In chess and chess-like games, the endgame is the stage of the game when few pieces are left on the board. The line between middlegame and endgame is not clear, may occur or with the quick exchange of a few pairs of pieces; the endgame, tends to have different characteristics from the middlegame, the players have correspondingly different strategic concerns. In particular, pawns become more important as endgames revolve around attempting to promote a pawn by advancing it to the eighth rank; the king, which has to be protected in the middlegame owing to the threat of checkmate, becomes a strong piece in the endgame. It can act as a useful attacking piece. Compared to chess opening theory, which changes giving way to middlegame positions that fall in and out of popularity, endgame theory is less subject to change. Many people have composed endgame studies, endgame positions which are solved by finding a win for White when there is no obvious way to win, or a draw when it seems White must lose. In the endgame, the stronger side should try to exchange pieces, while avoiding the exchange of pawns.
This makes it easier to convert a material advantage into a won game. The defending side should strive for the opposite. Chess players classify endgames according to the type of pieces. Endgames can be divided into three categories: Theoretical endgames – positions where the correct line of play is known and well-analyzed, so the solution is a matter of technique Practical endgames – positions arising in actual games, where skillful play should transform it into a theoretical endgame position Artistic endgames – contrived positions which contain a theoretical endgame hidden by problematic complications; this article does not consider studies. An endgame is. There is no strict criterion for when an endgame begins, different experts have different opinions. Alexander Alekhine said "We cannot define when the middle game ends and the end-game starts". With the usual system for chess piece relative value, Speelman considers that endgames are positions in which each player has thirteen or fewer points in material.
Alternatively, an endgame is a position in which the king can be used but there are some famous exceptions to that. Minev characterizes endgames as positions having four or fewer pieces other than pawns; some authors consider endgames to be positions without queens, while others consider a position to be an endgame when each player has less than a queen plus rook in material. Flear considers an endgame to be where each player has at most one piece and positions with more material where each player has at most two pieces to be "Not Quite an Endgame", pronounced "nuckie". Alburt and Krogius give three characteristics of an endgame: Endgames favor an aggressive king. Passed pawns increase in importance. Zugzwang is a factor in endgames and in other stages of the game; some problem composers consider that the endgame starts when the player, about to move can force a win or a draw against any variation of moves. Mednis and Crouch address the question of; the game is still in the middlegame. The game is not in the endgame.
In endgames with pieces and pawns, an extra pawn is a winning advantage in 50 to 60 percent of cases. It becomes more decisive if the stronger side has a positional advantage. In general, the player with a material advantage tries to reach the endgame. In the endgame, the player with a material advantage should try to exchange pieces but avoid the exchange of pawns. There are some exceptions to this: endings in which both sides have two rooks plus pawns – the player with more pawns has better winning chances if a pair of rooks are not exchanged, bishops on opposite color with other pieces – the stronger side should avoid exchanging the other pieces; when all of the pawns are on the same side of the board the stronger side must exchange pawns to try to create a passed pawn. In the endgame, it is better for the player with more pawns to avoid many pawn exchanges, because winning chances decrease as the number of pawns decreases. Endings with pawns on both sides of the board are much easier to win.
A king and pawn endgame with an outside passed pawn should be a far easier win than a middlegame a rook ahead. With the recent growth of computer chess, a development has been the creation of endgame databases which are tables of stored positions calculated by retrograde analysis. A program which incorporates knowledge from such a database is able to play perfect chess on reaching any position in the database. Max Euwe and Walter Meiden give these five generalizations: In king and pawn endings, an extra pawn is decisive in more than 90 percent of the cases. In endgames with pieces and pawns, an extra pawn is a winning advantage in 50 to 60 percent of the cases, it becomes more decisive. The king plays an importa
Nancy Reddin Kienholz was an American mixed media artist based in Hope, Idaho. She worked in installation art, assemblage and lenticular printing, she was most famous for her collaborations with her husband and creative partner Edward Kienholz, from their meeting in 1972 until his sudden death in 1994. She continued to produce her own artworks for the rest of her life. Reddin was born in Los Angeles, California, in 1943, her father, Thomas Reddin was worked in Los Angeles as a police officer. Her mother, real estate broker Betty Parsons Reddin, was born in Colorado. Nancy was the youngest of three children, born after older brothers Thomas T. Reddin and Michael Gray Reddin. Reddin was first married at age 19, she had one child from this marriage, Christine, in 1964. Reddin received no formal training in art, worked several odd jobs in Los Angeles before beginning her collaborations with Ed Kienholz in 1972. Reddin met Ed Kienholz at a party in Los Angeles in 1972. At that time, Kienholz was an established artist, being a founding member of the Ferus Gallery and a long-standing participant in the Los Angeles avant garde scene.
