A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, is a fleshy drupe. Commercial cherries are obtained from cultivars of several species, such as the sweet Prunus avium and the sour Prunus cerasus; the name'cherry' refers to the cherry tree and its wood, is sometimes applied to almonds and visually similar flowering trees in the genus Prunus, as in "ornamental cherry" or "cherry blossom". Wild cherry may refer to any of the cherry species growing outside cultivation, although Prunus avium is referred to by the name "wild cherry" in the British Isles. Many cherries are allied to the subgenus Prunus subg. Cerasus, distinguished by having the flowers in small corymbs of several together, by having smooth fruit with only a weak groove along one side, or no groove; the subgenus is native to the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, with two species in America, three in Europe, the remainder in Asia. Other cherry fruits called bird cherries; the English word cherry derives from Old Northern French or Norman cherise from the Latin cerasum, referring to an ancient Greek region, Kerasous near Giresun, from which cherries were first thought to be exported to Europe.
The indigenous range of the sweet cherry extends through most of Europe, western Asia, parts of northern Africa, the fruit has been consumed throughout its range since prehistoric times. A cultivated cherry is recorded as having been brought to Rome by Lucius Licinius Lucullus from northeastern Anatolia known as the Pontus region, in 72 BC. Cherries were introduced into England at Teynham, near Sittingbourne in Kent, by order of Henry VIII, who had tasted them in Flanders. Cherries arrived in North America early in the settlement of Brooklyn, New York when the region was under Dutch sovereignty. Trades people leased or purchased land to plant orchards and produce gardens, "Certificate of Corielis van Tienlioven that he had found 12 apple, 40 peach, 73 cherry trees, 26 sage plants.. Behind the house sold by Anthony Jansen from Salee to Barent Dirksen... ANNO 18th of June 1639." The cultivated forms are of the species sweet cherry to which most cherry cultivars belong, the sour cherry, used for cooking.
Both species originate in western Asia. Some other species, although having edible fruit, are not grown extensively for consumption, except in northern regions where the two main species will not grow. Irrigation, spraying and their propensity to damage from rain and hail make cherries expensive. Nonetheless, demand is high for the fruit. In commercial production, sour cherries, as well as sweet cherries sometimes, are harvested by using a mechanized "shaker". Hand picking is widely used for sweet as well as sour cherries to harvest the fruit to avoid damage to both fruit and trees. Common rootstocks include Mazzard, Mahaleb and Gisela Series, a dwarfing rootstock that produces trees smaller than others, only 8 to 10 feet tall. Sour cherries require no pollenizer. A cherry tree will take three to four years once it is planted in the orchard to produce its first crop of fruit, seven years to attain full maturity. Like most temperate-latitude trees, cherry trees require a certain number of chilling hours each year to break dormancy and bloom and produce fruit.
The number of chilling hours required depends on the variety. Because of this cold-weather requirement, no members of the genus Prunus can grow in tropical climates. Cherries can grow in most temperate latitudes. Cherries blossom in April and the peak season for the cherry harvest is in the summer. In southern Europe in June, in North America in June, in England in mid-July, in southern British Columbia in June to mid-August. In many parts of North America, they are among the first tree fruits to flower and ripen in mid-Spring. In the Southern Hemisphere, cherries are at their peak in late December and are associated with Christmas.'Burlat' is an early variety which ripens during the beginning of December,'Lapins' ripens near the end of December, and'Sweetheart' finish later. The cherry can be a difficult fruit tree to grow and keep alive. In Europe, the first visible pest in the growing season soon after blossom is the black cherry aphid, which causes leaves at the tips of branches to curl, with the blackfly colonies exuding a sticky secretion which promotes fungal growth on the leaves and fruit.
At the fruiting stage in June/July, the cherry fruit fly lays its eggs in the immature fruit, whereafter its larvae feed on the cherry flesh and exit through a small hole, which in turn is the entry point for fungal infection of the cherry fruit after rainfall. In addition, cherry trees are susceptible to bacterial canker, cytospora canker, brown rot of the fruit, root rot from overly wet soil, crown rot, several viruses; the following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit: See cherry blossom and Prunus for ornamental trees. In 2014, world production of sweet cherries was 2.25 million tonnes, with Turkey producing 20% of this total. Other major producers of sweet cherries were Iran. World production of sour cherries in 2014 was 1.36 million tonnes, led by Russia, Turkey a
Luís Filipe Veiga Dias is a Portuguese former professional footballer who played as a right back. Born in Lisbon, Dias spent four years with local and national giants Sporting CP, but could never appear for more than the reserves as a senior, he first competed in the second division at the age of 25, with neighbours C. D. Olivais e Moscavide, playing 15 games as the team was relegated to the third level. In the following years, Dias played in Bulgaria – only a couple of months, after which he returned to his previous club – and Romania, spending his second season with FC Gloria Buzău in Liga II. In summer 2010 he returned to his country and joined another side from the capital, Atlético Clube de Portugal, appearing in all 30 matches in his first year as they were promoted to division two after an absence of several decades. Luís Dias at ForaDeJogo Luís Dias at RomanianSoccer.ro and StatisticsFootball.com Luís Dias at Soccerway
David Pines was the founding director of the Institute for Complex Adaptive Matter and the International Institute for Complex Adaptive Matter, distinguished professor of physics, University of California, research professor of physics and professor emeritus of physics and electrical and computer engineering in the Center for Advanced Study, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, a staff member in the office of the Materials and Applications Division at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. His seminal contributions to the theory of many-body systems and to theoretical astrophysics were recognized by two Guggenheim Fellowships, the Feenberg Medal, the Edward A. Frieman Prize for Excellence in Graduate Student Research and Drucker prizes, by his election to the National Academy of Sciences, American Philosophical Society, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Russian Academy of Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences and visiting professorships at the California Institute of Technology, College de France, Trinity College, University of Leiden, the Université de Paris.
