Gospel of Luke
The Gospel According to Luke called the Gospel of Luke, or Luke, is the third of the four canonical Gospels. It tells of the origins, ministry, death and ascension of Jesus Christ. Luke is the longest book in the New Testament; the cornerstone of Luke–Acts' theology is "salvation history", the author's understanding that God's purpose is seen in the way he has acted, will continue to act, in history. It divides the history of first-century Christianity into three stages, with the gospel making up the first two of these – the arrival among men of Jesus the Messiah, from his birth to the beginning of his earthly mission in the meeting with John the Baptist followed by his earthly ministry, Passion and resurrection; the gospel's sources are the Gospel of Mark, the sayings collection called the Q source, a collection of material called the L source, found only in this gospel. Luke–Acts does not name its author. According to Church tradition this was Luke the Evangelist, the companion of Paul, but while this view is still put forward the scholarly consensus emphasises the many contradictions between Acts and the authentic Pauline letters.
The most probable date for its composition is around AD 80–110, there is evidence that it was still being revised well into the 2nd century. Autographs of Luke and the other Gospels have not been preserved, as is typical for ancient documents; the earliest witnesses for Luke's gospel fall into two "families" with considerable differences between them, the Western and the Alexandrian, the dominant view is that the Western text represents a process of deliberate revision, as the variations seem to form specific patterns. The fragment P 4 is cited as the oldest witness, it has been dated from the late 2nd century. The oldest complete texts are the 4th century Codex Sinaiticus and Vaticanus, both from the Alexandrian family. Codex Bezae shows comprehensively the differences between the versions which show no core theological significance; the gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles make up a two-volume work which scholars call Luke–Acts. Together they account for 27.5% of the New Testament, the largest contribution by a single author, providing the framework for both the Church's liturgical calendar and the historical outline into which generations have fitted their idea of the story of Jesus.
The author is not named in either volume. According to a Church tradition dating from the 2nd century he was the Luke named as a companion of Paul in three of the letters attributed to Paul himself, but "a critical consensus emphasizes the countless contradictions between the account in Acts and the authentic Pauline letters." An example can be seen by comparing Acts' accounts of Paul's conversion with Paul's own statement that he remained unknown to Christians in Judea after that event. Luke admired Paul, but his theology was different from Paul's on key points and he does not represent Paul's views accurately, he was educated, a man of means urban, someone who respected manual work, although not a worker himself. The eclipse of the traditional attribution to Luke the companion of Paul has meant that an early date for the gospel is now put forward; some experts date the composition of the combined work to around 80–90 AD, although some others suggest 90–110, there is evidence, both textual and from the Marcionite controversy that Luke–Acts was still being revised well into the 2nd century.
Luke–Acts is a religio-political history of the Founder of the church and his successors, in both deeds and words. The author describes his book as a "narrative", rather than as a gospel, implicitly criticises his predecessors for not giving their readers the speeches of Jesus and the Apostles, as such speeches were the mark of a "full" report, the vehicle through which ancient historians conveyed the meaning of their narratives, he seems to have taken as his model the works of two respected Classical authors, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who wrote a history of Rome, the Jewish historian Josephus, author of a history of the Jews. All three authors anchor the histories of their respective peoples by dating the births of the founders and narrate the stories of the founders' births from God, so that they are sons of God; each founder taught authoritatively, appeared to witnesses after death, ascended to heaven. Crucial aspects of the teaching of all three concerned the relationship between rich and poor and the question
The Turkic peoples are a collection of ethno-linguistic groups of Central, Eastern and Western Asia as well as parts of Europe and North Africa. They speak related languages belonging to the Turkic language family, they share, to certain cultural traits, common ancestry and historical backgrounds. In time, different Turkic groups came in contact with other ethnicities, absorbing them, leaving some Turkic groups more diverse than the others. Many vastly differing ethnic groups have throughout history become part of the Turkic peoples through language shift, intermixing and religious conversion. In their genetic compositions, most Turkic groups differ in origins from one group to the next. Despite this, many do share, to varying degrees, non-linguistic characteristics, including certain cultural traits, some ancestry from a common gene pool, historical experiences; the most notable modern Turkic-speaking ethnic groups include Turkish people, Uzbeks, Kazakhs and Kyrgyz people. The first known mention of the term Turk applied to a Turkic group was in reference to the Göktürks in the 6th century.
