Kent Fire and Rescue Service
Kent Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service for the administrative county of Kent and the unitary authority area of Medway, covering a geographical area south of London, to the coast and including major shipping routes via the Thames and Medway rivers. The total coastline covered is 225 km; the FRS provides emergency cover to a population of nearly 2 million. The area meets the boundaries of the London Fire Brigade to the north of the county, Surrey to the north west and East Sussex to the south west of Kent; the first fire brigade appeared in Kent in 1802 when the Kent Fire Office formed an insurance brigade in Deptford. In the same year, separately from insurance companies, Hythe became the first town in Kent to set up its own fire brigade, followed by Ashford in 1826. By the 20th century, it was quite fashionable for local authorities to have their own fire brigades. Maidstone had seen the formation of its borough fire brigade in 1901 when the Royal Insurance Company provided a new Shand Mason horse-drawn steam fire engine, named The Queen.
This company had taken over the Kent Fire Office in the same year disbanding their own brigade. Things became competitive between individual town and village brigades, in many instances, each one trying to outdo its neighbour. In 1910, Bromley became the first town in Kent to house motorised fire engines, with two new Merryweather vehicles being stationed there; until 1938, the provision of a fire brigade was a discretionary power, there were a few local authorities that regarded it as an unnecessary expense. However, due to the threat of war, Parliament enacted the Fire Brigades Act 1938 and made it a duty and so created over 1,600 individual fire authorities across the nation, it was these local brigades and the Auxiliary Fire Service – formed in 1938 – that valiantly coped with the consequences of the Battle of Britain and much of The Blitz. In August 1941, local brigades and the AFS were absorbed into one organisation called The National Fire Service, it was in 1941 that the current Headquarters house The Godlands was requisitioned for war-time use by the National Fire Service and it has remained with the fire service since.
World War II brought dark days indeed for Kent fire-fighters. Fire-fighting has been and will always be a dangerous occupation, the Roll of Honour 1899-1990, compiled by Geoffrey Cooper, an ex-Kent fire-fighter, details the deaths of Kent fire-fighters while on duty. Of the 122'Kent' names listed, 15 were pre-1939, 16 were post-1939 and 91 died during World War II. Nationally, well over 1,000 fire-fighters died during World War II, with stories of fire stations and the water supplies needed for fire-fighting being targeted by German bombers, to maximise the damage caused by incendiary bombs; the last death on duty of a Kent fire-fighter was in 1990. The fire service was returned to local authority control on 1 April 1948 under the Fire Services Act 1947, with responsibility in England and Wales being given to the 146 counties and county boroughs of the day; the County of Kent and the City and County Borough of Canterbury combined to form Kent Fire Brigade, taking over 79 fire stations from the National Fire Service.
Subsequent local government reorganisations have had their effect upon the brigade, most in 1965 when eight fire stations in the northwest of the county were transferred to the newly created Greater London area. Further reorganisation in 1974 saw Canterbury lose its county borough status and the fire brigade became the exclusive responsibility of Kent County Council. In 1998, the structure of local government changed again and Kent combined with the new Medway Towns unitary authority for fire brigade provision. On 1 October 2003, Kent Fire Brigade was renamed Kent Fire and Rescue Service to better reflect the requirements demanded of it for many years; these changes were reflected nationally by the enactment of the Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004 which came into effect on 1 October 2004. In the spring of 2011, Kent Fire and Rescue underwent changes to its structure, these included restructuring from three divisions to 5 area groups: North Kent, East Kent, West Kent, South Kent and Mid Kent.
