David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, was a British statesman and Liberal Party politician. He was the final Liberal to serve as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom; as Chancellor of the Exchequer during H. H. Asquith's tenure as Prime Minister, Lloyd George was a key figure in the introduction of many reforms which laid the foundations of the modern welfare state, his most important role came as the energetic Prime Minister of the Wartime Coalition Government and after the First World War. He was a major player at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 that reordered Europe after the defeat of the Central Powers. Although he remained Prime Minister after the 1918 general election, the Conservatives were the largest party in the coalition, with the Liberals split between those loyal to Lloyd George, those still supporting Asquith, he became the leader of the Liberal Party in the late 1920s, but it grew smaller and more divided. By the 1930s he was a marginalised and mistrusted figure.
He gave weak support to the war effort during the Second World War amidst fears that he was favourable toward Germany. He was voted the third-greatest British prime minister of the 20th century in a poll of 139 academics organised by the market-research company MORI, was named among the 100 Greatest Britons in a UK-wide vote in 2002. Lloyd George was born on 17 January 1863 in Chorlton-on-Medlock, Manchester, to Welsh parents, was brought up as a Welsh-speaker, he is so far the only British Prime Minister to have been Welsh and to have spoken English as a second language. His father, William George, had been a teacher in both Liverpool, he taught in the Hope Street Sunday Schools, which were administered by the Unitarians, where he met Unitarian minister Dr James Martineau. In March of the same year, on account of his failing health, William George returned with his family to his native Pembrokeshire, he took up farming but died in June 1864 of pneumonia, aged 44. His widow, Elizabeth George, sold the farm and moved with her children to her native Llanystumdwy in Caernarfonshire, where she lived in a cottage known as Highgate with her brother Richard Lloyd, a shoemaker, a minister, a strong Liberal.
Lloyd George was educated at the local Anglican school Llanystumdwy National School and under tutors. Lloyd George's uncle was a towering influence on him, encouraging him to take up a career in law and enter politics, he added his uncle's surname to become "Lloyd George". His surname is given as "Lloyd George" and sometimes as "George"; the influence of his childhood showed through in his entire career, as he attempted to aid the common man at the expense of what he liked to call "the Dukes". However, his biographer John Grigg argued that Lloyd George's childhood was nowhere near as poverty-stricken as he liked to suggest, that a great deal of his self-confidence came from having been brought up by an uncle who enjoyed a position of influence and prestige in his small community. Brought up a devout evangelical, as a young man he lost his religious faith. Biographer Don Cregier says he became "a Deist and an agnostic, though he remained a chapel-goer and connoisseur of good preaching all his life."
He kept quiet about that and was, according to Frank Owen, for 25 years "one of the foremost fighting leaders of a fanatical Welsh Nonconformity". It was during this period of his life that Lloyd George first became interested in the issue of land ownership; as a young man he read books by Thomas Spence, John Stuart Mill and Henry George, as well as pamphlets written by George Bernard Shaw and Sidney Webb of the Fabian Society on the issue of land ownership. By the age of twenty-one, he had read and taken notes on Henry George's Progress and Poverty; this influenced Lloyd George's politics in life. Articled to a firm of solicitors in Porthmadog, Lloyd George was admitted in 1884 after taking Honours in his final law examination and set up his own practice in the back parlour of his uncle's house in 1885; the practice flourished, he established branch offices in surrounding towns, taking his brother William into partnership in 1887. Although many Prime Ministers have been barristers, Lloyd George is to date the only solicitor to have held that office.
