Royal Library of the Netherlands
The Royal Library of the Netherlands is based in The Hague and was founded in 1798. The mission of the Royal Library of the Netherlands, as presented on the library's web site, is to provide "access to the knowledge and culture of the past and the present by providing high-quality services for research and cultural experience"; the initiative to found a national library was proposed by representative Albert Jan Verbeek on August 17 1798. The collection would be based on the confiscated book collection of William V; the library was founded as the Nationale Bibliotheek on November 8 of the same year, after a committee of representatives had advised the creation of a national library on the same day. The National Library was only open to members of the Representative Body. King Louis Bonaparte gave the national library its name of the Royal Library in 1806. Napoleon Bonaparte transferred the Royal Library to The Hague as property, while allowing the Imperial Library in Paris to expropriate publications from the Royal Library.
In 1815 King William I of the Netherlands confirmed the name of'Royal Library' by royal resolution. It has been known as the National Library of the Netherlands since 1982, when it opened new quarters; the institution became independent of the state in 1996, although it is financed by the Department of Education and Science. In 2004, the National Library of the Netherlands contained 3,300,000 items, equivalent to 67 kilometers of bookshelves. Most items in the collection are books. There are pieces of "grey literature", where the author, publisher, or date may not be apparent but the document has cultural or intellectual significance; the collection contains the entire literature of the Netherlands, from medieval manuscripts to modern scientific publications. For a publication to be accepted, it must be from a registered Dutch publisher; the collection is accessible for members. Any person aged 16 years or older can become a member. One day passes are available. Requests for material take 30 minutes.
The KB hosts several open access websites, including the "Memory of the Netherlands". List of libraries in the Netherlands European Library Nederlandse Centrale Catalogus Books in the Netherlands Media related to Koninklijke Bibliotheek at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Harry Golombek OBE, was a British chess grandmaster, chess arbiter, chess author, wartime codebreaker. He was three times British chess champion, in 1947, 1949, 1955 and finished second in 1948, he was retrospectively awarded the grandmaster title in 1985. He was born in Lambeth to Polish-Jewish parents, he was the chess correspondent of The Times newspaper from 1945 to 1989, following Stuart Milner-Barry. He was an official of the FIDE, served as Arbiter for several important events, including the Candidates' Tournament of 1959 in Yugoslavia, the World Chess Championship match 1963 between Mikhail Botvinnik and Tigran Petrosian, he was editor of some well-known collections of games such as José Raúl Capablanca's and Réti's, was a well-respected author. He was editor of British Chess Magazine from 1938 to 1940, its overseas editor throughout the 1960s and 1970s. Golombek translated several chess books from Russian into English. On the outbreak of World War II in September 1939, Golombek was in Buenos Aires, competing in the Chess Olympiad for Britain alongside C. H. O'D.
Alexander and Stuart Milner-Barry. They returned to the UK, were soon recruited into Bletchley Park, the wartime codebreaking centre. Golombek worked in Hut 8, the section responsible for solving German Naval Enigma, moving to another section in October/November 1942. After the war he lived at Chalfont St Giles, he was unusual among public figures in replying with care to letters from unknown persons, such as young schoolboys, from this address. Golombek represented England nine times in chess Olympiads, he earned the title of International Master in 1950 and was awarded an HonoraryGrandmaster title in 1985. He was the first British player to qualify for an Interzonal tournament. Golombek studied philology at King's College London, having been a pupil at Wilson's Grammar School, Camberwell, he was appointed OBE in the first to be so honoured for services to chess. Golombek's Encyclopedia of Chess, edited by Golombek, 1977, Batsford/Crown, ISBN 0-517-53146-1 Golombek, H.. The Game of Chess. Penguin.
