The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom or Britain, is a sovereign country in western Europe. Lying off the north-western coast of the European mainland, the United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. The Irish Sea lies between Great Britain and Ireland, with an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world and the 11th-largest in Europe. It is the 21st-most populous country, with an estimated 65.1 million inhabitants, this makes it the fourth-most densely populated country in the European Union. The United Kingdom is a monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. The monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 6 February 1952, other major urban areas in the United Kingdom include the regions of Birmingham, Glasgow and Manchester.
The United Kingdom consists of four countries—England, Wales, the last three have devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capitals, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. The relationships among the countries of the UK have changed over time, Wales was annexed by the Kingdom of England under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. A treaty between England and Scotland resulted in 1707 in a unified Kingdom of Great Britain, which merged in 1801 with the Kingdom of Ireland to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain, there are fourteen British Overseas Territories. These are the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, British influence can be observed in the language and legal systems of many of its former colonies. The United Kingdom is a country and has the worlds fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP. The UK is considered to have an economy and is categorised as very high in the Human Development Index.
It was the worlds first industrialised country and the worlds foremost power during the 19th, the UK remains a great power with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally. It is a nuclear weapons state and its military expenditure ranks fourth or fifth in the world. The UK has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946 and it has been a leading member state of the EU and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. However, on 23 June 2016, a referendum on the UKs membership of the EU resulted in a decision to leave. The Acts of Union 1800 united the Kingdom of Great Britain, Scotland and Northern Ireland have devolved self-government
Metropolitan Police Service
As of March 2016, the Met employed 48,661 full-time personnel. This included 32,125 sworn police officers,9,521 police staff and this number excludes the 3,271 Special Constables, who work part-time and who have the same powers and uniform as their regular colleagues. This makes the Metropolitan Police the largest police force in the United Kingdom by a significant margin, the post of Commissioner was first held jointly by Sir Charles Rowan and Sir Richard Mayne. The post is occupied by the now-outgoing Sir Bernard Hogan-Howe. The Commissioners deputy, the Deputy Commissioner, is currently Craig Mackey, a number of informal names and abbreviations exists for the Metropolitan Police Service, the most common being the Met. In colloquial London, it is referred to as the Old Bill. The Met is referred to by the metonym Scotland Yard after the location of its headquarters in a road called Great Scotland Yard in Whitehall. The Mets current headquarters is New Scotland Yard, in Victoria, the Metropolitan Police Service, whose officers became affectionately known as bobbies, was founded in 1829 by Robert Peel under the Metropolitan Police Act 1829.
In 1839, the Marine Police Force, which had formed in 1798, was amalgamated into the Metropolitan Police. In 1837, it incorporated with the Bow Street Horse Patrol that had organised in 1805. Since January 2012, the Mayor of London is responsible for the governance of the Metropolitan Police through the Mayors Office for Policing, the mayor is able to appoint someone to act on his behalf, the current office-holder is Deputy Mayor for Policing and Crime, Sophie Linden. The work of MOPAC is scrutinised by the Police and Crime Committee of the London Assembly, the area policed by the Metropolitan Police Service is known as the Metropolitan Police District. In terms of policing, the Met is divided into a number of Borough Operational Command Units. The City of London is a police area and is the responsibility of the separate City of London Police. The British Transport Police are responsible for policing of the network in the United Kingdom. Within London, they are responsible for the policing of the London Underground, The Emirates Air Line.
There is a park police force, the Kew Constabulary, responsible for the Royal Botanic Gardens. Officers have limited powers in Scotland and Northern Ireland, within the MPD, the Met will take over the investigation of any serious crime from the British Transport Police and Ministry of Defence Police, if it is deemed appropriate
A plough or plow is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil. Ploughs were traditionally drawn by working animals such as horses or cattle, a plough may be made of wood, iron, or steel frame with an attached blade or stick used to cut the earth. It has been an instrument for most of recorded history. The plough represents one of the major agricultural inventions in human history, as the plough is drawn through the soil it creates long trenches of fertile soil called furrows. In modern use, a field is typically left to dry out. Ploughing and cultivating a soil homogenises and modifies the upper 12 to 25 cm of the soil to form a plough layer, in many soils, the majority of fine plant feeder roots can be found in the topsoil or plough layer. Ploughs were initially human-powered, but the process became more efficient once animals were pressed into service. The first animal-powered ploughs were undoubtedly pulled by oxen, and in areas by horses and mules.