By he was politically active, having campaigned for the Liberal Party in the 1885 election, attracted by Joseph Chamberlain's "unauthorised programme" of reforms. The election resulted firstly in a stalemate with neither the Liberals nor the Conservatives having a majority, the balance of power being held by the Irish Parliamentary Party. William Gladstone's proposal to bring about Irish Home Rule split the party, with Chamberlain leading the breakaway Liberal Unionists. Uncertain of which wing to follow, Lloyd George carried a pro-Chamberlain resolution at the local Liberal Club and travelled to Birmingham to attend the first meeting of Chamberlain's National Radical Union, but he had his dates wrong and arrived a week too early. In 1907, he was to say that he thought Chamberlain's plan for a federal solution correct in 1886 and still thought so, that he preferred the unauthorised programme to the Whig-like platform of the official Liberal Party, that, had Chamberlain proposed solutions to Welsh grievances such as land reform and disestablishment, he, together with most Welsh Liberals, would have followed Chamberlain.
He married Margaret Owen
Ellesborough is a village and civil parish in Wycombe district in Buckinghamshire, England. The village is at the foot of the Chiltern Hills just to the south of the Vale of Aylesbury, two miles from Wendover and five miles from Aylesbury, it lies between the village of Little Kimble. The civil parish includes the hamlets of Butlers Cross, Chalkshire and Dunsmore. Close to Ellesborough is the Prime Minister's country residence Chequers; the village's name is derived from the Old English for "hill where asses are pastured". This denotes its importance to the nearby settlements known today as The Kimbles and collectively they comprise a typical Chiltern strip parish with Ellesborough containing valuable hill pasture. In the Domesday Book of 1086 it was recorded as Esenberge; the road from Wendover to Princes Risborough, which makes a clearly defined detour around the hill on which Ellesborough Church stands, follows the route of the Icknield Way, an ancient trackway used by man in the neolithic age which ran from Norfolk to Avebury in Wiltshire.
Towering over the village is the dominating Beacon Hill, with its grassy mound and lone tree, iconic amongst the Chiltern Hills when viewed from within the Aylesbury Vale. It is the site of Cymbeline's Mount known as Cymbeline's Castle, referred to in the Shakespeare play Cymbeline. In reality, the name refers to the British King Cunobelinus who, alongside his sons, is said to have battled at this site against the Roman Invasion of the British Isles, it is the site of a medieval bailey castle. The Church of England parish church of Saints Peter and Paul stands apart from the village, high on the hill overlooking it. Prime Ministers have attended this church for Sunday morning worship when in residence at Chequers. Tony Blair, followed his wife and children to their Roman Catholic church in Great Missenden. Margaret Thatcher was famously known to have prayed at Ellesborough church, finding comfort during the Falklands War. Notable people who live in the village include former Formula One world champion racing driver Sir Jackie Stewart and the actor Sir David Jason.
Wycombe District Council Media related to Ellesborough at Wikimedia Commons
Military camouflage is the use of camouflage by a armed force to protect personnel and equipment from observation by enemy forces. In practice, this means applying colour and materials to military equipment of all kinds, including vehicles, aircraft, gun positions and battledress, either to conceal it from observation, or to make it appear as something else; the French slang word camouflage came into common English usage during World War I when the concept of visual deception developed into an essential part of modern military tactics. In that war, long-range artillery and observation from the air combined to expand the field of fire, camouflage was used to decrease the danger of being targeted or to enable surprise; as such, military camouflage is a form of military deception. Camouflage was first practiced in simple form in the mid 18th century by jäger- or rifle units, their tasks required them to be inconspicuous, they were issued green and other drab colour uniforms. With the advent of longer range and more accurate weapons the repeating rifle, camouflage was adopted for the uniforms of all armies, spreading to most forms of military equipment including ships and aircraft.
Many modern camouflage textiles address visibility not only to visible light but near infrared, for concealment from night vision devices. Camouflage is not only visual; some forms of camouflage have elements of scale invariance, designed to disrupt outlines at different distances digital camouflage patterns made of pixels. Camouflage patterns have cultural functions such as political identification. Camouflage for equipment and positions was extensively developed for military use by the French in 1915, soon followed by other World War I armies. In both world wars, artists were recruited as camouflage officers. Ship camouflage developed via conspicuous dazzle camouflage schemes during WWI, but since the development of radar, ship camouflage has received less attention. Aircraft in World War II, were painted with different schemes above and below, to camouflage them against the ground and sky respectively. Military camouflage patterns have been popular in fashion and art from as early as 1915. Camouflage patterns have appeared in the work of artists such as Andy Warhol and Ian Hamilton Finlay, sometimes with an anti-war message.