A History of Chess, 1976, Routledge & Kegan Paul, ISBN 0-7100-8266-5 The Art of the Middle Game, Penguin, ISBN 0-14-046102-7 Modern Opening Chess Strategy, 1959, Pitman Reti's Best Games of Chess, annotated by H. Golombek, 1954, republished 1974 Instructions to Young Chess Players, 1958, Pitman, ISBN 0-273-48550-4 Capablanca's 100 Best Games, 1970, G. Bell and Sons The World Chess Championship 1948, David McKay Company Harry Golombek player profile and games at Chessgames.com Translated Penguin Book - at Penguin First Editions reference site of early first edition Penguin Books
Cleveland Public Library
Cleveland Public Library, located in Cleveland, Ohio operates the Main Library on Superior Avenue in downtown Cleveland, 27 branches throughout the city, a mobile library, a Public Administration Library in City Hall, the Ohio Library for the Blind and Physically Disabled. The library replaced the State Library of Ohio as the location for the Ohio Center for the Book in 2003. In 1811, the idea behind the Cleveland Public Library came "out of small beginnings" when sixteen of Cleveland's sixty-four residents subscribed to its first library, established to distribute the rare printed book; the members read books such as the history of Rome, Lives of the English Poets, Goldsmith's Greece, Don Quixote. In 1867, the Cleveland and Dayton Boards of Education petitioned the Ohio General Assembly for authority to levy a tax for the maintenance of free public libraries, permitting boards of education with populations over 20,000 to levy a tax of one-tenth of a mill for each dollar evaluation of their taxable property.
Cleveland Superintendent, the Reverend Anson Smyth, doubtfully called the "father of the Cleveland Public Library," supported this law in his Superintendent position, helping in the laws' development. The new law provided for a Cleveland library, part of the school system, controlled by the Cleveland Board of Education throughout the first decade of the library's existence, except for the years 1871-1873; the Cleveland Public Library opened on February 17, 1869 on the third floor of the Northup and Harrington Block on West Superior Avenue, The library room was adjacent to the Cleveland Board of Education, opened with 5,800 books. Luther Melville Oviatt was the first librarian at Cleveland Public Library from 1869 to 1875. During his first year, patrons borrowed 65,000 books. Forwarding thinking in his views, Oviatt wanted to provide books that would interest both children and adults, the mechanic and scholar, he had open shelves because, "without a catalog, the only way potential borrowers could ascertain what books were available was to look at them."
Oviatt resigned in June, 1875, the victim of governing boards or their subsidiaries, who micromanaged daily operations of the library. Librarian William Howard Brett opened the library's first stand-alone children's room on February 22, 1898. Effie Louise Power was appointed Cleveland's first children's librarian. In 1915, the Cleveland architectural firm of Walker and Weeks won a competition to design a new library building. Construction of their classical Renaissance design, delayed by the First World War, began in 1923 under Linda Anne Eastman. Eastman was the first woman to head a major U. S. city library system and a pioneer in the modern library system. She opened bookshelves to patrons, replacing the New York Public Library system in which a librarian fetched the books; the Main Library consists of two buildings. The older wing, completed on May 6, 1925 and renovated between 1997 and 1999, has five stories, each as high as two stories in most buildings; the renovations included the restoration of a large mural painted by Ora Coltman in 1934 for the Federal Arts Project.
The work was done by the Intermuseum Conservation Association. In 1957, the library purchased the six-story Plain Dealer Building at 710 Superior Avenue; the library won passage in November 1957 of a $3 million bond levy to pay for the purchase of the building. The structure was purchased on December 22, 1957, the new Business and Social Sciences Annex opened on August 24, 1959; the annex was demolished in 1994 to make way for a second building, named after former Representative Louis Stokes, was dedicated on April 12, 1997. Stokes commented, "This is the most beautiful that I have seen." The $65 million structure of fritted glass panels and Georgia marble housed eight million items and two million titles on its grand opening. The two buildings are connected by underground corridor below the Eastman Reading Garden, designed by landscape architecture firm OLIN, includes sculptures by Maya Lin and Tom Otterness; the Special Collections Department was created through the work of John G. White, who served as president of the Cleveland Public Library Board of Trustees from 1884-1886 and 1913-1928.
In addition to donating and purchasing many rare books to the Library, White underwrote the construction of the Fine Arts and Special Collections reading room and the Exhibit Corridor. The Cleveland Public Library consolidated all rare holdings from subject departments into a unified collection. Most materials are hosted on the library's online catalog, but some are only accessible through the Fine Arts and Special Collections reading room. Collection highlights include: John G. White Chess and Checkers Collections John G. White Collection of Folklore and Orientalia John F. Puskas Miniature Books Collection Tobacco Collection Schweinfurth Collection: Rare architectural publications Anisfield-Wolf Book Awards: The only American book award designed to recognize works addressing issues of racism and diversity; the Cleveland Public Library had Sub-Branches named Alliance, Alta House, Detroit, Hiram House, Lorain-Clark, South Brooklyn and Temple. During the 1890s, William Howard Brett opened four self-contained branch libraries in leased buildings.