A letter by Ishbara Qaghan to Emperor Wen of Sui in 585 described him as "the Great Turk Khan." The Orhun inscriptions use the terms Turuk. Previous use of similar terms are of unknown significance, although some feel that they are evidence of the historical continuity of the term and the people as a linguistic unit since early times; this includes Chinese records Spring and Autumn Annals referring to a neighbouring people as Beidi. During the first century CE, Pomponius Mela refers to the "Turcae" in the forests north of the Sea of Azov, Pliny the Elder lists the "Tyrcae" among the people of the same area. There are references to certain groups in antiquity whose names could be the original form of "Türk/Türük" such as Togarma, Turukha/Turuška, Turukku and so on, but the information gap is so substantial that we cannot connect these ancient people to the modern Turks. Turkologist András Róna-Tas posits that the term Turk could be rooted in the East Iranian Saka language or in Turkic. However, it is accepted that the term "Türk" is derived from the Old-Turkic migration-term Türük/Törük, which means "created", "born", or "strong", from the Old Turkic word root *türi-/töri- and conjugated with Old Turkic suffix from Proto-Turkic *türi-k, from the Proto-Turkic word root *töŕ from a Proto-Altaic source *t`ŏ̀ŕe.
This etymological concept is related to Old Turkic word stems'tür','türi-','törü' and'töz'. The earliest Turkic-speaking peoples identifiable in Chinese sources are the Dingling and Xinli, located in South Siberia; the Chinese Book of Zhou presents an etymology of the name Turk as derived from "helmet", explaining that this name comes from the shape of a mountain where they worked in the Altai Mountains. According to Persian tradition, as reported by 11th-century ethnographer Mahmud of Kashgar and various other traditional Islamic scholars and historians, the name "Turk" stems from Tur, one of the sons of Japheth. During the Middle Ages, various Turkic peoples of the Eurasian steppe were subsumed under the identity of the "Scythians". Between 400 CE and the 16th century, Byzantine sources use the name Σκύθαι in reference to twelve different Turkic peoples. In the modern Turkish language as used in the Republic of Turkey, a distinction is made between "Turks" and the "Turkic peoples" in loosely speaking: the term Türk corresponds to the "Turkish-speaking" people, while the term Türki refers to the people of modern "Turkic Republics".
However, the proper usage of the term is based on the linguistic classification in order to avoid any political sense. In short, the term Türki can be used for vice versa, it is agreed that the first Turkic people lived in a region extending from eastern Central Asia to Siberia, with the majority of them living in today China. A ethnolinguistic study claims that the Turkic people originated somewhere in modern Manchuria and adopted a nomadic lifestyle and started a migration to the west. Another research, based on genetic data of ancient Turkic samples and origin and homeland somewhere in Northeastern China, it is estimated that the ancient Turkic peoples belonged predominantly to the yDNA Haplogroup C-M217 with a medium distribution of Haplogroup Q-M242 and Haplogroup N-M231. They were established after the 6th century BCE; the earliest separate Turkic peoples appeared on the peripheries of the late Xiongnu confederation about 200 BCE. Turkic people may be related to the Xiongnu and Tiele people.
According to the Book of Wei, the Tiele people were the remnants of the Chidi, the red Di people competing with the Jin in the Spring and Autumn period. Turkic tribes such as the Khazars and Pechenegs lived as nomads for many years before establishing the Turkic Khaganate or Göktürk Empire in the 6th century; these were herdsmen and nobles. The first mention of
Roscommon County Museum
Roscommon County Museum is a museum dedicated to the history of County Roscommon, is run by the County Roscommon Historical and Archaeological Society. The museum is housed in a former Presbyterian church in Roscommon town; the museum is situated within a former Presbyterian church known as Dr. John Harrison Memorial Hall; the building itself dates from 1863, sits on The Square in the town. The most distinctive element of the building is the wheel window over the door which featured a ‘Star of David’ to commemorate its Welsh Builders; the museum is run on a voluntary basis by the County Roscommon Historical and Archaeological Society, had been housed in the church since the early 1990s. The collections document the history of County Roscommon over the centuries; these most notably include a 9th-century slab from St Coman's Abbey, a Sheela na gig from Rahara church. There is a replica of the Cross of Cong, made in County Roscommon, along with the Shrine of Manchan, by the master gold-craftsman named Irish: Mael Isu Bratain Ui Echach "Mailisa MacEgan".