In fashion, many major designers have exploited camouflage's style and symbolism, military clothing or imitations of it have been used both as street wear and as a symbol of political protest. Military camouflage is part of the art of military deception; the main objective of military camouflage is to deceive the enemy as to the presence and intentions of military formations. Camouflage techniques include concealment and dummies, applied to troops and positions. Vision is the main sense of orientation in humans, the primary function of camouflage is to deceive the human eye. Camouflage works through concealment, mimicry, or by dazzle. In modern warfare, some forms of camouflage, for example face paints offer concealment from infrared sensors, while CADPAT textiles in addition help to provide concealment from radar. While camouflage tricks are in principle limitless, both cost and practical considerations limit the choice of methods and the time and effort devoted to camouflage. Paint and uniforms must protect vehicles and soldiers from the elements.
Units need to move, fire their weapons and perform other tasks to keep functional, some of which run counter to camouflage. Camouflage may be dropped altogether. Late in the Second World War, the USAAF abandoned camouflage paint for some aircraft to lure enemy fighters to attack, while in the Cold War, some aircraft flew with polished metal skins, to reduce drag and weight, or to reduce vulnerability to radiation from nuclear weapons. No single camouflage pattern is effective in all terrains; the effectiveness of a pattern depends on contrast as well as colour tones. Strong contrasts which disrupt outlines are better suited for environments such as forests where the play of light and shade is prominent, while low contrasts are better suited to open terrain with little shading structure. Terrain-specific camouflage patterns, made to match the local terrain, may be more effective in that terrain than more general patterns. However, unlike an animal or a civilian hunter, military units may need to cross several terrain types like woodland and built up areas in a single day.
While civilian hunting clothing may have photo-realistic depictions of tree bark or leaves, military camouflage is designed to work in a range of environments. With the cost of uniforms in particular being substantial, most armies operating globally have two separate full uniforms, one for woodland/jungle and one for desert and other dry terrain. An American attempt at a global camouflage pattern for all environments was however withdrawn after a few years of service. On the other end of the scale are terrain specific patterns like the "Berlin camo", applied to British vehicles operating in Berlin during the Cold War, where square fields of various gray shades was designed to hide vehicles against the concrete architecture of post-war Berlin. Camouflage patterns serve cultural functions alongside concealment. Apart from concealment, uniforms are the primary means for soldiers to tell friends and enemies apart; the camouflage experts and evolutionary zoologists L. Talas, R. J. Baddeley and Innes Cuthill analyzed calibrated photographs
Brexit is the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union. Following a referendum held on 23 June 2016 in which 51.9 per cent of those voting supported leaving the EU, the invocation of Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union started a two-year process, due to conclude with the UK's exit on 29 March 2019, a deadline, extended to 31 October 2019. Withdrawal has been advocated by Eurosceptics, both left-wing and right-wing, while pro-Europeanists, who span the political spectrum, have advocated continued membership; the UK joined the European Communities in 1973 under the Conservative government of Edward Heath, with continued membership endorsed by a referendum in 1975. In the 1970s and 1980s, withdrawal from the EC was advocated by the political left, with the Labour Party's 1983 election manifesto advocating full withdrawal. From the 1990s, opposition to further European integration came from the right, divisions within the Conservative Party led to rebellion over the Maastricht Treaty in 1992.
The growth of the UK Independence Party in the early 2010s and the influence of the cross-party People's Pledge campaign have been described as influential in bringing about a referendum. The Conservative Prime Minister David Cameron pledged during the campaign for the 2015 UK General Election to hold a new referendum—a promise which he fulfilled in 2016 following pressure from the Eurosceptic wing of his party. Cameron, who had campaigned to remain, resigned after the result and was succeeded by Theresa May, his former Home Secretary, she called a snap general election less than a year but lost her overall majority. Her minority government is supported in key votes by the Democratic Unionist Party. On 29 March 2017, the Government of the United Kingdom invoked Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union. May announced the government's intention not to seek permanent membership of the European single market or the EU customs union after leaving the EU and promised to repeal the European Communities Act of 1972 and incorporate existing European Union law into UK domestic law.