As early as 1891, he asked Andrew Carnegie for building permanent structures, but the steel-mogul-turned-philanthropist refused the librarian's requests for 12 years. Brett persisted and in 1903 Carnegie donated $250,000 to build seven branches, including the Woodland Branch. Carnegie was so impressed with Brett's money management of the funds, he increased the amount to $507,000, which built 15 branches-the fou
Chess is a two-player strategy board game played on a chessboard, a checkered gameboard with 64 squares arranged in an 8×8 grid. The game is played by millions of people worldwide. Chess is believed to be derived from the Indian game chaturanga some time before the 7th century. Chaturanga is the ancestor of the Eastern strategy games xiangqi and shogi. Chess reached Europe by the 9th century, due to the Umayyad conquest of Hispania; the pieces assumed their current powers in Spain in the late 15th century with the introduction of "Mad Queen Chess". Play does not involve hidden information; each player begins with 16 pieces: one king, one queen, two rooks, two knights, two bishops, eight pawns. Each of the six piece types moves differently, with the most powerful being the queen and the least powerful the pawn; the objective is to checkmate the opponent's king by placing it under an inescapable threat of capture. To this end, a player's pieces are used to attack and capture the opponent's pieces, while supporting each other.
During the game, play involves making exchanges of one piece for an opponent's similar piece, but finding and engineering opportunities to trade advantageously, or to get a better position. In addition to checkmate, a player wins the game if the opponent runs out of time. There are several ways that a game can end in a draw; the first recognized World Chess Champion, Wilhelm Steinitz, claimed his title in 1886. Since 1948, the World Championship has been regulated by the Fédération Internationale des Échecs, the game's international governing body. FIDE awards life-time master titles to skilled players, the highest of, grandmaster. Many national chess organizations have a title system of their own. FIDE organizes the Women's World Championship, the World Junior Championship, the World Senior Championship, the Blitz and Rapid World Championships, the Chess Olympiad, a popular competition among international teams. FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee, which can be considered as a recognition of chess as a sport.
Several national sporting bodies recognize chess as a sport. Chess was included in 2010 Asian Games. There is a Correspondence Chess World Championship and a World Computer Chess Championship. Online chess has opened professional competition to a wide and varied group of players. Since the second half of the 20th century, chess engines have been programmed to play chess with increasing success, to the point where the strongest personal computers play at a higher level than the best human players. Since the 1990s, computer analysis has contributed to chess theory in the endgame; the IBM computer Deep Blue was the first machine to overcome a reigning World Chess Champion in a match when it defeated Garry Kasparov in 1997. The rise of strong chess engines runnable on hand-held devices has led to increasing concerns about cheating during tournaments. There are many variants of chess that utilize pieces, or boards. One of these, Chess960, incorporates standard rules but employs 960 different possible starting positions, thus negating any advantage in opening preparation.
Chess960 has gained widespread popularity as well as some FIDE recognition. The rules of chess are published by chess's international governing body, in its Handbook. Rules published by national governing bodies, or by unaffiliated chess organizations, commercial publishers, etc. may differ. FIDE's rules were most revised in 2017. Chess is played on a square board of eight columns; the 64 squares are referred to as light and dark squares. The chessboard is placed with a light square at the right-hand end of the rank nearest to each player. By convention, the game pieces are divided into white and black sets, the players are referred to as White and Black, respectively; each player begins the game with 16 pieces of the specified color, consisting of one king, one queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights, eight pawns. The pieces are set out as shown in the diagram and photo, with each queen on a square of its own color. In competitive games, the colors are allocated by the organizers; the player with the white pieces moves first.