To the rear of the building, there is an outside space which houses examples of horse drawn farm machinery. The building houses the Roscommon Tourist Information Office. Discover Ireland Roscommon Museum
Dublin Castle is a major Irish government complex, conference centre, tourist attraction. It is located off Dame Street in Ireland; until 1922 it was the seat of the British government's administration in Ireland. Most of the current construction dates from the 18th century, though a castle has stood on the site since the days of King John, the first Lord of Ireland; the Castle served as the seat of English later British, government of Ireland under the Lordship of Ireland, the Kingdom of Ireland, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. After the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty in December 1921, the complex was ceremonially handed over to the newly formed Provisional Government led by Michael Collins, it now hosts the inauguration of each President of Ireland, various State receptions. The castle was built by the dark pool; this pool lies on the lower course of the River Poddle before its confluence with the River Liffey. The Poddle today runs under the complex. Dublin Castle has fulfilled a number of roles through its history.
Built as a defensive fortification for the Norman city of Dublin, it evolved into an official residence, used by the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland or Viceroy of Ireland, the representative of the Monarch. The second in command in the Dublin Castle administration, the Chief Secretary for Ireland had his offices there. Over the years parliament and law courts met at the castle before moving to new purpose-built venues, it served as the base for a military garrison and also intelligence services. Upon formation of the Free State in 1922, the castle temporarily assumed the role of the Four Courts, whose building had been badly damaged during the Civil War; this arrangement would last for a decade. It was decided in 1938 that the inauguration of the first President of Ireland, Douglas Hyde would take place in the castle, the complex has been host to this ceremony since; the castle is used for hosting official State visits as well as more informal foreign affairs engagements, State banquets, including that for the visit of Queen Elizabeth II in 2011, Government policy launches.
It acts as the central base for Ireland's hosting of the European Presidency every 10 years. Two dedicated conference facilities, The Hibernia Conference Centre and The Printworks, were installed for the European Presidencies of 1990 and 2013, are made available for rental by the private sector too; the castle's State Apartments and their associated collection of historic materials form an accredited museum, the castle complex is home to a Garda Síochána unit and the Garda Museum, some parts of the Office of Public Works, some functions of the Irish Revenue Commissioners - and the Revenue Museum - and the Chester Beatty Library. Dublin Castle was first founded as a major defensive work by Meiler Fitzhenry on the orders of King John of England in 1204, some time after the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169, when it was commanded that a castle be built with strong walls and good ditches for the defence of the city, the administration of justice, the protection of the King's treasure. Complete by 1230, the castle was of typical Norman courtyard design, with a central square without a keep, bounded on all sides by tall defensive walls and protected at each corner by a circular tower.
Sited to the south-east of Norman Dublin, the castle formed one corner of the outer perimeter of the city, using the River Poddle as a natural means of defence along two of its sides. The city wall directly abutted the castle's northeast Powder Tower, extending north and westwards around the city before rejoining the castle at its southwestern Bermingham Tower. In 1620 the English-born judge Luke Gernon was impressed by the wall: "a huge and mighty wall, of incredible thickness"; the Poddle was diverted into the city through archways where the walls adjoined the castle, artificially flooding the moat of the fortress's city elevations. One of these archways and part of the wall survive buried underneath the 18th-century buildings, are open to public inspection. Through the Middle Ages the wooden buildings within the castle square evolved and changed, the most significant addition being the Great Hall built of stone and timber, variously used as Parliament house, court of law and banqueting hall.
The building survived until 1673, when it was demolished shortly afterwards. The Court of Castle Chamber, the Irish counterpart to the English Star Chamber, sat in Dublin Castle in a room, specially built for it about 1570; the Castle sustained severe fire damage in 1684. Extensive rebuilding transformed it from medieval fortress to Georgian palace. No trace of medieval buildings remains above ground level today, with the exception of the great Record Tower. United Irishmen General Joseph Holt, a participant in the 1798 Rising, was incarcerated in the Bermingham Tower before being transported to New South Wales in 1799. In 1884 officers at the Castle were at the centre of a sensational homosexual scandal incited by the Irish Nationalist politician William O'Brien through his newspaper United Ireland. In 1907 the Irish Crown Jewels were stolen from the Castle. Suspicion fell upon the Officer of Arms, Sir Arthur Vicars, but rumours of his homosexuality and links to important gay men in London, may have compromised the investigation.
