click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Chernobyl

Chernobyl or Chornobyl is a ghost city in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, situated in the Ivankiv Raion of northern Kiev Oblast, Ukraine. Chernobyl is about 90 kilometres north of Kiev, 160 kilometres southwest of the Belarusian city of Gomel. Before its evacuation, the city had about 14,000 residents; the city was evacuated on 5 May 1986, 9 days after the nuclear accident at the nearby Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, the most disastrous nuclear accident in history. The plant is 15 kilometres north of the Chernobyl city. Pripyat is a city much closer to the plant; the city of Slavutych, built for those evacuated from Pripyat received the population evacuated from Chernobyl. The city was the administrative center of Chernobyl Raion from 1923. After the accident, in 1988, the raion was disestablished and administration was transferred to the neighboring Ivankiv Raion. Although Chernobyl is a ghost town today, a small number of animals and people still live there, in houses marked with signs that read, "Owner of this house lives here".

Workers on watch and administrative personnel of the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone are stationed in the city. There are two general stores, a tourist hotel; the city's name is the same as a Ukrainian name for Artemisia vulgaris, mugwort or common wormwood, Ukrainian: чорнобиль, romanized: chornóbyl'. The name is inherited from Proto-Slavic *čьrnobylъ or Proto-Slavic *čьrnobyl, a compound of Proto-Slavic *čьrnъ'black' + Proto-Slavic *bylь'grass', the parts related to Ukrainian: чорний, romanized: chórnyy, lit.'black' and било byló,'stalk', so named in distinction to the lighter-stemmed wormwood A. absinthium. The name in languages used nearby is: Ukrainian: Чорнобиль, romanized: Chornobyl′, pronounced Belarusian: Чарнобыль, romanized: Charnobyl′, pronounced Russian: Чернобыль, romanized: Chernobyl′, pronounced; the name in languages used in the area is: Polish: Czarnobyl, pronounced Yiddish: טשערנאָבל‎, romanized: Tshernobl, pronounced. Chernobyl was part of the land of Kievan Rus′; the first known mention of Chernobyl is from an 1193 charter, which describes it as a hunting-lodge of Knyaz Rurik Rostislavich.

In the 13th century, it was a crown village of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The village was granted to Filon Kmita, a captain of the royal cavalry, as a fiefdom in 1566; the province where Chernobyl is located was transferred to the Kingdom of Poland in 1569, annexed by the Russian Empire in 1793. Prior to the 20th century, Chernobyl was inhabited by Ukrainian peasants, some Polish people and a large number of Jews. Jews were brought to Chernobyl during the Polish campaign of colonization. After 1596, the traditionally Eastern Orthodox Ukrainian peasantry of the district were forcibly converted, by Poland, to the Greek Catholic Uniate religion. Many of these converts returned to Eastern Orthodoxy after the Partitions of Poland. In 1626, during the Counter-reformation, the Dominican church and monastery were founded by Lukasz Sapieha. A group of Old Catholics opposed the decrees of the Council of Trent. In 1832, following the failed Polish November Uprising, the Dominican monastery was sequestrated.

The church of the Old Catholics was disbanded in 1852. Until the end of the 19th century Chernobyl was a owned city that belonged to the Chodkiewicz family. In 1896 they sold the city to the state. In the second half of the 18th century, Chernobyl became a major center of Hasidic Judaism; the Chernobyl Hasidic dynasty had been founded by Rabbi Menachem Nachum Twersky. The Jewish population suffered from pogroms in October 1905 and in March–April 1919; when the Twersky Dynasty left Chernobyl in 1920, it ceased to exist as a centre of Hasidism. Chernobyl had a population of 10,800 including 7,200 Jews. Chernobyl was occupied in World War I. In the Polish–Soviet War of 1919–20, Chernobyl was taken first by the Polish Army and by cavalry of the Red Army. From 1921 onwards, it was incorporated into the Ukrainian SSR. Between 1929 and 1933, Chernobyl suffered from killings during Stalin's collectivization campaign, it was affected by the famine that resulted from Stalin's policies. The Polish and German community of Chernobyl was deported to Kazakhstan in 1936, during the Frontier Clearances.