In industrialised countries, the first mechanical means of pulling a plough were steam-powered, modern competitions take place for ploughing enthusiasts like the National Ploughing Championships in Ireland. By not ploughing, beneficial fungi and microbial life can develop that will bring air into the soil, retain water. A healthy soil full of active fungi and microbial life, combined with a crop, suppresses weeds and pests naturally. Thus the intensive use of water-, oil- and energy hungry irrigation, cultivated land becomes more fertile and productive over time, while tilled land tends to go down in productivity over time due to erosion and the removal of nutrients with every harvest. Proponents of permaculture claim that it is the way of farming that can be maintained when fossil fuel runs out. The term plough or plow, as used today, was not common until 1700, the modern word plough comes from Old Norse plógr, and therefore Germanic, but it appears relatively late, and is thought to be a loanword from one of the north Italic languages.
Words with the same root appeared with related meanings, in Raetic plaumorati wheeled heavy plough, and in Latin plaustrum farm cart, plōstrum, plōstellum cart, and plōxenum, plōximum cart box. The word must have referred to the wheeled heavy plough. Orel tentatively attaches plough to a PIE stem *blōkó-, which gave Armenian peɫem to dig and Welsh bwlch crack, on modern ploughs and some older ploughs, the mouldboard is separate from the share and runner, so these parts can be replaced without replacing the mouldboard. Abrasion eventually destroys all parts of a plough that come into contact with the soil, digging sticks and mattocks were not invented in any one place, and hoe-cultivation must have been common everywhere agriculture was practiced
The area is 10.2 miles south-west of Charing Cross. The suburbs population was 16,031 at the time of the 2001 census, beverley Brook runs through Worcester Park, alongside Green Lane and past Green Lane Primary School, traversing up to Cuddington Recreation Ground. Green Lane appears in the Domesday Book, the Huntsmans Hall was situated on what was the far boundary of a hunting ground for Henry VIII. In 2011, around 78% of residents of Worcester Park ward were White, Worcester Park takes its name from the 4th Earl of Worcester, who was appointed Keeper of the Great Park in 1606. The area was part of the Great Park which covered around 1100 acres and was adjacent to the Little Park which contained Nonsuch Palace of Henry VIII. Both parks were used as deer parks. Henry VIII had obtained the land from Sir Richard de Codington, during the ownership by Sir Richard de Codington, there was a manor house on a site which was replaced by Worcester House and is now the site of Worcester Close. There was a church of St.
Mary on roughly the site where the church of St Mary the Virgin, Cuddington. In 1809 Worcester Park was acquired by William Taylor and he used a mill on the banks of the Hogsmill Riverto continue the manufacture of gunpowder which had been carried out on and off in the area for several centuries. Manufacturing continued until the 1850s when the mill blew up, in 1890 Worcester Park Baptist Church was formed in Longfellow Road. It moved to its present location on The Avenue in the 1950s, Cheam Common Infants and Junior schools are pre-World War II school buildings. Air raid shelters were found underground during an extension to the building of the junior school. The school is located at the top of the high street, Blakesley School was a private primary school run by the Headmaster Eric Dudley. It closed in the summer of 1958, when the land was sold for housing. It occupied the land at grid reference TQ214654 bordered by the portion of Delta Road which was not surfaced, Delta Close. It occupied a plot of land and was a modern manor house style building referred to on local maps as Worcester Court.