Each group consists of a number of clusters, which are made up of a number of certain stations where resources are locally managed. The Letter prefix for each division was dropped in the station call sign, for instance Swanley, under the old system was named as Station S31 the S standing for South Division, now it is just Station 31. Water Tender: P1 Rescue Pump Ladder: R3/P1 Rescue Pump Platform: R1 Aerial Ladder Platform: A1 Turntable Ladder: A1 Swift Water Rescue Unit + Inshore Rescue Boat: B1 Command Support Unit: C1 Fire Fogging Unit: M1 Animal Rescue Unit: R2 Line Rescue Unit: R2 Water Carrier: W1 Water Management Unit: W1 General Purpose Vehicle: T1/T2/T3 General Purpose Vehicle + Breathing Apparatus Support Unit: T1 Light 4x4 Vehicle + All Terrain Vehicle: T1 Personnel Carrier Vehicle: T1/T2 Prime Mover + High Volume Pump: T8 Prime Mover + High Volume Hose Layer: T9 Prime Mover + Incident Command & Control Unit: T1 Prime Mover + Incident Support Unit T4 Detection, Identification, & Monitoring: H8 Incident Response Unit: H9 Prime Mover + Mass Decontamination Disrobe: T9 Search & Rescue Dog Unit: R9 General Purpose Vehicle: T1 Prime Mover: T5/T6/T7/T8/T9Pods: Module 1 - Technical Search Equipment Module 2 - Heavy Transport, Confined Space & Hot Cutting Module 3 - Breaching & Breaking Equipment Module 4 - Multi Pu
A statute is a formal written enactment of a legislative authority that governs a city, state, or country. Statutes command or prohibit something, or declare policy. Statutes are rules made by legislative bodies. In all countries, newly enacted statutes are published in a Government gazette, distributed so that everyone can look up the statutory law. A universal problem encountered by lawmakers throughout human history is how to organize published statutes; such publications have a habit of starting small but growing over time, as new statutes are enacted in response to the exigencies of the moment. Persons trying to find the law are forced to sort through an enormous number of statutes enacted at various points in time to determine which portions are still in effect; the solution adopted in many countries is to organize existing statutory law in topical arrangements within publications called codes ensure that new statutes are drafted so that they add, repeal or move various code sections. In turn, in theory, the code will thenceforth reflect the current cumulative state of the statutory law in that jurisdiction.
In many nations statutory law is subordinate to constitutional law. The term statute is used to refer to an International treaty that establishes an institution, such as the Statute of the European Central Bank, a protocol to the international courts as well, such as the Statute of the International Court of Justice and the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Statute is another word for law; the term was adapted from England in about the 18th century. In the Autonomous Communities of Spain, the autonomy statute is a legal document similar to a state constitution in a federated state; the autonomies statutes in Spain have the rank of "Ley Organica", a category of special laws reserved only for the main institutions and issues and mentioned in the Constitution. Leyes Organicas rank between ordinary laws; the name was chosen, among others. In biblical terminology, statute refers to a law given without any justification; the classic example is the statute regarding the Red Heifer. The opposite of a chok is a mishpat, a law given for a specified reason, e.g. the Sabbath laws, which were given because "God created the world in six days, but on the seventh day He rested".
That which upholds, supports or maintains the regulatory order of the universe meaning the Law or Natural Law. This is a concept of central importance in Indian religion. Constitution Legislation Legislature Organic statute Statutory law Super statute
Cambridgeshire Fire and Rescue Service
Cambridgeshire Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service for the non-metropolitan county of Cambridgeshire and the unitary authority of Peterborough. Cambridgeshire Fire and Rescue Service was formed in 1974 from the merger of the Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely Fire Brigade and the Huntingdon and Peterborough Fire Brigade. Cambridgeshire Fire and Rescue Service's headquarters are located in Huntingdon. Cambridgeshire Fire and Rescue Service operates 28 fire stations, of which four are crewed day and night, three are day-crewed and the remainder are crewed by on-call firefighters who live near to their fire station and can arrive there within five minutes of a call being received; the breakdown of stations is as follows: Rescue Pump Light Rescue Pump Standard water tender MultiStar 1+ Water Carrier Rescue Vehicle Incident Command & Control Unit CBRN Response: High Volume Pump High Volume Hose Layer Incident Response Unit Mass Decontamination Disrobe Cambridgeshire County Council was the fire authority until 1998 when Cambridgeshire and Peterborough Fire Authority was formed following local government reorganisation in the county.
The fire authority comprises 17 elected councillors, 13 from Cambridgeshire County Council and four from Peterborough city council. The full authority meets four times a year at Service headquarters, situated at Hinchingbrooke Cottage on the outskirts of Huntingdon. Meetings are open to the general public. Fire service in the United Kingdom History of fire brigades in the United Kingdom Cambridgeshire Constabulary East of England Ambulance Service List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty Cambridgeshire Fire and Rescue Service
Warrington is a large town and unitary authority area in Cheshire, England, on the banks of the River Mersey, 20 miles east of Liverpool, 20 miles west of Manchester. The population in 2017 was estimated at 209,700, more than double that of 1968 when it became a New Town. Warrington is the largest town in the county of Cheshire. Warrington was founded by the Romans at an important crossing place on the River Mersey. A new settlement was established by the Saxons. By the Middle Ages, Warrington had emerged as a market town at the lowest bridging point of the river. A local tradition of textile and tool production dates from this time. Part of Lancashire, the expansion and urbanisation of Warrington coincided with the Industrial Revolution after the Mersey was made navigable in the 18th century; the West Coast Main Line runs north to south through the town, the Liverpool to Manchester railway west to east. The Manchester Ship Canal cuts through the south of the borough; the M6, M56 and M62 motorways form a partial box around the town.
