Chera dynasty

The Chera dynasty was one of the principal lineages in the early history of the present day states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in southern India. Together with the Cholas of Uraiyur and the Pandyas of Madurai, the early Cheras were known as one of the three major powers of ancient Tamilakam in the early centuries of the Common Era; the people of the Chera country owed their importance to exchange of spices black pepper, with Middle Eastern and Graeco-Roman merchants. The age and antiquity of the dynasty is difficult to establish; the Cheras of the early historical period are known to have had their original centre at Karur/Karuvur-Vanchi in interior Tamil Nadu and harbours at Muchiri and Thondi on the Indian Ocean coast. The early historic Chera chiefdom is described as a "redistributive economy based on kinship", it was shaped by agriculture, of both crops and livestock, "predatory politics". Inscriptions discovered from Karur dated to c. 1st - 2nd century CE, describe Ilam Kadungo, son of Perum Kadungo, the grandson of Ko Athan Cheral of the Irumporai clan.

Inscribed portrait coins with Brahmi legends give a number of names, such as Mak-kotai, Kuttuvan Kotai and Kolli Irumporai. Reverse of these coins contained the Chera bow and arrow symbol; the anthologies of early Tamil texts are a major source of information about the early Cheras. The texts mention the names of a number of Chera chiefs, the "court poets" who extolled them; the internal chronology of this collection is still far from settled and a connected account of the history of the period is an area of active research. Chenguttuvan Chera, the most renowned of the early Cheras, is famous for the traditions surrounding Kannaki, the principal female character of the Tamil epic poem Chilapathikaram. Other sources for the early Cheras include Tamil Brahmi cave label inscriptions and inscribed coins, classical Sanskrit works and accounts by Graeco-Roman writers. After the end of the early historical period, around the 3rd-5th century CE, there seems to be a period where the Cheras' power declined considerably.

Cheras/Keralas of the Kongu country are known to have controlled western Tamil Nadu and central Kerala in early medieval period. Present-day central Kerala detached from Kongu Chera kingdom around 8th-9th century AD to form the Chera/Perumal kingdom; the exact nature of the relationships between the various branches of Chera rulers is somewhat unclear. Most of the major dynasties of medieval south India claim to have conqured the Chera/Kerala country. After the dissolution of the Perumal kingdom, royal inscriptions and temple grants from outside Kerala proper, continued to refer the country and the people as the "Cheras/Keralas"; the rulers of Venad, based out of the port of Kollam in south Kerala, claimed their ancestry from the Perumals. Ravi Varma Kulasekhara, their most ambitious ruler, set out to expand his kingdom by annexing the ruins of the other southern kingdoms. In the modern period the rulers of Cochin and Travancore claimed the title "Chera"; the term Chera - and its variant form "Keralaputas" - stands for the ruling lineage and the country associated with them.

The etymology of "Chera" is still a matter of considerable speculation among historians. One approach proposes that the word is derived from Cheral, a corruption of Charal meaning "declivity of a mountain" in Tamil, suggesting a connection with the mountainous geography of Kerala. Another theory argues that the "Cheralam" is derived from "cher" and "alam" meaning, "the slushy land". Apart from the speculations mentioned, a number of other theories do appear in historical studies. In ancient non-Tamil sources, the Cheras are referred to by various names; the Cheras are referred as Kedalaputo in the Emperor Ashoka's Pali edicts. While Pliny the Elder and Claudius Ptolemy refer to the Cheras as Kaelobotros and Kerobottros the Graeco-Roman trade map Periplus Maris Erythraei refers to the Cheras as Keprobotras. All these Graeco-Roman names are evidently corruptions of "Kedala Puto/Kerala Putra" received through relations with northern India; the term Cheralamdivu or Cheran Tivu and its cognates, meaning the "island of the Chera kings", is a Classical Tamil name of Sri Lanka that takes root from the term "Chera".