The surrounding wall is said to go back to Henry VIIIs reign and this headquarters was erected after the previous building was destroyed by arsonists and still serves the 2nd Cuddington Scout Group. In the 1950s, the ruins of an ornamental lake with a multi-arched bridge
The domestic pig, often called swine, hog, or pig when there is no need to distinguish it from other pigs, is a large, even-toed ungulate. It is variously considered a subspecies of the boar or a distinct species. The domestic pigs head-plus-body-length ranges from 0.9 to 1.8 m, compared to other artiodactyls, its head is relatively long and free of warts. Even-toed ungulates are generally herbivorous, but the pig is an omnivore. Domestic pigs are farmed primarily for the consumption of their meat called pork, the animals bones and bristles are used in commercial products. Domestic pigs, especially the pig and micro pig, are sometimes kept as pets. The domestic pig typically has a head, with a long snout which is strengthened by a special prenasal bone. The snout is used to dig into the soil to find food, the dental formula of adult pigs is 22.214.171.124.1.4.3, giving a total of 44 teeth. The rear teeth are adapted for crushing, in the male the canine teeth can form tusks, which grow continuously and are sharpened by constantly being ground against each other.
There are four hoofed toes on each foot, or trotter, most domestic pigs have rather a sparse hair covering on their skin, although woolly-coated breeds, such as the Mangalitsa, are raised. Pigs possess both apocrine and eccrine sweat glands, although the latter appear limited to the snout and dorsonasal areas, however, like other hairless mammals, do not use thermal sweat glands in cooling. Pigs are less able than many other mammals to dissipate heat from wet mucous membranes in the mouth through panting and their thermoneutral zone is 16 to 22 °C. Pigs are one of four known species which possess mutations in the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor that protect against snake venom. Mongooses, honey badgers and pigs all have modifications to the receptor pocket which prevents the snake venom α-neurotoxin from binding and these represent four separate, independent mutations. However, in 1777, Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben classified the domestic pig as a species from the wild boar. He gave it the name Sus domesticus, which is used by some taxonomists.
Remains of pigs have been dated to earlier than 11,400 BC in Cyprus and those animals must have been introduced from the mainland, which suggests domestication in the adjacent mainland by then. There was a separate domestication in China which took place about 8000 years ago, DNA evidence from sub-fossil remains of teeth and jawbones of Neolithic pigs shows that the first domestic pigs in Europe had been brought from the Near East
The Hogsmill River in Surrey, England, is one of the tributaries of the River Thames. It rises in Ewell and flows into the Thames at Kingston upon Thames on the reach above Kingston road bridge, the river is 6 miles in length and has a catchment area of 73 km². The river flows through low-lying land, most of it sports grounds and green space, the 12th century Clattern Bridge, one of the oldest road bridges in England, crosses the river in the centre of Kingston. The Coronation Stone, now sited close to the river in Kingston, is believed to have used for the coronation of Saxon kings in the 10th century. It was used as a mounting block until 1850 when it was mounted on a plinth in the town centre. The source of the Hogsmill River is a spring near grid reference TQ219627 just outside Bourne Hall Park in Ewell. It flows in a direction between Kingston Road and the sports field beside the railway track. The river continues its course in green space between the areas of Ewell Court and West Ewell and confluences with the Green Lanes Stream.
After a short distance of space, the river runs as a boundary between Poole Road Recreation Ground and Ewell Court Park and flows behind Ewell Athletics Track. It reaches another confluence, this one being the Ewell Court Stream, the river runs further through the open space and passes near to West Ewell Infants School and Ruxley Church before flowing under Ruxley Farm Bridge, the site of the former Ruxley Splash. After the confluence, the Hogsmill bends to the right near Riverview Road and it runs beside Worcester Park Road and Old Malden Lane along the edge of a few sports grounds and under the entrance to a go-carting track. The river leaves the border as it turns left into the outskirts of Old Malden in an area of woodland and it crosses the Chessington branch line a short distance away from Malden Manor railway station. The Hogsmill is now flowing in a NNW direction as it crosses the A3 between Tolworth and Malden junctions, the Hogsmill leaves the green space area at the railway line and passes Kingsmeadow, Kingston Cemetery and the Sewage Works in the eastern outskirts of Kingston upon Thames.