The modern Borough of Warrington was formed in 1974 with the amalgamation of the former County Borough of Warrington, part of the Golborne Urban District, the Lymm Urban District, part of the Runcorn Rural District, the Warrington Rural District and part of the Whiston Rural District. Warrington has been a major crossing point on the River Mersey since ancient times and there was a Roman settlement at Wilderspool. Local archaeological evidence indicates. In medieval times Warrington's importance was as a market town and bridging point of the River Mersey; the first reference to a bridge at Warrington is found in 1285. The origin of the modern town was located in the area around St Elphin's Church, now included in the Church Street Conservation Area, established whilst the main river crossing was via a ford 1 km upriver of Warrington Bridge. Warrington was the first paved town in Lancashire, which took place in 1321. Warrington was a fulcrum in the English Civil War; the armies of Oliver Cromwell and the Earl of Derby both stayed near the old town centre.
Popular legend has it that Cromwell lodged near the building which survives on Church Street as the Cottage Restaurant. The Marquis of Granby public house bears a plaque stating that the Earl of Derby'had his quarters near this site'. Dents in the walls of the parish church are rumoured to have been caused by the cannons from the time of the civil war. On 13 August 1651 Warrington was the scene of the last Royalist victory of the civil war when Scots troops under Charles II and David Leslie, Lord Newark, fought Parliamentarians under John Lambert at the Battle of Warrington Bridge; the expansion and urbanisation of Warrington coincided with the Industrial Revolution after the Mersey was made navigable in the 18th century. As Britain became industrialised, Warrington embraced the Industrial Revolution becoming a manufacturing town and a centre of steel, brewing and chemical industries; the navigational properties of the River Mersey were improved, canals were built, the town grew yet more prosperous and popular.
When the age of steam came, Warrington welcomed it, both as a means of transport and as a source of power for its mills. Many people Americans, remember Warrington best as the location of RAF Station Burtonwood Burtonwood RAF base. During World War II, it served as the largest US Army Air Force airfield outside the United States, was visited by major American celebrities like Humphrey Bogart and Bob Hope who entertained the GIs; the RAF station continued in use by the USAAF and subsequently USAF as a staging post for men and material until its closure in 1993. Warrington was designated a new town in 1968 and the town grew in size, with the Birchwood area being developed on the former ROF Risley site. Heavy industry declined in the 1970s and 1980s but the growth of the new town led to a great increase in employment in light industry and technology. On 20 March 1993, the Provisional Irish Republican Army detonated two bombs in Warrington town centre; the blasts killed two children: three-year-old Jonathan Ball died and twelve-year-old Tim Parry, from the Great Sankey area died five days in hospital.
Around 56 other people were injured, four seriously. Their deaths provoked widespread condemnation of the organisation responsible; the blast followed a bomb attack a few weeks earlier on a gas-storage plant in Warrington. Tim Parry's father Colin Parry founded The Tim Parry Johnathan Ball Foundation for Peace as part of a campaign to reconcile communities in conflict; the centre opened on the seventh anniversary of the bombing, 20 March 2000. He and his family still live in the town. In 1981, Warrington was the first place to field a candidate for the new Social Democratic Party. On 23 November 1981, an F1/T3 tornado formed over Croft and passed over Warrington town centre, causing some damage. There was a RAF training camp at Padgate, a Royal Naval air base at Appleton Thorn and an army base at the Peninsula Barracks in O'Leary Street; the Territorial Army was based at the Bath Street drill hall. In October 1987, Swedish home products retailer IKEA opened its first British store in the Burtonwood area of the town, bringing more than 200 retail jobs to the area.