During World War II, Chernobyl was occupied by the German Army from 25 August 1941 to 17 November 1943. The Jewish community was murdered during the Nazi occupation of 1941–44. Twenty years the area was chosen as the site of the first nuclear power station to be built on Ukrainian soil; the Duga over-the-horizon radar array, several miles outside of Chernobyl, was the origin of the Russian Woodpecker. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Chernobyl remained part of Ukraine. On 26 April 1986, one of the reactors at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant exploded after unsanctioned experiments on the reactor by plant operators were done improperly; the resulting loss of control was due to design flaws of the RBMK reactor, which made it unstable when operated at low power, prone to thermal runaway where increases in temperature

Thakins

Dobama Asiayone known as the Thakhins, was a Burmese nationalist group formed around the 1930s and composed of young, disgruntled intellectuals. Drawing their name from the way in which the British were addressed during colonial times, the party was established by Ba Thaung in May 1930, bringing together traditionalist Buddhist nationalist elements and fresh political ideals, it was significant in stirring up political consciousness in Burma, drew most of its support base from students. The party's song, Myanmar Kaba Ma Kyei became the country's first national song and its national anthem. Composed by Saya Tin, the song was a national symbol during the Japanese occupation of Burma and was adopted in 1948 upon the achievement of independence The DAA was established in 1930 in Rangoon after Burmese Indian dock workers and their families were murdered by Bamars who believed that the Indians had taken jobs that rightfully belonged to them; the Dobama organisation was nationalist in nature, supported Bamar supremacy.

Its members used the Burmese word Thakhin as their honorific title rather than the standard U or Maung, as Thakhin was the word traditionally used to address the British. The slogan of the organisation was "Burma. Love our country, raise the standards of our literature, respect our language." Dobama Asiayone was keen assimilating ethnic minorities into Burman culture, most of its activities stemmed from Rangoon University. Unlike former parties in Burma, the DAA was not reliant on support from foreign interests or Buddhist monks, its establishment was a significant change in Burmese political history, its founders rejected compromise with the British authorities, formed its own paramilitary group, the Letyon Tat. In 1935 the affiliated All-Burma Youth League merged into the DAA and its first conference was held in Shwebo. Following the second conference in Myingyan in 1936, the Thakhins decided to contest the 1936 elections under the name Komin Kochin Aphwe, it put forward 28 candidates. Despite winning three seats, the Thakhin group temporarily became inactive until being resurrected in 1937 under the leadership of participants in the 1936 student strike, including Aung San and U Nu.

This led to a split, with the older leaders being opposed to the left-wing leanings of the new leadership. By the late 1930s, the Thakhins had risen through the ranks to emerge as a prominent nationalist group. To achieve its objectives, the group committed itself to the use violent means, such as strikes and force. In 1937, a Thakhin leader had surfaced: a young lawyer by the name of Aung San. In 1939, the Thakhins took over the Dobama Asiayone and brought about the collapse of the government of Ba Maw the premier of the country. In 1940 the Thakhins and Ba Maw's Poor Man's Party merged to form the Freedom Bloc, although the DAA founded the People's Revolutionary Party in secret. In 1946 a new DAA was established by founding members Ba Tun Oke. Although it failed to achieve widespread support, Ba Sein and Tun Oke were both included in the Governor Reginald Dorman-Smith's Executive Council in 1946; the party was not successful in elections. The Thakhins were credited for the formation of the Burma Independence Army.

In 1940, a Japanese army officer, Colonel Suzuki Keiji, took thirty Thakhins including Aung San for military training at Japanese schools in Formosa and Hainan. These thirty Thakhins, known as the Thirty Comrades, were the founding members of the Burma Independence Army, which would number around 8000 men; when the Japanese invaded Burma in late 1941 and early 1942, the BIA marched with the Japanese to expel the British. On 1 August 1943, the Japanese granted Burma a kind of independence; the BIA was renamed the Burma National Army. Recognising that the Japanese had replaced the British rather than providing the independence they sought, in March 1945, the Burma National Army turned on the Japanese as the British Fourteenth Army advanced on Rangoon. Thakins Encyclopedia of Modern Asia Burma’s Struggle for Democracy: The Army Against the People Josef Silverstein Myanmar National Anthems