It crosses under Villiers Road before heading past a campus of Kingston University before crossing Springfield Road beside Denmark Road and it runs under the bridge for the A307 near College Roundabout beside Kingston College. The river runs under St. Jamess Road by the Magistrates Court, the Hogsmill River meets the Thames beside a restaurant and shopping area beside the Thames Path footbridge at grid reference TQ177691, just upstream of Kingston Bridge. Hogsmill Stream is the shortest out of the five streams of the Hogsmill. It rises at the spring in Ewell and runs to the confluence with the Green Lanes stream between West Ewell and Ewell Court in the Hogsmill Open Space, the source of the stream at Bourne Hall, Ewell Village is considered the main source of the Hogsmill River. However, other tributaries of the such as the Tolworth Brook
Surbiton is a suburban area of south-west London within the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames. It is situated next to the River Thames,11.0 miles south west of central London, Surbiton possesses a mixture of Art-Deco courts, more recent residential blocks and grand 19th century townhouses blending into a sea of semi-detached 20th century housing estates. See the article on Thomas Pooley for his rôle in the establishment of the town of Surbiton. See the article on the Municipal Borough of Surbiton for the period 1855–1965 and this resulted in the line being routed further south, through a cutting in the hill south of Surbiton. Surbiton railway station opened in 1838, and was originally named Kingston-upon-Railway and it was only renamed Surbiton to distinguish it from the new Kingston railway station on the Shepperton branch line, which opened on 1 January 1869. The present station has an art deco façade and it was once home to Surbiton Studios which were owned by Stoll Pictures, before the company shifted its main production to Cricklewood Studios.
The Pre-Raphaelite painters John Everett Millais and William Holman Hunt came to Surbiton in 1851,26 years before Richard Jefferies, Millais used the Hogsmill River, in Six Acre Meadow, Tolworth, as the background for his painting Ophelia. Holman Hunt used the fields just south of this spot as the background to The Hireling Shepherd, in the mid-1870s the novelist Thomas Hardy lived in a house called St. Davids Villa in Hook Road, Surbiton for a year after his marriage to Emma Gifford. H. G. Wells, in his comic novel The Wheels of Chance, describes the cycle collision of Mr Hoopdriver and a Young Lady in Grey, the young lady approaching along an affluent from the villas of Surbiton. The writer Enid Blyton was governess to a Surbiton family for four years from 1920, at a house called Southernhay, who broadcast on gardening during the Second World War, lived in Surbiton, where he died suddenly outside his home. The artist who brought Rupert the Bear to life for a whole generation Alfred Bestall sketched out his cartoons from his home in Cranes Park, other names for the town include the Surbs and the Tron in reference to 80s movies The Burbs and Tron.
Surbiton station features in the 2009 film version of Harry Potter, filming took place in November 2007. The station appears in Agatha Christies Poirot, The Adventure of the Clapham Cook, a TV adaptation of the story by Agatha Christie. Surbiton receives a mention in the seventh chapter of the James Bond novel On Her Majestys Secret Service by Ian Fleming. The guitarist and singer-songwriter Eric Clapton purchased one of his first guitars from a shop in Surbiton called Bells, Surbiton is served by a number of regular bus services. London Buses routes 71,281,406,418,465, K1, K2, K3, Surbiton railway station provides rail links with London and Hampshire. For education in Surbiton see the main Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames article, until the early 19th century, like Norbiton, lay in the parish of All Saints, Kingston upon Thames. As a result, Surbitons three parish churches all date back to the Victorian era, the two Anglican ones, Saint Marks and Saint Andrews, are located in the town centre
Chessington World of Adventures
Chessington World of Adventures Resort is a theme park and hotel complex that lies 12 miles southwest of Central London, England in the Chessington area of the Kingston upon Thames borough. Historically opened as Chessington Zoo in 1931, a park was developed by The Tussauds Group alongside the zoo, opening on 7 June 1987. The park was inherited by Merlin Entertainments after the buyout of Tussauds in 2007, under Merlin, Chessington has been increasingly developed into a resort tourist destination, including two on-site hotels, a high ropes course and camp site. Chessington Zoo has over 1,000 animals, including western lowland gorillas, sea lions, and Sumatran tigers. It is split up several areas, Trail of the Kings, Creepy Caves, Sealion Bay, Childrens Zoo, Penguin Bay. Chessington World of Adventures theme park consists of themed areas styled on a range of world cultures and it currently has 10 discrete areas including the Adventure Point, Mystic East, Pirates Cove, Wild Woods, and Forbidden Kingdom.
