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Cherokee County, Oklahoma

Cherokee County is a county located in the U. S. state of Oklahoma. As of the 2010 census, the population was 46,987, its county seat is Tahlequah, the capital of the Cherokee Nation. Cherokee County comprises the Tahlequah, OK Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Tulsa-Muskogee-Bartlesville, OK Combined Statistical Area. According to a historian, Cherokee County was established in 1907. However, the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History and Culture, states that it was created from the Tahlequah District of the Cherokee Nation in 1906; the Cherokee moved to this area as a result of the forced relocation brought about by the Indian Removal Act of 1830 known as Trail Of Tears. The first significant settlements were at the site of Park Hill, where there was a mission community, Tahlequah, which became the seat of Cherokee government; however the Civil War caused many of the early structures to be destroyed. Non-Indians began moving into the area illegally starting in the mid-1870s, became the majority by the 1890s.

In 1851, the Cherokee Male Seminary opened in Tahlequah and the Cherokee Female Seminary opened in Park Hill. The latter was rebuilt in Tahlequah. A 1910 fire destroyed the Male Seminary; the Female Seminary became Northeastern State Normal School after statehood in 1907 and is now part of Northeastern State University. During 1901 – 1903, The Ozark and Cherokee Central Railway, which became part of the St. Louis and San Francisco Railway was the first to build a track in the county, it boosted the shipment of farm products through the 1920s, but declined during the Great Depression. All rail service ceased in 1942. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 776 square miles, of which 749 square miles is land and 2.7 square miles is water. The county lies in the foothills of the Ozark Mountains, it includes part of Fort Gibson Lake. The principal river running through it is the Illinois River. Grand River forms part of its western boundary. U. S. Highway 62 State Highway 10 State Highway 51 State Highway 82 Delaware County Adair County Sequoyah County Muskogee County Wagoner County Mayes County As of the census of 2000, there were 42,521 people, 16,175 households, 11,079 families residing in the county.

The population density was 57 people per square mile. There were 19,499 housing units at an average density of 26 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 56.41% White, 1.20% Black or African American, 32.42% Native American, 0.27% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 2.10% from other races, 7.56% from two or more races. 4.14% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 92.7 % spoke 3.8 % Spanish and 2.7 % Cherokee as their first language. There were 16,175 households out of which 32.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.50% were married couples living together, 11.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.50% were non-families. 25.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.30% under the age of 18, 14.60% from 18 to 24, 25.70% from 25 to 44, 21.50% from 45 to 64, 12.00% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females there were 96.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,536, the median income for a family was $32,369. Males had a median income of $25,993 versus $21,048 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,436. About 17.00% of families and 22.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.40% of those under age 18 and 13.80% of those age 65 or over. The Cherokee language immersion school in Tahlequah, Oklahoma educates students from pre-school through eighth grade; the Department of Education of Oklahoma said that in 2012 state tests: 11% of the school’s sixth-graders showed proficiency in math, 25% showed proficiency in reading. The Oklahoma Department of Education listed the charter school as a Targeted Intervention school, meaning the school was identified as a low-performing school but has not so that it was a Priority School; the school made a C, or a 2.33 grade point average on the state’s A-F report card system.

The report card shows the school getting an F in mathematics achievement and mathematics growth, a C in social studies achievement, a D in reading achievement, an A in reading growth and student attendance. “The C we made is tremendous,” said school principal Holly Davis, “here is no English instruction in our school’s younger grades, we gave them this test in English.” She said she had anticipated the low grade because it was the school’s first year as a state-funded charter school, many students had difficulty with English. Eighth graders who graduate from the Tahlequah immersion school are fluent speakers of the language, they go on to attend Sequoyah High School where classes are taught in both English and Cherokee. Northeastern State University is the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of Oklahoma as well as one of the oldest institutions of higher learning west of the Mississippi River. Tahlequah is home to the capital of the Cherokee Nation of Oklahoma and about 25 percent of the students at NSU identify thems