KiK

KiK KiK Textilien und Non-Food GmbH, is a German textile discount store chain headquartered in Bönen. KiK was founded in 1994 by the holding company Tengelmann Group. KiK is an acronym for "Kunde ist König". KiK is the largest textile discounter chain in Germany and operates about 3,500 stores in Germany, Austria and Czech Republic and Slovakia, Croatia and Netherlands. In 2017, KiK opened the first stores in Italy, in 2018, in Romania. KiK-CEO Patrick Zahn has announced to enter the US market beginning in 2019; the first stores will be opened in the Midwest. The company employs 25.000 employees. In 2016, the company had net revenues of 1,95 billion Euro, making it the sixth largest textile manufacturer in Germany. Starting in 2013, the company has undertaken a large modernization offensive in all its stores. By the end of 2017, all stores in Germany as well as in the foreign markets will be based on a new interior concept, making them look brighter and more pleasant; the dominant color red will be substituted by silver.

The company sells a range of women's, men's and children's clothing, baby wear and underwear, as well as toys and home textiles. Customers can buy a complete outfit for less than 30 Euros; the focus is on basic styles with only occasional changes in its assortment. This makes the company independent of seasons; the orders can be produced with long lead times form nine to 12 month without time pressure. KiK buys its products from around 500 suppliers in Bangladesh, China and Turkey, with Bangladesh the biggest contributor, accounting for over 40% of the orders; the products are imported to Germany on the basis of sea freight and hence distributed to the nine foreign markets KiK is operating in. KiK has been a member of the German Partnership for Sustainable Textiles since June 2015; this initiative by the German Ministry for Development and Cooperation, funded by commercial enterprises, non-governmental organizations, federal organizations and trade unions, is based on the belief that an improvement to manufacturing conditions in countries like Bangladesh or Pakistan cannot be brought about by individual companies alone.

Since 2013 KiK operates an Online Shop. KiK has, in the past, sponsored a number of football teams, namely Arminia Bielefeld, Werder Bremen, Hansa Rostock and VfL Bochum, they sponsor referees of the Austrian Football Bundesliga and in January 2009 sponsored the German national team at the 2009 World Men's Handball Championship. Verona Pooth has been the face of KiK's television advertising campaign; the cooperation ended in 2015. The company has published four sustainability reports. In October 2015, KiK banned plastic sacs from all its shops in Germany, the Netherlands and Hungary. Through this measure, the company saves about 33 million plastic sacs per year. KiK is a member of the German government's Partnership for Sustainable Textiles, a multi-stakeholder initiative to bring about social and economic improvements along the textile supply chain. KiK is among more than 150 members including Otto Group, Hugo Boss and Puma and is engaged in all the initiative's working groups, it was among the first members of the Partnership to publish its catalogue of measures designed to provide greater transparency to consumers for products sold in Germany.

The retailer is the first company in Germany with a contract in place which holds auditing companies liable for findings in the reports. On 24 April 2013, the eight-story Rana Plaza commercial building collapsed in Savar, a sub-district near Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. At least 1,127 people over 2,438 were injured; the factory housed a number of separate garment factories employing around 5,000 people, manufactured apparel for brands including the Benetton Group, Joe Fresh, The Children's Place, Primark and DressBarn. Of the 29 brands identified as having sourced products from the Rana Plaza factories, only 9 attended meetings held in November 2013 to agree a proposal on compensation to the victims. KiK was the second German company to contribute to the compensation fund. Several companies refused to sign including Walmart, Bonmarché, Auchan; the agreement was signed by Primark, Bonmarché and El Corte Inglés. The retailer was one of the first German signatories of the Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh set up in May 2013 to inspect and remediate factories for fire and building safety, was among a group of global union federations and brands that have prepared the continuation of the work of the Accord in Bangladesh once its five-year remit comes to an end in 2018.

In 2009, a man from the German state Schleswig-Holstein pressed charges against KiK under Strafgesetzbuch § 86a, which outlaws the "use of symbols of unconstitutional organisations", for the chain using swastika-styled clothing racks in their shops. KiK describes the allegations as incomprehensible. KiK have been criticised by the Clean Clothes Campaign for their bad practices in countries such as Bangladesh, where factory workers are paid low wages. In 2006, KiK has published a Code of Conduct, which imposes an obligation to suppliers to pay a compensation to workers that covers at least the legal or the industrial minimum wage level, whichever is higher. KiK CEO Zahn has appealed on the government of Bangladesh to raise the minimum wage by ten percent. While running 50,000 secret credit ratings of staff, overtime is not paid. With the introduction of the legal minimum wage in Germany, KiK pays its staff minimum wage or higher. Official websit