The jewels have never been recovered. At the beginning of
Crawford Art Gallery
The Crawford Art Gallery is a public art gallery and museum in the city of Cork, Ireland. Known informally as the Crawford, it was designated a'National Cultural Institution' in 2006, it is "dedicated to the visual arts, both historic and contemporary", welcomes over 200,000 visitors a year. The Crawford is based in the centre of Cork in what used to be the Cork Customs House, built in 1724; the Customs House became home to the Royal Cork Institution in the 1830s, the RCI was involved in opening the Cork School of Design on the site in 1850. In the early 1880s, the Cork School of Design was extended with funds and patronage from members of the Crawford family, who were local landowners and brewers. For this reason the school was re-named as the Crawford School of Art in 1885. In 1979, the art school transferred to another site, the Crawford building used as a gallery and museum; the museum buildings were extended in 2000. Among the earliest acquisitions in the gallery's collection are casts of classical Greek and Roman statues by Antonio Canova.
These were brought to Cork from the Vatican in 1818. The Royal Cork Institution acquired these works from the Society of Fine Arts in Cork, given the casts by the Prince Regent, he in turn had received them from Pope Pius VII, who had commissioned Antonio Canova to make a set of plasters from statues in the Vatican. Given the gallery's association with the Cork School of Art, some items in the museum collection are from staff and students of the school; these include works by James Brenan and students such as Henry Jones Thaddeus and William Gerard Barry. Other items in the collection include works by sculptors such as John Hogan and Eilis O'Connell, stained-glass artists like Harry Clarke and Evie Hone, painters including William Orpen, Jack B. Yeats, Nano Reid, as well as photographer Bob Carlos Clarke; the gallery hosts education and outreach programmes, manages temporary and travelling exhibitions. Royal Cork Institution Crawford Art Gallery website
Munster is one of the provinces of Ireland, in the south west of Ireland. In early Ireland, the Kingdom of Munster was one of the kingdoms of Gaelic Ireland ruled by a "king of over-kings". Following the Norman invasion of Ireland, the ancient kingdoms were shired into counties for administrative and judicial purposes. In centuries, local government legislation has seen further sub-division of the historic counties. Munster has no official function for local government purposes. For the purposes of the ISO, the province is listed as one of the provincial sub-divisions of the State and coded as "IE-M". Geographically, Munster covers a total area of 24,675 km2 and has a population of 1,280,020, with the most populated city being Cork. Other significant urban centres in the province include Waterford. In the early centuries AD, Munster was the domain of the Iverni peoples and the Clanna Dedad familial line, led by Cú Roí and to whom the king Conaire Mór belonged. In the 5th century, Saint Patrick spent several years in the area and founded Christian churches and ordained priests.
During the Early Middle Ages, most of the area was part of the Kingdom of Munster, ruled by the Eóganachta dynasty. Prior to this, the area was ruled by the Corcu Loígde overlords. Rulers from the Eóganachta included Cathal mac Finguine and Feidlimid mac Cremthanin. Notable regional kingdoms and lordships of Early Medieval Munster were Iarmuman, Osraige, Uí Liatháin, Uí Fidgenti, Éile, Múscraige, Ciarraige Luachra, Corcu Duibne, Corcu Baiscinn, Déisi Muman. By the 9th century, the Gaels had been joined by Norse Vikings who founded towns such as Cork and Limerick, for the most part incorporated into a maritime empire by the Dynasty of Ivar, who periodically would threaten Munster with conquest in the next century. Around this period Ossory broke away from Munster; the 10th century saw the rise of the Dalcassian clan, who had earlier annexed Thomond, north of the River Shannon to Munster. Their leaders were the ancestors of the O'Brien dynasty and spawned Brian Boru the most noted High King of Ireland, several of whose descendants were High Kings.