Recent studies on ancient south Indian history suggest that the three major rulers – the Pandya, the Chera and the Chola – based in the interior Tamil Nadu, at Madurai, Karur -Vanchi, Uraiyur had established outlets on the Indian Ocean namely Korkai and Kaveri Poompattinam respectively. Territory of the Chera chiefdom of the early historical period consisted of the present day central Kerala and western Tamil Nadu; the political structure of the chiefdom was based on communal holding of resources and kinship-based production. The authority was determined by "the range of redistributive social relationships sustained through predatory accumulation of resources". There was more than one branch of the Chera family ruling at the same time and contenting for leadership; the Cheras are referred to as Kedalaputo in the Emperor Ashoka's Pali edicts. The earliest Graeco-Roman accounts referring to the Cheras are by Pliny the Elder in the 1st century CE, in the Periplus of the 1st century CE, by Claudius Ptolemy in the 2nd century CE.

A number of Sanskri

Security Detachment Iraq (Australia)

The Security Detachment Iraq was the final component of Australia's contribution to coalition operations in Iraq. SECDET was based on an Australian Army combined arms combat team consisting of an infantry company group and a troop of cavalry which operated the Australian Light Armoured vehicles; the force's duties included static security guarding at the Australian Embassy in Baghdad and the protection of Australian diplomats and vehicle convoys. SECDET was withdrawn in August 2011, with the firm Unity Resources Group becoming responsible for providing security for Australia's diplomatic presence in Iraq. SECDET III engaged and destroyed an insurgent mortar team, firing on the Coalition Headquarters in the Green Zone; this was the first time. SECDET IV had a Vehicle Borne Improvised Explosive Device detonate across the street from their HQ during their tour. SECDET IV was involved in a serious accident when an ASLAV rolled at high speed. SECDET V was involved in a VBIED attack on 25 October 2004, just short of an International Zone checkpoint, with the patrol suffering four wounded in action and serious damage to an ASLAV-25.

As a direct result of the incident, Trooper Matthew Millhouse died of his injuries in 2015. He is listed on the Australian War Memorial Honour Roll as a casualty of the Iraq War. SECDET V was involved in two incidents in the northern city of Tall Afar on 8 and 10 December 2004, when 3 Troop, A Squadron of the 2nd Cavalry Regiment was ambushed by insurgents using small arms and rocket propelled grenades. During the subsequent firefight, the insurgents suffered injuries and casualties, however no damage was inflicted on the Australian patrol. SECDET VI had a VBIED detonate both on an ASLAV patrol on Route Irish and on their HQ in Baghdad during their tour. Private Jacob Kovco was a member of SECDET IX in 2006. Australian contribution to the 2003 invasion of Iraq Australian Embassy Guard Platoon, Saigon


Postini was an e-mail, Web security, archiving service owned by Google since 2007. It provided cloud computing services for filtering e-mail spam and malware, offered optional e-mail archiving, protected client networks from web-borne malware. Postini was a startup company founded in 1999 by Shinya Akamine, Gordon Irlam, Brian Maggi, Scott Petry in Redwood City, United States, it was backed by August Capital, with second-round funding from August as well as Summit Partners Accelerator Fund and Sun Microsystems. By February 2005, it was operating ten U. S. data centers, processing 2.5 billion e-mail messages weekly, providing anti-spam services for more than 4,200 companies and "6 million end users, including workers at Merrill Lynch, Circuit City and Hormel Foods, the company that makes Spam, the canned meat product". In 2005 it moved to nearby San Carlos, California; as of 2012, the number of processed emails is estimated to have been doubled around two times, Google has added data centers in the EU to better serve its European customers.

On July 9, 2007, Google announced. Google paid $625 million in cash for the acquisition; the former company's services were marketed as "Google Postini Services". In September 2011, Google announced it would discontinue a number of its products, including Google Web Security, acquired by Google as part of Postini. On August 21, 2012, Google announced it would be shutting down all of Postini's web services and folding the service's users into Google Apps.. After a multi-year migration effort, the last customers were migrated to Google Apps in the second half of 2015. List of mergers and acquisitions by Google Exchange Online Protection, competing product by Microsoft Cisco Email Security Appliance IronPort, competing product by Cisco