Underscar Manor

Underscar Manor is a country house at Underskiddaw in Cumbria. It is a Grade II listed building; the house was designed by Charles Reed for William Oxley, a Liverpool textile merchant, was built in the Italianate style between 1856 and 1863. It came into the ownership of James Tait Black, a partner in the publishers A & C Black, in the early 20th century; the house was converted for use as a hotel in the 1970s. It was acquired by Derek and Pauline Harrison and their business partner Gordon Evans in 1990; the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh visited the house in October 2008. The house became a private home again when it was acquired by Alexander Mineev, a Russian oligarch, in 2010. Following Mineev's murder in Moscow in February 2014, the house was bought by Jonathan Brown, owner of a Maryport-based salmon smoking business, in August 2014. William Oxley who built Underscar was born in 1803 in Wakefield, his father was John Oxley, a merchant of Wakefield and his mother was Margaret Potter, daughter of Samuel Potter Esq. of Whitehaven, a banker.

He moved to Liverpool and became a successful merchant. In 1830 he married Hope Stewart the daughter of John Stewart Esq. of Blackburne Terrace.. In the following year the couple had a son John Stewart Oxley and shortly after his birth his wife Hope died. In 1838 he married Anna Margaret Ponsonby, the daughter of Captain John Ponsonby of Springfield near Whitehaven; the Captain lived at Barrow House and Ormathwaite House near Keswick. In 1857 William commissioned the famous architect Charles Reid to build the house, it took three and a half years to complete. He hired the well-known landscape architect Edward Kemp to construct the gardens. Kemp described the garden in detail in a book he wrote. A description of the new house was given in a newspaper of 1861, it read. "A great improvement has been made to Keswick by the completion of Underscar House, an Italian mansion seated on the Applethwaite ascent to Skiddaw and upon an eminence far exceeding that of any other residence whence are commanded on all sides lake and mountain prospect unequalled for extent and picturesque sublimity.

The mansion, the seat of William Oxley Esq. of Liverpool stands on its own grounds of many acres and from its graceful design forms a prominent landmark on the landscape."William died in 1871 and his wife Anna continued to live at the house until several years before her death in 1890. The local newspaper published a glowing obituary of her. Listed buildings in Underskiddaw

Issoire APM 20 Lionceau

The APM 20 Lionceau is a two-seat light aircraft manufactured by the French manufacturer Issoire Aviation. Despite its classic appearance, it is built from composite materials carbon fibers. Designed by Philippe Moniot and certified in 1999, this light and economical aircraft is intended to be used to learn to fly, but to travel with a high cruise speed. A three-seat version, the APM 30 Lion, was presented at the 2005 Paris Air Show. Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 2003–2004General characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 1 pax Length: 6.6 m Wingspan: 8.66 m Height: 2.4 m Wing area: 9.5 m2 Aspect ratio: 7.9 Airfoil: NACA 63-418 Empty weight: 380 kg Max takeoff weight: 620 kg Powerplant: 1 × Rotax 912 A2 4-cylinder air-cooled horizontally-opposed piston engine, 59.6 kW Propellers: 2-bladed fixed-pitch propellerPerformance Cruise speed: 230 km/h Stall speed: 80 km/h Never exceed speed: 250 km/h Endurance: 4–5 hours Rate of climb: 3.4 m/s APM 20 Lionceau official website

Berzeliusskolan

Berzeliusskolan is a primary and secondary school, in Linköping, Sweden. The school is run by Linköping Municipality. Berzeliusskolan was founded as a primary school in 1953 under the name of Vasaskolan; when the school enjoyed a visit from King Gustaf VI Adolf. Vasaskolan was shut down in 1965 and reopened two years as an institution of higher learning. Since 1997 Berzeliusskolan once again holds classes for 1,500 students in grade 7–9 in addition to the students in secondary school; the school is named after one of the fathers of modern chemistry. Berzelius was ironically, a student at Berzeliusskolan's neighbour and rival, Katedralskolan. Katedralskolan was the only secondary school in Linköping at that time. Berzeliusskolan offers programs in Natural Sciences and Technology for its secondary school students. Having great focus on math skills and holding the university math preparation class Matte F; the primary school offers specialisation classes in Natural Sciences and Technology. Berzeliusskolan Website