Salmon Gee

Salmon Gee was an early Mormon leader and member of the Presidency of the Seventy of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Gee was born in Lyme and moved to the Ashtabula, Ohio area at age 17. On December 10, 1814, he married Sarah Watson Crane. Together they had ten children, they moved to Geauga County, where Zebedee Coltrin baptized Gee in 1832. Seven months Sidney Rigdon ordained him an elder and Joseph Smith, Jr. appointed him leader of the Latter Day Saints in Thompson Township. On April 6, 1837, Gee was appointed to fill the vacancy in the Presidency of the Seventy left open when Zebedee Coltrin was transferred to the high priest quorum. Sidney Rigdon and Hyrum Smith ordained him a seventy; the Seventies Quorum removed their fellowship from Gee for "neglect of duty" at a meeting in March 1838, although he was never excommunicated. He was dropped from the quorum that May. Gee served as a member of the Kirtland High Council from 1841 to 1844, when he moved to Ambrosia, where he died in 1845.

He was buried in Illinois. Before he died, he gathered his family together and "exhort them to faithfulness, advising them to follow the Church wherever it went."The church restored Gee's full fellowship in the Quorum of Seventy in 1967

Oreochromis leucostictus

Oreochromis leucostictus is a species of cichlid native to Albertine Rift Valley lakes and associated rivers in DR Congo and Uganda. It has now been introduced elsewhere East Africa, is believed to have negative ecological impact on native tilapias; this species is reported to reach a standard length of up to 36.3 cm, but is much smaller. It is exploited by small-scale aquaculture operations. Oreochromis leucostictus is a deep-bodied tilapia with a small mouth, rounded head and high back. Juvenile are pale and have around 8 thin faint dark bars on the flank beneath the dorsal fin, with other bars on the head and tail; the fins are faintly spotted and there is a rather vague dark'tilapia mark' at the based on the soft dorsal fin. Adults of both sexes are characterised by white spotting on the fins. Mature males are dark black, sometimes with a blue-green iridescence, the white spots are conspicuous; the eye is bright yellow and crossed by an oblique bar. Mature males have elongated filamentous tips to the dorsal and anal fins, but do not have enlarged jaws.

Young fishes have numerous small slender tricuspid teeth, but they become stouter in larger fish, sometimes bicuspid. Overall, there are 4–6 rows of teeth up to 8 in larger fish; the lower pharyngeal bone is slender, with numerous crowded teeth. There are 1 on the angle and 19 -- 23 lower rakers; the dorsal fin has 15 -- 11 -- 13 rays. The anal fin has 3-spines, although a single 4-spined individual has been reported, 9–11 rays. There are 28–31 scales in the lateral line series. Adults are reported to grow to a total length of 28–30 cm in Lake Victoria, but they mature at much smaller sizes in smaller water bodies, with ripening females as small as 8 cm. Oreochromis leucostictus is a typical maternal mouthbrooding cichlid, like all other known members of the genus. During the breeding season, males are conspicuously coloured, defend territories over open sand/mud areas where they construct a'bower' or mate attraction structure. In this species, the bower is a simple circular pit, dug at depths of less than 60 cm deep, at least along the margins of Lake Victoria.

Females visit the bowers of males, laying clutches with one or more, picking up the eggs in her mouth. The offspring are brooded. Like most other members of the genus, the female guards them and will retrieve them in her mouth at night or when disturbed. Oreochromis leucostictus prefers shallow weedy habitats, such as lagoons and bays around the edges of larger lakes, it co-occurs with the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, which favours rather deeper waters, so the two species appear to have complementary niches. They feed on bottom sediments or plankton, ingesting microscopic plants and cyanobacteria, along with small invertebrates; the natural distribution of this fish is in the catchments of Lakes Edward and Albert, in Uganda and eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. It was introduced in Lake Victoria into the 1950s, is now abundant there, having supplanted the native endemic Oreochromis variabilis, although the latter is known to persist in some rocky offshore islands, it was introduced into Lake Naivasha in Kenya, where it hybridised with and replaced the abundant Kenyan endemic Oreochromis spilurus nigra.