He was the founding director of the Center for Advanced Study, UIUC, was vice-president of the Aspen Center for Physics from 1968 to 1972, founder and co-chair of the US-USSR Cooperative Program in Physics, 1968–89. He was the organizer or co-organizer of fifteen workshops and two summer schools of theoretical physics, was an honorary trustee and honorary member of the Aspen Center for Physics, a member of the board of overseers at Sabancı University in Istanbul. Pines died on May 2018 due to pancreatic cancer. David Pines was born to Sidney Pines, a mechanical engineer, Edith Pines, he graduated from Highland Park High School in Dallas in 1940, studied at Black Mountain College for one year before enrolling at the University of California, BerkeleyPines earned a bachelor's degree in physics from UC Berkeley in 1944, began graduate work there. His studies were interrupted after his first semester, he served for two years, followed Robert Oppenheimer, who had served as a mentor at Berkeley, to Princeton University in 1947.
He earned his Ph. D. at Princeton under David Bohm in 1950. His last research concerned the search for the organizing principles responsible for emergent behavior in materials where unexpectedly new classes of behavior emerge in response to the strong and competing interactions among their elementary constituents; some recent research results on correlated electron materials are the development of a consistent phenomenological description of protected magnetic behavior in the pseudogap state of underdoped cuprate superconductors and the discovery of the protected emergence of itinerancy in the Kondo lattice in heavy electron materials and its description using a two-fluid model. He remained interested in the superfluidity of neutron stars revealed by pulsar glitches and in elementary excitations in the helium liquids. Protected Behavior in the Pseudogap State of Underdoped Cuprate Superconductors, Phys. Rev. Lett. in the press and condmat 0601396, 2006 Complex Adaptive Matter: Emergent Phenomena in Materials, MRS Bulletin 30, 425-429, 2005 Scaling and the Magnetic Origin of Emergent Behavior in Correlated Electron Superconductors, MRS Bulletin 30, pp442–446, 2005 The Pseudogap: Friend or Foe of High Temperature Superconductivity, Adv.
Phys. 54, 715, 2005 Scaling in the Emergent Behavior of Heavy Electron Materials, Phys. Rev. B. 70, 235117 Two Fluid Description of the Kondo Lattice, Phys Rev. Lett. 92,016401, 2004 Low Frequency Spin Dynamics in the CeMIn5 Materials, Rev. Lett.90, 227202, 2003 A Spin Fluctuation Model for d-wave Superconductors, in “The Physics of Conventional and Unconventional Superconductors”, ed. K. H. Benneman and J. B. Ketterson, Springer Pub, 2003 The Quantum Criticality Conundrum, Advances in Physics 50, 361-365, 2001 The Middle Way, PNAS 97,32-37, 2000 The Theory of Everything, PNAS 97, 27-32 A. B. University of California, Berkeley 1944 M. A. Princeton University 1948 Ph. D. Princeton University 1950 Instructor, University of Pennsylvania 1950–52 Research assistant professor, UIUC 1952–55 Assistant professor, Princeton University 1955–58 Member, Institute for Advanced Study 1958–59 Professor of physics & electrical engineering, UIUC 1959–1995 Professeur Associe, Faculte des Sciences, Université de Paris 1962–63 Founding director, Center for Advanced Study, UIUC 1967–70 Visiting professor, NORDITA 1970 Visiting scientist, Academy of Sciences, USSR 1970 and 1978 Visiting scientist, Academy of Sciences, China 1973 Exchange professor, Université de Paris 1978 Professor, Center for Advanced Study, UIUC 1978–1990 Visiting scientist, Hungarian Academy of Sciences 1979 Gordon Godfrey Professor, University of New South Wales 1985 B. T. Matthias Visiting Scholar 1986 Professor, College de France 1989 Center for Advanced Study professor of physics and electrical computer engineering, UIUC 1990–1995 External professor, Santa Fe Institute 1989–2002 Robert Maxwell Professor, Santa Fe Institute 1991