Land of the Dragons opened in 2004 for children although it includes the intense spinning coaster Dragons Fury, in the English Civil War it became a royalist stronghold, and Oliver Cromwells Parliamentary forces razed it to the ground. The Burnt Stub site was rebuilt as an inn, until the 18th century, the resort has its roots in the Chessington Zoo, which opened in 1931, it was started by Reginald Goddard, who had bought the estate to showcase his private collection of animals. In 1946 when Goddard died, the Pearson Publishing Company took over the zoo and managed it until 1978, in 1984, due to the zoos declining attendance, Tussaudss Director of Development, Ray Barratt commissioned John Wardley to come up with plans to revitalize the park. The decision was made to open a park to complement the zoo. On 7 June 1987 Chessington World of Adventures opened to the public, the park was built on a relatively small budget of around £12 million, in case the project failed. The new rides were to operate on a pay-one-price admission basis, other support rides were opened, and the park opened just five themed areas, Calamity Canyon, Mystic East, Market Square, Toy Town and Circus World.
The attractions were all themed with emphasis on atmosphere and effects. The 1990 season bought two of Chessingtons more popular rides with the opening of Transylvania and Professor Burps Bubbleworks, both of these rides had significant impact on the park, and are still exceedingly popular today. Opening Transylvania cost around £10 million, by this time Smugglers Galleon and the Smugglers Cove area had been created, both opening in 1988. The 1995 season arrived with the intense Rameses Revenge, the parks first inverting ride, Rameses Revenge was new in the Forbidden Kingdom area, an area which had opened the previous year, bringing the Terror Tomb dark ride in replacement of the 5th Dimension. Also new for 1995 was SeaStorm in Pirates Cove, and the Carousel, in 1999, Chessington opened the hardcore thrill ride Samurai in the Mystic East. 1999 saw the rename of Calamity Canyon into Mexicana, following the opening of Rattlesnake the year before,2000 saw Beanoland open on the former site of Circus World, bringing two new rides to the park, Billys Whizzer and Rodger the Dodgers Dodgems
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status. The NHS commissions most emergency services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other services, the public normally access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which gradually merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary contract for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England. The service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland, the Northern Ireland Ambulance Service was established in 1995 by parliamentary order, and serves the whole of Northern Ireland.
The Welsh Ambulance Service NHS Trust was established on 1 April 1998, there is a large market for private and voluntary ambulance services, with the sector being worth £800m to the UK economy in 2012. This places the voluntary providers in direct competition with private services, expenditure on private ambulances in England increased from £37m in 2011−12 to £67. 5m in 2013/4, rising in London from £796,000 to more than £8. 8m. In 2014−15, these 10 ambulance services spent £57.6 million on 333,329 callouts of private or voluntary services - an increase of 156% since 2010−11, in 2013, the CQC found 97% of private ambulance services to be providing good care. These private, registered services are represented by the Independent Ambulance Association, there are a number of unregistered services operating, who do not provide ambulance transport, but only provide response on an event site. These firms are not regulated, and are not subject to the checks as the registered providers, although they may operate similar vehicles.