In Lancashire, Warrington was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1847 under the Municipal Corporat
Humberside Fire and Rescue Service
Humberside Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service covering the area of what was the county of Humberside, but now consists of the unitary authorities of East Riding of Yorkshire, Kingston upon Hull, North Lincolnshire and North East Lincolnshire in northern England. Humberside Fire and Rescue Service was formed in 1974 as a result of the new Government laws stating that all areas must have an official fire service; when Humberside County Council, was abolished in 1995, a parliamentary combination order came into effect, establishing Humberside Fire Authority with control of all brigade personnel and premises. This is a combined fire authority, financed by the constituent councils of East Riding of Yorkshire Council, Kingston upon Hull City Council, North Lincolnshire Council and North East Lincolnshire Council. In 1987 Humberside Fire Brigade changed its name to Rescue Service; this was to reflect the role they now play in many aspects of fire safety as they do much more than just putting out fires.
In 2007 Humberside Fire and Rescue Service featured on a BBC One show entitled Women on Fire. Cameras followed two female firefighters during a 16-day intensive training course to allow them to become retained firefighters for Humberside Fire and Rescue Service. On 1 January 2013 plans were submitted to Hull City Council expressing Humberside Fire and Rescue Service's intention to replace Clough Road fire station, to build a new £3.9 million facility on the same site. In April 2013 planning permission was granted by Hull City Council; the new station became operational in July 2015. In a similar fashion, due to the ongoing expansion of Hull New Theatre, Hull Central fire station was closed, having been demolished beforehand, operations were moved to a new station on Spring Street in 2017. In January 2017 work on a £9 million Integrated Care Centre began which will include a new fire station for East Hull; the site for this is that of the former David Lister School off Rosmead Street. The site is due to open in 2018.
Humberside Fire and Rescue Service's headquarters are on the western outskirts of Hull in Summergroves Way near the boundary with Hessle. This building houses the majority of the Service's administration and support services including Stores, IT, Health & Safety, Training etc. Humberside Fire and Rescue Service operates from 30 fire stations; these stations are strategically situated around the region to ensure suitable coverage around the region. 8 of these stations are Wholetime, 3 stations are Wholetime/Retained, 19 station are Retained. The 30 Stations are divided into four Community Protection Units each one covering a different area of Humberside. Below are various tables that list the Station Callsign, Duty System and Appliances at each of the stations. Water Ladder: P1 Water Tender: P1/P4/P5 Small Fire Unit: L1 Aerial Rescue Pump: A1 Aerial Ladder Platform: A1 Water Support Unit: W1 Rescue Support Unit: R1 Water Incident Unit + Inshore Rescue Boat: M1 Equipment Support Unit: S1 Incident Command & Control Unit: C1 Emergency First Responder Vehicle: V1 Prime Mover: T2/T6/T7Pods: Technical Rescue Unit Environmental Protection Unit High Volume Pump Double Hose Laying Unit Bulk Foam Unit CBRN Response: Detection, Identification & Monitoring: H8 Incident Response Unit: H9 Prime Mover + Mass Decontamination Disrobe: T6 Fire service in the United Kingdom FiReControl Firefighter Fire engine Fire apparatus List of British firefighters killed in the line of duty
Devon and Somerset Fire and Rescue Service
Devon and Somerset Fire and Rescue Service is the statutory fire and rescue service covering the county of Devon and the non-metropolitan county of Somerset in South West England. The service does not cover the unitary authorities of North Somerset and Bath and North East Somerset, which are covered by the Avon Fire and Rescue Service, it is the fifth largest rescue service in the United Kingdom. Devon and Somerset Fire and Rescue Service was founded on 1 April 2007, following the merger of Devon Fire and Rescue Service with Somerset Fire and Rescue Service; the Somerset service known as Somerset Fire Brigade, was formed on 1 April 1948. Devon Fire Brigade was formed in 1973, by the amalgamation of Exeter City Brigade, Plymouth City Brigade and Devon County Brigade, it became Devon Fire and Rescue Service in 1987. The Service's main headquarters is located at Clyst St George near Exeter, its main training centre is the Service Training Centre at Plympton fire station. The Service employs 1,850 staff, including 578 whole time firefighters and 36 control room staff, 930 retained firefighters and 300 non-uniformed staff.