Negotiations with the EU started in June 2017. In November 2018, the Draft Withdrawal Agreement and Outline Political Declaration, agreed between the UK Government and the EU, was published; the House of Commons voted against the deal by a margin of 432 to 202 on 15 January 2019, again on 12 March with a margin of 391 to 242 against the deal. On 14 March 2019, the House of Commons voted for the Prime Minister, Theresa May, to ask the EU for such an extension of the period allowed for the negotiation; the broad consensus among economists is that Brexit will reduce the UK's real per capita income in the medium term and long term, that the Brexit referendum itself had damaged the economy. Studies on effects since the referendum show a reduction in GDP, trade and investment, as well as household losses from increased inflation. Brexit is to reduce immigration from European Economic Area countries to the UK, poses challenges for UK higher education and academic research; as of March 2019, the size of the "divorce bill"—the UK's inheritance of existing EU trade agreements—and relations with Ireland and other EU member states remains uncertain.
The precise impact on the UK depends on. In the wake of the referendum of 23 June 2016, many new pieces of Brexit-related jargon have entered popular use. Article 50 Article 50 of the Treaty on European Union is a procedure in treaty that sets out how member states can leave the Union, with a two-year timetable for leaving. Article 50 was triggered by Prime Minister Theresa May at the end of March 2017. Backstop A term referring to the government's proposal to keep Northern Ireland in some aspects of the European Union Customs Union and of the European Single Market to prevent a hard border in Ireland, so as not to compromise the Good Friday Agreement. In principle, it is a temporary measure while the United Kingdom identifies and develops a technology that operates customs and other controls as between the UK and the EU, without any evident border infrastructure, there must be compliance with section 10 of the European Union Act 2018, on "Continuation of North-South co-operation and the prevention of new border arrangements."Blind/ Blindfold Brexit Coined in September 2018 to describe a scenario where the UK leaves the EU without clarity on the terms of a future trade deal.
EU and British negotiators would have until 31 December 2020 to sign off on a future trade deal, during which time the UK will remain a member of the EU, but with no voting rights. Brexit Brexit is a portmanteau of "British" and "exit". Grammatically, it has been called a complex nominal; the first attestation in the Oxford English Dictionary is a Euractiv blog post by Peter Wilding on 15 May 2012. It was coined by analogy with "Grexit", attested on 6 February 2012 to refer to a hypothetical withdrawal of Greece from the eurozone. At present, Brexit is impending under the EU Treaties and the UK Acts of Parliament, the current negotiations pursuant thereto. Canada plus/ Canada model This is shorthand for a model where the United Kingdom leaves the European Union and signs a free trade agreement; this would allow the UK to control its own trade policy as opposed to jointly negotiating alongside the European Union, but would require rules of origin agreements to be reached for UK–EU trade. It is this would lead to trade be
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, was a British politician, army officer, writer. He was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, when he led Britain to victory in the Second World War, again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill represented five constituencies during his career as a Member of Parliament. Ideologically an economic liberal and imperialist, for most of his career he was a member of the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955, but from 1904 to 1924 was instead a member of the Liberal Party. Of mixed English and American parentage, Churchill was born in Oxfordshire to a wealthy, aristocratic family. Joining the British Army, he saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War, the Second Boer War, gaining fame as a war correspondent and writing books about his campaigns. Elected an MP in 1900 as a Conservative, he defected to the Liberals in 1904. In H. H. Asquith's Liberal government, Churchill served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, First Lord of the Admiralty, championing prison reform and workers' social security.