By 1118, Munster had fractured into the Kingdom of Thomond under the O'Briens, the Kingdom of Desmond under the MacCarthy dynasty, the short-lived Kingdom of Ormond under the O'Kennedys. The three crowns of the flag of Munster represent these three late kingdoms. There was Norman influence from the 14th century, including by the FitzGerald, de Clare and Butler houses, two of whom carved out earldoms within the Lordship of Ireland, the Earls of Desmond becoming independent potentates, while the Earls of Ormond remained closer to England; the O'Brien of Thomond and MacCarthy of Desmond surrendered and regranted sovereignty to the Tudors in 1543 and 1565, joining the Kingdom of Ireland. The impactful Desmond Rebellions, led by the FitzGeralds, soon followed. By the mid-19th century much of the area was hit hard in the Great Famine the west; the province was affected by events in the Irish War of Independence in the early 20th century, there was a brief Munster Republic during the Irish Civil War.
The Irish leaders Michael Collins and earlier Daniel O'Connell came from families of the old Gaelic Munster gentry. Noted for its traditions in Irish folk music, with many ancient castles and monasteries in the province, Munster is a tourist destination. During the fifth century, St. Patrick spent seven years founding churches and ordaining priests in Munster, but a fifth-century bishop named Ailbe is the patron saint of Munster. In Irish mythology, a number of ancient goddesses are associated with the province including Anann, Áine, Grian, Clíodhna, Aimend, Mór Muman, Bébinn and Queen Mongfind; the druid-god of Munster is Mug Ruith. Another legendary figure is Donn; the province has long had trading and cultural links with continental Europe. The tribe of Corcu Loígde had a trading fleet active along the French Atlantic coast, as far south as Gascony, importing wine to Munster; the Eóganachta had ecclesiastical ties with Germany, which show in the architecture of their ceremonial capital at the Rock of Cashel.
The majority of Irish ogham inscriptions are found in Munster, principally in areas occupied by the Iverni the Corcu Duibne. Europe's first linguistic dictionary in any non-Classical language, the Sanas Cormaic, was compiled by Munster scholars, traditionally thought to have been directed by the king-bishop Cormac mac Cuilennáin; the School of Ross in Munster was one of Europe's leading centres of learning in the Early Middle Ages. Several sports in Munster are organised on a provincial basis, or operate competitions along provincial lines; this includes traditionally popular sports such as hurling, Gaelic football, rugby union and soccer, as well as cricket and others. Munster is noted for its tradition of hurling. Three of the four most successful teams in the All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship are from Munster; the final of the Munster Senior Hurling Championship is one of the most important days in the Irish GAA calendar. Munster is the only province in Ireland that all of its counties have won an All-Ireland Senior Hurling Championship.
Traditionally, the dominant teams in Munster football are Kerry GAA and Cork GAA, although Tipperary GAA and Limerick GAA have won All-Ireland Senior Football Championships. Kerry in particular are the most successful county in the history of football. Rugby is a popular game in the cities of Limerick a
Allihies Copper Mine Museum
The Allihies Copper Mine Museum is a museum dedicated to the history of copper mining in the Allihies area in County Cork. It is situated within the Wild Atlantic Way; the industrial mines in Allihies date back to 1812. Mining activity reached its peak there in 1845, when the mines employed around 1600 people, after which the mines suffered with the local area during the Famine; the mines were operational until 1962, when they were closed. Large Cornish engine houses were constructed around ruins of which survive today; these were used to pump out water to allow for deeper mining, to transport miners and equipment down shafts that went below sea level. The site still contains a number of mining shafts and a church; these were constructed by and for the Cornish miners who were brought to the area in the 1800s to mine copper ore. Once the mine became unprofitable, many of the miners emigrated to Montana; the museum is housed in a renovated Methodist church dating from 1845. It was opened by President Mary McAleese on 13 September 2007, after ten years of work by the Allihies Mines Co-op, a group, formed to preserve the history of the area and mining heritage, supported by the Mining Heritage Trust of Ireland.
The exhibitions cover all aspects of the history of copper mining in the area, from prehistoric times all the way up to the nineteenth century and the Industrial Revolution. The displays cover the local geology and the social history of the mining heritage; the collections contain examples of mining equipment and tools from the various eras of activity. The exhibition space is used to display artworks, with local artists such as Charles Tyrrell, Cormac Boydell, Rachel Parry and Tim Goulding exhibiting there; the trust has begun work to extend tours into the mines and other areas, started the restoration of Man Engine House. Discover Ireland