Each county operated its own control room until 2012 but they now have a single control room at Service Headquarters, Exeter. The fire service operates 85 fire stations, the second largest number of fire stations in an English fire service after those of the London Fire Brigade. Water Ladder: P1 / P3 Water Tender: P2 / P5 Rapid Intervention Vehicle: P1 /P2 Light Rescue Pump: P1 / P2 Light 6x6 Pump: P9 Aerial Ladder Platform: A1 Fire Boat: B1 Command Support Unit: C1 Environmental Protection Unit: H2 Light 4x4 Pump: M1 Light 4x4 Vehicle: M5 / R2 / T5 Heavy Rescue Unit: R1 Specialist Rescue Unit: R5 Incident Support Unit: S4 Light Utility Vehicle: T2 Prime Mover: T2 / T8 / T9Pods: Bulk Foam Unit High Volume Pump High Volume Hose Layer Incident Support Unit Hose Layer Unit: W1 Water Carrier: W1 / W3 Co-Responder/Emergency Response Unit: V1 / V3 Trailers All Terrain Vehicle Inshore Rescue Boat Pump Water Bowser Urban Search & Rescue: Command Support Unit: C1 Light 4x4 Vehicle: M5 / M6 / R2 Specialist Rescue Unit: R5 Search & Rescue Dog Unit: R8 / R9 General Purpose Vehicle: T1 Light Utility Vehicle: T2 Personnel Carrier Vehicle: T3 Prime Mover: T6 / T7 / T8 / T9Modules: Module 1 - Technical Search Equipment Module 2 - Heavy Transport, Confined Space & Hot Cutting Equipment Module 3 - Breaching & Breaking Equipment Module 4 - Multi Purpose Vehicle Module 5 - Shoring Operations CBRN Response: Incident Response Unit: H9 Prime Mover + Mass Decontamination Disrobe: T9 Prime Mover + Mass Decontamination Rerobe: T9 Devon and Somerset Fire and Rescue Service works in partnership with South Western Ambulance Service to provide emergency medical cover to areas of Devon and Somerset.
These are areas. The aim of a co-responder team is to preserve life until the arrival of either a Rapid Response Vehicle or an ambulance. Co-responder vehicles are equipped with automatic external defibrillation equipment. Co-responder stations have a dedicated vehicle for Co-responder calls; the vehicle, known as the emergency response unit, attends in place of the fire appliance, allowing the fire appliance to remain available. Nineteen stations operate as co-responders: Axminster 34 Chagford 23 Cheddar 76 Combe Martin 07 Crediton 38 Dawlish 25 Dulverton 64 Hartland 08 Hatherleigh 09 Holsworthy 10 Ivybridge 53 Lynton 11 Moretonhampstead 27 Nether Stowey 67 Porlock 68 Princetown 56 Seaton 42 Williton 71 Woolacombe 16 The M5 motorway is the arterial route through Devon and Somerset, it is the main link road to the south west from the North. Devon and Somerset Fire and Rescue Service divide the M5 into sections so that the nearest appliances attend; the station grounds are: Northbound - Bravo J31–J30: 59 Middlemoor J30–J29: 59 Middlemoor J29–J28: 59 Middlemoor J28–J27: 39 Cullompton J27–J26: 39 Cullompton J26–J25: 70 Wellington J25–J24: 61 Taunton J24–J23: 62 Bridgwater J23–J22: 62 Bridgwater J22–J21: 63 Burnham-On-Sea Southbound - Alpha J21–J22: Avon FRS 18 Weston-super-Mare J22–J23: 63 Burnham-On-Sea J23–J24: 62 Bridgwater J24–J25: 62 Bridgwater J25–J26: 61 Taunton J26–J27: 70 Wellington J27–J28: 39 Cullompton J28–J29: 59 Middlemoor J29–J30: 59 Middlemoor J30–J31: 59 Middlemoor HMNB Devonport Dockyard, in Plymouth, is home to twenty one of the Royal Navy's fleet of ships and submarines.
The dockyard falls into the station ground of 48 Camels Head, is backed up by 49 Crownhill. Each part of the dockyard is divided into risk areas - this reflects in the level of attendance by the Fire Service; some parts of the dockyard are considered a high risk - therefore attract a high attendance - sometimes as many as four pumping appliances and the aerial ladder platform are mobilised to a fire alarm actuating. Hinkley Point is a headland on the coast of Somerset, it is the location of two nuclear power stations. Hinkley Point B is the only active site. Hinkley Point has its own fire station, backed up by 67 Nether Stowey and would be backed up by 62 Bridgwater. There is a planned new nuclear power station that will be Hinkley Point C. Devon and Somerset use a variety of special appliances. Operating from 85 fire stations, It has 121 fire engines a
Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum. Some chemical compounds made from petroleum are obtained from other fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, or renewable sources such as corn, palm fruit or sugar cane; the two most common petrochemical classes are aromatics. Oil refineries produce aromatics by fluid catalytic cracking of petroleum fractions. Chemical plants produce olefins by steam cracking of natural gas liquids like propane. Aromatics are produced by catalytic reforming of naphtha. Olefins and aromatics are the building-blocks for a wide range of materials such as solvents and adhesives. Olefins are the basis for polymers and oligomers used in plastics, fibers, elastomers and gels. Global ethylene and propylene production are about 115 million tonnes and 70 million tonnes per annum, respectively. Aromatics production is 70 million tonnes; the largest petrochemical industries are located in the Western Europe. There is substantial inter-regional petrochemical trade.