During the First World War, he oversaw the Gallipoli Campaign. In 1917, he returned to government under David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions, was subsequently Secretary of State for War, Secretary of State for Air Secretary of State for the Colonies. After two years out of Parliament, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in Stanley Baldwin's Conservative government, returning the pound sterling in 1925 to the gold standard at its pre-war parity, a move seen as creating deflationary pressure on the UK economy. Out of office during the 1930s, Churchill took the lead in calling for British rearmament to counter the growing threat from Nazi Germany. At the outbreak of the Second World War, he was re-appointed First Lord of the Admiralty before replacing Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in 1940. Churchill oversaw British involvement in the Allied war effort against Germany and the Axis powers, resulting in victory in 1945, his wartime leadership was praised, although acts like the Bombing of Dresden and his wartime response to the Bengal famine generated controversy.
After the Conservatives' defeat in the 1945 general election, he became Leader of the Opposition. Amid the developing Cold War with the Soviet Union, he publicly warned of an "iron curtain" of Soviet influence in Europe and promoted European unity. Re-elected Prime Minister in 1951, his second term was preoccupied with foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War, a UK-backed Iranian coup. Domestically his government developed a nuclear weapon. In declining health, Churchill resigned as prime minister in 1955, although he remained an MP until 1964. Upon his death in 1965, he was given a state funeral. Considered one of the 20th century's most significant figures, Churchill remains popular in the UK and Western world, where he is seen as a victorious wartime leader who played an important role in defending liberal democracy from the spread of fascism. Praised as a social reformer and writer, among his many awards was the Nobel Prize in Literature. Conversely, his imperialist views and comments on race, as well as his sanctioning of human rights abuses in the suppression of anti-imperialist movements seeking independence from the British Empire, have generated considerable controversy.
Churchill was born at the family's ancestral home, Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, on 30 November 1874, at which time the United Kingdom was the dominant world power. A direct descendant of the Dukes of Marlborough, his family were among the highest levels of the British aristocracy, thus he was born into the country's governing elite, his paternal grandfather, John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough, had been a Member of Parliament for ten years, a member of the Conservative Party who served in the government of Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli. His own father, Lord Randolph Churchill, had been elected Conservative MP for Woodstock in 1873, his mother, Jennie Churchill, was from an American family whose substantial wealth derived from finance. The couple had met in August 1873, were engaged three days marrying at the British Embassy in Paris in April 1874; the couple lived beyond their income and were in debt. In 1876 John Spencer-Churchill was appointed Viceroy of Ireland, with Randolph as his private secretary, resulting in the Churchill family's relocation to Dublin, when the entirety of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom.
It was here that Jennie's second son, was born in 1880. Throughout much of the 1880s Randolph and Jennie were estranged, during which she had many suitors. Churchill had no relationship with his father, his relationship with Jack would be warm, they were close at various points in their lives. In Dublin, he was educated in reading and mathematics by a governess, while he and his brother were cared for by their nanny, Elizabeth Everest. Churchill was devoted to her and nicknamed her "Woomany". Visits home were to Connaught Place in L
Gothic architecture is a style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages. It was succeeded by Renaissance architecture. Originating in 12th-century France, it was used for cathedrals and churches, until the 16th century, its most prominent features included the use of the rib vault and the flying buttress, which allowed the weight of the roof to be counterbalanced by buttresses outside the building, giving greater height and more space for windows. Another important feature was the extensive use of stained glass, the rose window, to bring light and color to the interior. Another feature was the use of realistic statuary on the exterior over the portals, to illustrate biblical stories for the illiterate parishioners; these technologies had all existed in Romanesque architecture, but they were used in more innovative ways and more extensively in Gothic architecture to make buildings taller and stronger. The first notable example is considered to be the Abbey of Saint-Denis, near Paris, whose choir and facade were reconstructed with Gothic features.