There are a number of ambulance providers, sometimes known as Voluntary Aid Services or Voluntary Aid Societies, with the main ones being the British Red Cross. The history of the ambulance services pre-dates any government organised service. As they are in competition for work with the private ambulance providers. Voluntary organisations have provided cover for the public when unionised NHS ambulance trust staff have taken industrial action, there are a number of smaller voluntary ambulance organisations, fulfilling specific purposes, such as Hatzola who provide emergency medical services to the orthodox Jewish community in some cities. These have however run into difficulties due to use of vehicles not legally recognised as ambulances, all emergency medical services in the UK are subject to a range of legal and regulatory requirements, and in many cases are monitored for performance. This framework is largely statutory in nature, being mandated by government through a range of primary and secondary legislation and this requires all providers to register, to meet certain standards of quality, and to submit to inspection of those standards
Fire services in the United Kingdom
The fire services in the United Kingdom operate under separate legislative and administrative arrangements in England and Wales, Northern Ireland, and Scotland. Emergency cover is provided by over fifty fire and rescue services, many FRS were previously known as brigades or county fire services, but almost all now use the standard terminology. They are distinct from and governed by an authority, which is the legislative and administrative body. Fire authorities in England and Wales, and therefore fire and rescue services and Northern Ireland have centralised fire and rescue services, and so their authorities are effectively committees of the devolved parliaments. The total budget for services in 2014-15 was £2.9 billion. The devolved government in Scotland has an agency, HMFSI Scotland. This Act provided for centralised co-ordination of fire brigades in Great Britain,1947, Fire Services Act 1947 This Act transferred the functions of the National Fire Service to local authorities. Now repealed entirely in England and Wales by Schedule 2 of the Fire,1959, Fire Services Act 1959 This Act amended the 1947 Act, it dealt with pensions, staffing arrangements and provision of services by other authorities.
It was repealed in England and Wales along with the 1947 Act,1999, Greater London Authority Act 1999 This act was necessary to allow for the formation of the Greater London Authority and in turn the London Fire and Emergency Planning Authority. In 2002, there was a series of fire strikes. In December 2002, the Independent Review of the Fire Service was published with the action still ongoing. Bains report ultimately led to a change in the relating to firefighting. 2002, Independent Review of the Fire Service published 2004, Fire and Rescue Services Act 2004, generally only applying to England and it came into force on 1 October 2006. The DfCLG has published a set of guides for non-domestic premises,2006, The Government of Wales Act 2006 gave the National Assembly for Wales powers to pass laws on Fire, promotion of fire safety otherwise than by prohibition or regulation. But does not prevent future legislation being passed by the UK government which applies to two or more constituent countries, There are further plans to modernise the fire service according to the Local Government Association.
The fire service in England and Wales is scrutinised by a House of Commons select committee, in June 2006, the fire and rescue service select committee, under the auspices of the Communities and Local Government Committee, published its latest report. For example, where FRSs were historically inspected by HMFSI, much of this work is now carried out by the National Audit Office, Fire Control On 8 February 2010 the House of Commons Communities and Local Government Select Committee heard evidence on the Fire Control project. Called to give evidence were Cllr Brian Coleman and Cllr James Pearson from the Local Government Association, giving evidence Matt Wrack from the Fire Brigades Union and John Bonney Chief Fire Officers Association
Domesday Book is a manuscript record of the Great Survey of much of England and parts of Wales completed in 1086 by order of King William the Conqueror. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle states, Then, at the midwinter, was the king in Glocester with his council. After this had the king a large meeting, and very deep consultation with his council, about this land, how it was occupied and it was written in Medieval Latin, was highly abbreviated, and included some vernacular native terms without Latin equivalents. The assessors reckoning of a mans holdings and their values, as recorded in Domesday Book, was dispositive, the name Domesday Book came into use in the 12th century. As Richard FitzNeal wrote in the Dialogus de Scaccario, for as the sentence of that strict and terrible last account cannot be evaded by any skilful subterfuge and its sentence cannot be quashed or set aside with impunity. That is why we have called the book the Book of Judgement, because its decisions, like those of the Last Judgement, are unalterable.