After the first move, players alternate turns. Pieces are moved to either an unoccupied square or one occupied by an opponent's piece, captured and removed from play. With the sole exception of en passant, all pieces capture by moving to the square that the opponent's piece occupies. A player may not make any move that would leave the player's own king under attack. A player cannot "pass" a turn. If the player to move has no legal move, the game is over; each piece has its own way of moving. In the diagrams, the dots mark the squares to which the piece can move if there are no intervening piece of either color; the king moves one square in any direction. The king has
John Griswold White
John Griswold White was a prominent Cleveland attorney, a chess connoisseur, a bibliophile. John Griswold White was born in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1845 to Bushnell and Elizabeth Brainard White, both from Massachusetts. White's birthplace was located on what was Lake Street. Both of John Griswold White's parents valued education, Bushnell White once wrote a letter to the Cleveland Herald and Gazette in March 1847 that read in part: "Freedom and equal rights have and always will, exist in proportion to the knowledge of the people.":27 Bushnell White graduated from Williams College, Elizabeth White graduated from Troy Female Seminary.:1John G. White was born near-sighted but was not diagnosed until he was a teenager. Although fitted with glasses White read without them, preferring to hold the books close to his face. White received early education in Little Red School House of Northford, Connecticut, at Home, Canandaigua Academy. According to his long-time friend, it is in Connecticut that White gained his ability to read fast, where books and money were scarce.
White made a friend in the nearby town with the bookseller, who allowed him to read any book while his mother did her weekly shopping. Further education took place at Central High School in Cleveland and Western Reserve College in Hudson, where he was elected to Phi Beta Kappa, it was at college that White continued his love of libraries. Two of White's favorite professors at Western Reserve College were Nathan Perkins Seymour and Charles Augustus Young. White continued his love of chess in college, he and Young played every Wednesday evening into the early hours of the morning. White was the salutatorian at Western Reserve College at his 1865 graduation, delivering the address in Latin. After graduation, he studied law under his father.:1 In 1868, White was admitted to the Ohio Bar, practiced in the U. S. District and Northern District of Ohio. In 1903, he was admitted to the U. S. Court of Appeals, to the U. S. Supreme Court in 1910, receiving the degree of Doctor of Laws from Western Reserve in 1919.
White practiced law in 1870, partnering with Robert E. Mix and Judge Conway W. Noble; the law firm had various names due to partners either dying, retiring, or through consolidation.:29-30 The law firm named Schneider Smeltz Spieth Bell LLP, remains in existence today. One of White's most prominent cases was as special counsel for the Cleveland Railway in litigation against Tom L. Johnson over the Municipal Railway, he helped Federal Judge Robert W. Tayler in writing the Tayler grant. White was the attorney for the Catholic Diocese of Northern Ohio under three bishops, though White himself was not Catholic. White was elected to the Cleveland Public Library's Board of Directors for the first time on May 5, 1884, he was elected President at a meeting of the "Board of Managers of the Public Library" on May 13, 1884, served the following year in 1885 as President, also. He became Library Board President again in 1910 until his death in 1928, he helped appoint William Brett as director and Linda Eastman as Brett's successor.
Marilla Waite Freeman served as head of the library's Main Library building during White's tenure. In 1884, Cleveland Public Library was thought to be mismanaged. Together with William Brett, White began a survey to discover how other libraries were being managed. In succeeding years, this led to: a newer shelf-classification system for the Cleveland Public Library derived from the Dewey Decimal System; when taking walks and his father would engage in intellectual activities such as only speaking Latin one day, Greek another, having a "Chess Day" where they would play chess by memory with neither pieces nor a board. White loved romantic novels and stories of the Wild West, in which reading was his primary relaxation, his house on 1871 East 89th Street was permeated with hundreds of books on chess. White wore a beard, he never owned an automobile, rode streetcars between his home on Bolton Street, East 89th Street and his office downtown. White was a bachelor until his death at age 83. John Griswold White began donating books to the Cleveland Public Library in 1885, presenting William H. Brett with 122 maps and four books.