Further introductions to Kenya have continued and molecular genetic studies indicate that O. leucostictus has begun to hybridise with endemic populations of O. niloticus at a number of sites, including Lake Baringo and the hot springs around Lake Bogoria. The species has been distributed in Tanzania as a contaminant of Nile tilapia sourced from Lake Victoria and stocked for aquaculture or attempted fishery improvement. Here too, feral populations are becoming established and hybrids with native species such as Oreochromis urolepis have been reported; the species is fished where it is found, farmed in small-scale fish ponds, but it is known to mature at small sizes in ponds, a trait undesirable for commercial aquaculture, because ponds are filled up with numerous small fish of low market value. This trait is well developed in this species because it is adapted to live in shallow marginal habitats and so is to find itself cut off in pools which may dry up and where larger fish are vulnerable to predators such as birds.

Thus, it is unfortunate that the species has been so distributed. In addition, it seems to have a propensity to hybridise with native Oreochromis species, leading to genetic contamination and creating hybrid swarms, sometimes replacing the native species altogether eventually. Thus, this species seems to be rather a menace to the maintenance of biodiversity and in particular to the maintenance of wild genetic diversity of tilapias, an important food fish throughout the tropics

Shin-Etsu Chemical

Shin-Etsu Chemical Co. Ltd. is the largest chemical company in Japan, ranked No. 9 in Forbes Global 2000 for chemical sector. Shin-Etsu has the largest global market share for polyvinyl chloride, semiconductor silicon, photomask substrates; the company was named one of Thomson Reuters Top 100 Global Innovators in 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014.“Shin-Etsu” in the company's name derives from Shin'etsu Region, where the company established the first chemical plant as Shin-Etsu Nitrogen Fertilizer in 1926, though the company today is headquartered in Tokyo and has its manufacturing locations in 14 countries worldwide. Shin-Etsu splits its business into three distinct groups: Organic and inorganic chemicals Main products: polyvinyl chloride, methanol, cellulose derivatives, caustic soda, silicon metals Electronics materials Main products: semiconductor silicon, organic materials, rare earth magnets for the electronics industry and photoresist products Functional materials Main products: synthetic quartz, rare earth and rare-earth magnets for general use Fingleton, Eamonn.

Is This The Most Successful Tech Giant You've Never Heard Of? Forbes Official website

Wildchild (rapper)

Jack Brown, better known by his stage name Wildchild, is an American rapper from California. He is a member of Lootpack. In 2003, Wildchild released Secondary Protocol, on Stones Throw Records. Produced by Madlib and Oh No, it featured guest appearances from Medaphoar, LMNO, Percee P, Planet Asia, Aceyalone. Wildchild's son, Miles Brown, is an dancer. Secondary Protocol Jack of All Trades T. G. I. F; the Jackal "Knicknack 2002" "Code Red" "Wonder Years" Quasimoto - "Discipline 99, Pt. 1" from The Unseen Madlib - "Cut One" from Madlib Invazion Kankick - "On the Lookout" from From Artz Unknown BT - "Kimosabe" from Emotional Technology Oh No - "Stomp That, V. 2" and "WTF" from The Disrupt LMNO - "Life Is a Come Up" from Economic Food Chain Music Madvillain - "Hardcore Hustle" from Madvillainy Declaime - "Signs" from Conversations with Dudley Hyper - "This Is a Warning" from We Control Oh No - "Keep It Lit" from Exodus into Unheard Rhythms Foreign Beggars - "Let Go" from Stray Point Agenda Dabrye - "The Stand" from Two/Three Pigeon John - "If You Let It" from Featuring Pigeon John 2 Metro - "Hand in Motion 1" and "Hands in Motion 2" from Hands in Motion Eno.