The choir was completed in 1144. The style appeared in some civic architecture in northern Europe, notably in town halls and university buildings. A Gothic revival began in mid-18th-century England, spread through 19th century Europe and continued for ecclesiastical and university structures, into the 20th century. Gothic architecture was known during the period as opus francigenum, The term "Gothic architecture" originated in the 16th century, was very negative, suggesting barbaric. Giorgio Vasari used the term "barbarous German style" in his 1550 Lives of the Artists to describe what is now considered the Gothic style, in the introduction to the Lives he attributed various architectural features to "the Goths" whom he held responsible for destroying the ancient buildings after they conquered Rome, erecting new ones in this style; the Gothic style originated in the Ile-de-France region of northern France in the first half of the 12th century. A new dynasty of French Kings, the Capetians, had subdued the feudal lords, had become the most powerful rulers in France, with their capital in Paris.
They allied themselves with the bishops of the major cities of northern France, reduced the power of the feudal abbots and monasteries. Their rise coincided with an enormous growth of the population and prosperity of the cities of northern France; the Capetian Kings and their bishops wished to build new cathedrals as monuments of their power and religious faith. The church which served as the primary model for the style was the Abbey of St-Denis, which underwent reconstruction by the Abbot Suger, first in the choir and the facade, Suger was a close ally and biographer of the French King, Louis VII, a fervent Catholic and builder, the founder of the University of Paris. Suger remodeled the ambulatory of the Abbey, removed the enclosures that separated the chapels, replaced the existing structure with imposing pillars and rib vaults; this created higher and wider bays, into which he installed larger windows, which filled the end of the church with light. Soon afterwards he rebuilt the facade, adding three deep portals, each with a tympanum, an arch filled with sculpture illustrating biblical stories.
The new facade was flanked by two towers. He installed a small circular rose window over the central portal; this design became the prototype for a series of new French cathedrals. Sens Cathedral was the first Cathedral to be built in the new style. Other versions of the new style soon appeared in Noyon Cathedral; the Gothic style was adapted by some French monastic orders, notably the Cistercian order under Saint Bernard of Clairvaux It was used in an austere form without ornament at the new Cistercian Abbey of Fontenay and the church of Clairvaux Abbey, whose site is now occupied by a French prison. The new style was copied outside the Kingdom of France in the Duchy of Normandy. Early examples of Norman Gothic included Coutances Cathedral. Through the rule of the Angevin dynasty, the new style was introduced to England and spread from there to Low Countries, Spain, northern Italy and Sicily; the Gothic style did not replace the Romanesque everywhere in Europe. The Late Romanesque continued to flourish in the Holy Roman Empire under the Hohenstaufens and Rhineland.
From the end of the 12th century until the middle of the 13th century, the gothic style spread from the Île-de-France to appear in other cities of northern France. New structures in the style included Chartres Cathedral; the early type of rib vault used of Saint Denis and Notre Dame, with six parts, was modified to four parts, making it simpler and stronger. Amiens and Chartres were among the first to use the flying buttress. At Reims, the buttresses were given greater weight and strength by the addition of heavy stone pinnacles on top; these were decorated with statues of ange
Arthur Lee, 1st Viscount Lee of Fareham
Arthur Hamilton Lee, 1st Viscount Lee of Fareham, was an English soldier, politician and patron of the arts. After military postings and an assignment to the British Embassy in Washington, he retired from the military in 1900, he entered politics, was first elected in 1900, served as Minister of Agriculture and Fisheries and First Lord of the Admiralty following the First World War. He donated his country house, Chequers, to the nation as a retreat for the Prime Minister, co-founded the Courtauld Institute of Art. Arthur Hamilton Lee was born at The Rectory, Dorset in 1868, his father was rector of the town's Anglican St. Mary's Church, he was a grandson of Sir John Theophilus Lee, who as a midshipman was present at the Battle of the Nile. After attending Cheltenham College, Lee entered Woolwich, he was commissioned into the Royal Artillery as a second lieutenant on 17 February 1888. He was posted to the Far East -- China—as Adjutant of the Royal Hong Kong Regiment, he was promoted lieutenant on 18 February 1891.