Primary petrochemicals are divided into three groups depending on their chemical structure: Olefins includes Ethene, Propene and butadiene. Ethylene and propylene are important sources of industrial plastics products. Butadiene is used in making synthetic rubber. Aromatics includes Benzene and xylenes, as a whole referred to as BTX and obtained from petroleum refineries by extraction from the reformate produced in catalytic reformers using Naphtha obtained from petroleum refineries. Benzene is a raw material for dyes and synthetic detergents, benzene and toluene for isocyanates MDI and TDI used in making polyurethanes. Manufacturers use xylenes to produce synthetic fibers. Synthesis gas is a mixture of carbon hydrogen used to make ammonia and methanol. Ammonia is used to make the fertilizer urea and methanol is used as a solvent and chemical intermediate. Steam crackers are not to be confused with steam reforming plants used to produce hydrogen and ammonia. Methane, ethane and butanes obtained from natural gas processing plants.
Methanol and formaldehyde. In 2007, the amounts of ethylene and propylene produced in steam crackers were about 115 Mt and 70 Mt, respectively; the output ethylene capacity of large steam crackers ranged up to as much as 1.0 – 1.5 Mt per year. The adjacent diagram schematically depicts the major hydrocarbon sources and processes used in producing petrochemicals. Like commodity chemicals, petrochemicals are made on a large scale. Petrochemical manufacturing units differ from commodity chemical plants in that they produce a number of related products. Compare this with specialty chemical and fine chemical manufacture where products are made in discrete batch processes. Petrochemicals are predominantly made in a few manufacturing locations around the world, for example in Jubail & Yanbu Industrial Cities in Saudi Arabia, Texas & Louisiana in the US, in Teesside in the Northeast of England in the United Kingdom, in Rotterdam in the Netherlands, in Jamnagar & Dahej in Gujarat, India. Not all of the petrochemical or commodity chemical materials produced by the chemical industry are made in one single location but groups of related materials are made in adjacent manufacturing plants to induce industrial symbiosis as well as material and utility efficiency and other economies of scale.
This is known in chemical engineering terminology as integrated manufacturing. Speciality and fine chemical companies are sometimes found in similar manufacturing locations as petrochemicals but, in most cases, they do not need the same level of large scale infrastructure and therefore can be found in multi-sector business parks; the large scale petrochemical manufacturing locations have clusters of manufacturing units that share utilities and large scale infrastructure such as power stations, storage tanks, port facilities and rail terminals. In the United Kingdom for example, there are 4 main locations for such manufacturing: near the River Mersey in Northwest England, on the Humber on the East coast of Yorkshire, in Grangemouth near the Firth of Forth in Scotland and in Teesside as part of the Northeast of England Process Industry Cluster. To demonstrate the clustering and integration, some 50% of the United Kingdom's petrochemical and commodity chemicals are produced by the NEPIC industry cluster companies in Teesside.
In 1835, Henri Victor Regnault, a French chemist left vinyl chloride in the sun and found white solid at the bottom of the flask, polyvinyl chloride. In 1839 Eduard Simon, discovered polystyrene by accident by distilling storax. In 1856, William Henry Perkin discovered Mauveine. In 1888, Friedrich Reinitzer, an Austrian plant scientist observed cholesteryl benzoate had two different melting points. In 1909, Leo Hendrik Baekeland invented bakelite made from formaldehyde. In 1928 synthetic fuels invented using Fischer-Tropsch process. In 1929, Walter Bock invented synthetic rubber Buna-S, made up of styrene and butadiene and used to make car tires. In 1933, Otto Röhm polymerized the first acrylic glass methyl methacrylate. In 1935, Michael Perrin invented polyethylene. After World War II, polypropylene was discovered in the early 1950s. In 1937, Wallace Hume Carothers invented nylon. In 1946, he invented Polyester. Polyethylene terephthalate bottles are made from paraxylene. In 1938, Otto Bayer invented polyurethane.
In 1941, Roy Plu