the spiral, stair-stepped structure of bismuth crystals is the result of a higher growth rate around the outside edges than on the inside edges.
The variations in the thickness of the oxide layer that forms on the surface of the crystal cause different wavelengths of light to interfere upon reflection, thus displaying a rainbow of colors. When burned in oxygen, bismuth burns with a blue flame and its oxide forms yellow fumes, its toxicity is much lower than that of its neighbors in the periodic table, such as lead and polonium. No other metal is verified to be more diamagnetic than bismuth. Of any metal, it has one of the lowest values of thermal conductivity and the highest Hall coefficient, it has a high electrical resistivity. When deposited in sufficiently thin layers on a substrate, bismuth is a semiconductor, despite being a post-transition metal. Elemental bismuth is denser in the liquid phase than the solid, a characteristic it shares with germanium, silicon and water. Bismuth expands 3.32% on solidification. Though unseen in nature, high-purity bismuth can form distinctive, colorful hopper crystals, it is nontoxic and has a low melting point just above 271 °C, so crystals may be grown using a household stove, although the resulting crystals will tend to be lower quality than lab-grown crystals.
At ambient conditions bismuth shares the same layered structure as the metallic forms of arsenic and antimony, crystallizing in the rhombohedral lattice, classed into trigonal or hexagonal crystal systems. When compressed at room temperature, this Bi-I structure changes first to the monoclinic Bi-II at 2.55 GPa to the tetragonal Bi-III at 2.7 GPa, to the body-centered cubic Bi-IV at 7.7 GPa. The corresponding transitions can be monitored via changes in electrical conductivity. Bismuth is stable to both moist air at ordinary temperatures; when red-hot, it reacts with water to make bismuth oxide. 2 Bi + 3 H2O → Bi2O3 + 3 H2It reacts with fluorine to