He returned to England in 1891, was stationed on the Isle of Wight for the next two years. On 18 August 1893, at the age of 24, Lee became a professor of Strategy and Tactics, at the Royal Military College of Canada, in Kingston, with the local rank of captain. Since only 11 to 30 cadets annually entered the College in those days, Lee would have instructed only about 140 cadets in his five years at the College, consisting of cadet numbers 320 to 457. Cadet No. 433, future Major General Thomas Victor Anderson, D. S. O. A future Chief of Staff of the Canadian Army, recalled that Lee was known around the Royal Military College as'The Nipper', which the cadets christened him because he used to sing George Grossmith's songs with gusto, he enjoyed riding and walking in winter across the ice to Wolfe Island, to town. He was a regular attendant at St. George's Cathedral to hear Dean Buxton Smith; when Colonel Gerald Kitson, K. R. R. C. Became RMC Commandant in 1897, Captain Lee came to live with the Kitsons in the Commandant's residence.
In 1894, Lee initiated a Military Survey of the Canadian Frontier, supervised its progress until its completion in 1896. During the summer of 1897 he was a Special Correspondent for the London Daily Chronicle, covering the earlier stages of the Klondike Gold Rush, based on his travels to Alaska and the Yukon. In 1900, when Lee resigned as British Military Attaché in Washington, D. C. Colonel Kitson resigned as Commandant of RMC to take over the Washington post vacated by Lee, he did not receive substantive promotion until the completion of his RMC appointment on 18 April 1898. He became the British military attaché with the United States Army in Cuba during the Spanish–American War in 1898, he received the U. S. campaign medal, was made an honorary member of the 1st U. S. Volunteer Cavalry—the famous Roosevelt's "Rough Riders"—and met Theodore Roosevelt. On 28 January 1899 Lee, still not 30 years old, was appointed military attaché at the British Embassy in Washington, with the temporary rank of Lieutenant Colonel.
Although he would have preferred to have been on active service in South Africa, since the Boer War had just started, Lee enjoyed the challenging diplomatic assignment. On 23 December 1899, Lee married daughter of New York banker John Godfrey Moore, he had first met Ruth Moore at parties in Kingston and Gananoque, had taken her to balls at the Royal Military College, Kingston. Ruth was left a substantial inheritance after her father's death shortly before the wedding. Lee was promoted brevet major on 8 August 1900, returned to regimental duty on 22 August 1900, retired from the army on 12 December 1900. In 1900, Lee embarked upon a political career, he was elected as a Conservative Member of Parliament for the Hampshire constituency of Fareham in the 1900 general election while still a regular officer. He represented Fareham for the next 18 years until his elevation to the peerage, he served as Civil Lord of the Admiralty from 1903 to 1905 under William Palmer, 2nd Earl of Selborne. He continued military service during this period as a member of the Volunteer Force.
The resignation of Arthur Balfour as Conservative Prime Minister in favour of Liberal Leader, Henry Campbell-Bannerman, in 1905 and the defeat of the Conservative Party in the elections of 1906 and 1910 postponed Lee's further office for a decade. He was Chairman of the Parliamentary Aerial Defence Committee, from 1910 to 1914, he introduced the Criminal Law Amendment Act 1912. At the beginning of World War I, Lee served as Lord Kitchener's personal commissioner to report on the Army Medical Services in France, with the rank of temporary colonel. From October 1915 he served David Lloyd George at the Ministry of Munitions, followed him to the War Office in 1916, he was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 12 July 1916. On 8 June 1917, with Lloyd George now Prime Minister, Lee became Director-General of Food Production under Rowland Prothero as President of the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries. Having left the army he was permitted to retain the honorary rank of colonel, he was recognised for his work on 1 January 1918, being appointed Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the British Empire.
He was elevated to the peerage on 9 July that year as Baron Lee of Fareham, of Chequers in the County of Buckinghamshire, shortly before he resigned as Director-General of Food Production after disagreements with Prothero. He became a member of the House of Lords. Lee joined the Cabinet and the Privy Council in August 1919 when he was appointed Minister of Agriculture and F