He had full custody of two children and Noah, from one of his four previous marriages, would legally adopt Reddin's daughter Christine. Reddin and Kienholz began their creative collaborations the same year, their first work together was The Middle Islands No. 1, now in the collection of the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art in Humlebæk, Denmark. Ed Kienholz continued to receive sole credit for these collaborations until 1981, when he publicly announced for the first time that all works after 1972 should be retroactively credited instead to "Kienholz", in collective reference to both Ed and Nancy. In 1973, Kienholz received a grant from DAAD to work in the Federal Republic of Germany; the couple sold their house in Los Angeles, Reddin moved with Kienholz and their children to West Berlin. The entire family, including the children, contributed to the creation of the exhibit Kienholz created using the grant. Reddin and Kienholz would divide their time between Berlin and their home in the rural Idaho Panhandle until Edward Kienholz's sudden death in 1994.
During their marriage and Kienholz worked prolifically in installation art. They maintained studios in Hope, Idaho. Kienholz received a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1976, their work was critically acclaimed in Europe. After struggling with diabetes for years, Edward Kienholz died in 1994 of a massive heart attack in Sandpoint, Idaho, he was buried in a 1940 Packard automobile. In addition to maintaining Kienholz's estate, Reddin continued to work in multiple media during the decades after 1994, she organized and consulted on several major exhibitions of their collaborative work, as well as solo exhibitions of artworks she created after the death of her husband. In addition to continuing her work in assemblage sculpture, Reddin returned to an early interest in photography and created several works using lenticular images. Reddin died on August 7, 2019, in Houston, aged 75. Pincus, Robert L.. On a scale that competes with the world: the art of Nancy Reddin Kienholz. Berkeley: University of California Press.
ISBN 978-0-520-06730-1. Kienholz, Edward. Kienholz: a retrospective. New York: Whitney Museum of American Art. ISBN 978-0-87427-099-0. Ed Kienholz. Kienholz In Context. Spokane: Touchstone Center for the Arts. CS1 maint: uses authors parameter "Nancy Reddin Kienholz". Retrieved 2011-10-23. – LA Louver Solo and Group Exhibitions 1961-2010. LA Louver Nancy Reddin Kienholz, Lenticular Graphics Kienholz; the Signs of the Times. Schirn Kunsthalle Frankfurt Video: Kienholz Exhibition Frankfurt, October 22, 2011. - January 29, 2012
Blussuvoll School is a lower secondary school with grades 8-10 and is situated at Tyholt in Trondheim, near the TV Tower and right next to Strinda Upper Secondary School. Strinda had been built in 1955, building another school right next to it was a new concept; the two schools were at that time in the former municipality of Strinda. Blussuvoll was built in 1958 when the municipality of Strinda decided to allow the students to study for eight years and a non-mandatory ninth year. In 1963 the school was expanded, with two new wings to the south, therefore created an irregular schoolyard only open to the south, one can say the strected design of the school complicates communication between the three wings; the whole school is built with a basement. Materials used is white, brushed chalk on the walls and red brick on the roof; until 2006 most of the facades were still receiving both scepticism and enthusiasm. In the winter of 2005/06, the whole school was torn to give way to a new construction, as the whole building suffered from rust and poor condition on furniture and equipment.
Students attended the barracks at Persaunet. The new school building was completed in fall 2007. Official website