The manuscript is held at The National Archives at Kew, London, in 2011, the Open Domesday site made the manuscript available online. The book is a primary source for modern historians and historical economists. Domesday Book encompasses two independent works, Little Domesday and Great Domesday, no surveys were made of the City of London, Winchester, or some other towns, probably due to their tax-exempt status. Most of Cumberland and Westmorland are missing, the omission of the other counties and towns is not fully explained, although in particular Cumberland and Westmorland had yet to be fully conquered. Little Domesday – so named because its format is smaller than its companions – is the more detailed survey. It may have represented the first attempt, resulting in a decision to avoid such level of detail in Great Domesday, some of the largest such magnates held several hundred fees, in a few cases in more than one county. For example, the chapter of the Domesday Book Devonshire section concerning Baldwin the Sheriff lists 176 holdings held in-chief by him, as a review of taxes owed, it was highly unpopular.
Each countys list opened with the demesne lands. It should be borne in mind that under the system the king was the only true owner of land in England. He was thus the ultimate overlord and even the greatest magnate could do no more than hold land from him as a tenant under one of the contracts of feudal land tenure. In some counties, one or more principal towns formed the subject of a separate section and this principle applies more specially to the larger volume, in the smaller one, the system is more confused, the execution less perfect. Domesday names a total of 13,418 places and these include fragments of custumals, records of the military service due, of markets, and so forth
Oxshott is an affluent low density suburban village in the Elmbridge borough of Surrey. Oxshott includes hilly acidic heath which is wooded and occupies the land between the geographically large towns of Esher and Leatherhead. The Oxshott section of the single carriageway north-south A244 runs through its middle and briefly forms its high street, centred 2 miles from the A3 and the M25. The Princes Coverts remains part of the Crown Estate, albeit decreased by some privatisation, a great many of Oxshotts residential areas are on private roads, gated off and inaccessible to the general public. This, combined with the large and desirable properties that form much of the housing stock. Oxshott means Ocgas corner of land, from the Old English personal name Ocga, the first element does not, unlike Oxford, have anything to do with oxen. The name was recorded in 1179 as Occesete, until the 16th century Oxshott was fairly isolated from other centres of population, surrounded by heath and scrubland and connected to nearby villages only by footpaths.
For almost the whole of a three centuries no major transport links crossed the parish. The station – first named Oxshott and Fairmile – allowed and encouraged day trippers, the following 30 years saw Oxshott expand to meet their demands and in doing so it acquired all the characteristics of a stereotypical English village. The Crown Commissioners limited early housing development to mansions or villas suitable for occupation by wealthy families, examples of these include Danes Hill, Broom Hall and Bevendean. Subsequently, the village has expanded and now includes most types of housing, save medium-, the religious needs of the growing population were met by the consecration of St. Andrews Church in 1912, in the Church of England. The high street expanded from what were once just three shops, a drapers, a tobacconists and a set of tea-rooms, industry arrived in Oxshott when John Early Cook set up his brickworks from the local deep patch of suitable clay in 1866. Production continued until 1958, with the famous and distinctive chimney of the works being demolished in 1967, heathfield Pond is the site of the brickwork pit, it was previously called Brick Pond.
The pond is approximately 100 ft deep with a cottage and machinery at the bottom, alfie Skelton died in a boating accident on the pond in March 2011. During World War II Canadian army engineers were billeted on Oxshott Heath whilst they built the Cabinet War Rooms, Oxshott is served by commuter trains with services taking 38 minutes to Waterloo station calling at Vauxhall for interchange with the Victoria line, with local bus services available. Oxshott railway station is just off Oxshott Heath, to the south of Oxshott Woods, Oxshott Heath geologically has an escarpment where the London clay and sand strata are raised substantially. For this reason, Oxshott had a brickworks from 1866 to 1958, the brickworks was served by a branch line that ran west from the station. This is why the footbridge at the end of Sheaths Lane can span three tracks, at Cooks Crossing, the railway crossing had three lines, two for the electrified main line to Guildford via Cobham and Stoke DAbernon and a single track to the brickyards