D + Magnificent Ruffians - "Fire" from Firewater Jazz Liberatorz - "After Party" from Fruit of the Past Grems - "MJC" from Sea Sex & Grems A State of Mind - "Root to the Fruit" from Platypus Funk Kyo Itachi - "Super Psycho" from Musikyo B-Doub - "Playin 4 Keeps" from Food for Thought Oh No - "Overload" from Ohnomite Wildchild on Stones Throw Records Wildchild discography at Discogs

Cuba, Missouri

Cuba is a city in Crawford County, United States. The population was 3,356 at the 2010 census. Cuba is the largest city situated in Crawford County. Cuba was platted in 1857, it was named after the island of Cuba. President Harry S. Truman visited Cuba during a tour of U. S. Route 66, he surveyed the property that would become Indian Hills Lake. Indian Hills Lake was known as "Indian Head Lake" because the skull of a Native American was found during excavation. Bette Davis and Amelia Earhart visited the town, their visits are commemorated in the Viva Cuba Mural Project. Cuba was designated as the Route 66 Mural City by the Missouri legislature in recognition of Viva Cuba's Outdoor Mural Project; the beautification group consulted with Michelle Loughery, a Canadian muralist who helped create the vision and two of the murals. The group commissioned twelve outdoor murals along the Route 66 corridor. Interstate 44 now runs through Cuba. Cuba was the site of the first Adopt a Highway program in Missouri; the Cuba City Jail, Cuba High School Annex, Cuba Lodge No. 312 A.

F. and A. M. George B. Hamilton House, Hotel Cuba, John Manson Munro House, Uptown Cuba Historic District, Wagon Wheel Motel and Station are listed on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.20 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2010, there were 3,356 people, 1,385 households, 816 families living in the city; the population density was 1,048.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,542 housing units at an average density of 481.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.95% White, 0.27% Black or African American, 0.66% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 1.49% from other races, 1.46% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.40% of the population. There were 1,385 households of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.1% were married couples living together, 15.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.5% had a male householder with no wife present, 41.1% were non-families.

35.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 3.03. The median age in the city was 35.5 years. 26.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 53.3 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,230 people, 1,295 households, 831 families living in the city; the population density was 1,095.4 people per square mile. There were 1,414 housing units at an average density of 479.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.68% White, 0.50% African American, 0.34% Native American, 0.31% Asian, 0.28% from other races, 0.90% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.21% of the population. There were 1,295 households out of which 34.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.7% were married couples living together, 13.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.8% were non-families.

31.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 3.02. In the city, the population was spread out with 27.2% under the age of 18, 8.8% from 18 to 24, 26.5% from 25 to 44, 18.1% from 45 to 64, 19.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $24,127, the median income for a family was $30,069. Males had a median income of $24,348 versus $17,958 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,665. About 16.3% of families and 20.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 28.7% of those under age 18 and 13.1% of those age 65 or over. The Wagon Wheel Motel has been a presence on Route 66 since the 1930s; the guest cottages and old Wagon Wheel Cafe building underwent renovations beginning in 2009.

Cuba is home to the Crawford County History Museum. The Veterans Memorial, with 1000 names of veterans, sits in front of the museum on Smith Street. Four miles west of Cuba on Route 66 is the World's Largest Rocking Chair; the chair draws many Route 66 travelers to take photos. It is located next to the reopened Fanning 66 Outpost; the 1997 film Dogtown was set in Cuba. The Crawford County R-II school district in 2000 had 1,426 students; the high school had 451 students, the middle school had 454, the elementary school had 521. Renovation of the elementary and middle school facilities and the construction of a new high school, all of which cost more than $4 million, was completed; the school district has received full accreditation of the North Central Association of Secondary Schools and Colleges. The Holy Cross Catholic School teaches grades PK through 8. In 2000 it had 54 students. Cuba has a branch of the Crawford County Library District. Cuba Mural Project Cuba along Route 66 Historic maps of Cuba in the Sanborn Maps of Missouri Collection at the University of Missouri