By 1913, the number had reached 25.000. It was that same year in 1913 the Cleveland Public Library moved to the Kinney-Levan building on upper Euclid Avenue; this warehouse-looking building provided William H. Brett with space to open White's collection to the public. John G. White's fascination with chess was lifelong, from the "chess walks" with his father to his collecting chess-related books and materials. "Over a period of some fifty years he conducted a determined quest, throughout the world, for desirable additions to his library," the chess master and author Al Horowitz wrote in 1969. White's donation of folklore and Orientalia books to the library was influenced by the fact that the library had few books about the Philippines, which the United States acquired, the major reduction in funds by Mayor Robert McKisson. Thus, when Brett asked for advice on library financial assistance, White agreed to help out by purchasing books out of his own pocket.:page40-41After White left the Cleveland Public Library Board in 1886, he noticed the library p
Glossary of chess
This page explains used terms in chess in alphabetical order. Some of these have their own pages, like pin. For a list of unorthodox chess pieces, see Fairy chess piece. Absolute pin A pin against the king is called absolute since the pinned piece cannot move out of the line of attack. Cf. relative pin. Active Describes a piece that threatens a number of squares, or that has a number of squares available for its next move, it may describe an aggressive style of play. Antonym: passive. Adjournment Suspension of a chess game with the intention to finish it later, it was once common in high-level competition occurring soon after the first time control, but the practice has been abandoned due to the advent of computer analysis. See sealed move. Adjudication A way to decide the result of an unfinished game. A tournament director, or an impartial and strong player, will evaluate the final position and assign a win, draw, or loss assuming best play by both players. Adjust See Touch-move rule. To adjust the position of a piece on its square without being required to move it.
A player may only do this on their turn, they must first say "I adjust", or the French equivalent J'adoube. Advanced pawn A pawn, on the opponent's side of the board. An advanced pawn may be weak if it is overextended, lacking support and difficult to defend, or strong if it cramps the enemy by limiting mobility. An advanced passed pawn that threatens to promote can be strong. Advantage A better position with the chance of winning the game. Evaluation factors can include space, time and threats. Alekhine's gun A special form of battery in which a queen backs up two rooks on the same file. Algebraic notation The standard way to record the moves of a chess game, using alphanumeric coordinates for the squares. Amateur Any player whose main occupation is not chess; the distinction between professional and amateur is not important in chess as amateurs may win prizes, accept appearance fees, earn any title, including World Champion. In the 19th century, "Amateur" was sometimes used in published game scores to conceal the name of the losing player in a Master vs. Amateur contest.
It was thought to be impolite to use a player's name without permission, the professional did not want to risk losing a customer. See NN. analysis The study of a game or a position, in order to evaluate the quality of the moves and various other aspects of the game or position. At the end of a game, the players will do an analysis of the game. Cf. post-mortem. Annotation Written commentary on a game or a position using words, chess symbols or notation. announced mate A practice, common in the 19th century, whereby a player would announce a sequence of moves, believed by him to constitute best play by both sides, that led to a forced checkmate for the announcing player in a specified number of moves. Antipositional A move or a plan, not in accordance with the principles of positional play. Antipositional is used to describe moves that are part of an incorrect plan rather than a mistake made when trying to follow a correct plan. Antipositional moves are pawn moves. Anti-Sicilian An opening variation that White uses against the Sicilian Defense other than the most common plan of 2.
Nf3 followed by 3.d4 cxd4 4. Nxd4; some Anti-Sicilians include the Alapin Variation, Moscow Variation, Rossolimo Variation, Grand Prix Attack, Closed Sicilian, Smith–Morra Gambit, Wing Gambit. Arabian mate A checkmate that occurs when rook trap the opposing king in a corner. Arbiter See International Arbiter. Armageddon game A game, guaranteed to produce a decisive result, because if there is a draw it is ruled a victory for Black. In compensation for this White is given more time on the clock. White is given six minutes, Black five; this format is used in playoff tiebreakers when shorter blitz games have not resolved the tie. Artificial castling Refers to a maneuver of several separate moves by the king and by a rook where they end up as if they had castled. Known as castling by hand. Attack An aggressive action on a part of the chessboard, or to threaten the capture of a piece or pawn. See counterattack, discovered attack, double attack, mating attack, minority attack. Antonym: defense. Attraction A type of decoy involving a sacrifice of a minor or major piece on a square next to the enemy king, forcing the king to abandon the defense of another square.
For example, the black queen has interposed to block a check from the white queen, White can check the king from the opposite direction to win the queen. Automaton An automaton is a self-operating machine. In chess, it refers to chess-playing machines that were in fact hoaxes and under the control of hidden human players. Automatons stirred up great interest in the 18th and 19th centuries and inspired early thoughts of the possibility artificial intelligence. By far, the most famous chess-playing "automaton" was The Turk, whose secret of human control was kept for a long time; when the Turk was recreated in the 1980s, the addition of a chess-playing computer made it a true automaton. B Symbol used for the bishop. Back rank A player's