The Haig was a jazz club located at 638 South Kenmore Avenue in Hollywood. Along with the Tiffany Club it was one of Los Angeles's premier jazz venues in the 1950s and associated with West Coast jazz. Author James Lincoln Collier describes the club as "the best-known Los Angeles jazz club of the day". Located across from the Ambassador Hotel, which housed the famous supper club,The Cocoanut Grove; the Haig club was a bungalow home, converted by owner John Bennett into a club. It has been described as looking more like a doll house than a club. In early 1952 Gerry Mulligan walked into the club and found Erroll Garner, Bobby Short and others jamming without amplification, he joined in on an informal Monday night jam. He would take over the jam night. Mulligan would audition and work with artists such as Chet Baker, Chico Hamilton and Bob Whitlock and many others. In its time, Erroll Garner, Shorty Rogers, Red Norvo, Laurindo Almeida, Ornette Coleman and Bud Shank all played the club. Gerry Mulligan's first California band was formed at The Haig and maintained an eleven-month engagement there beginning in the spring of 1952.
This edition of the Gerry Mulligan quartet would help to bring trumpeter Chet Baker to prominence. In its short life the pianoless quartet released several records for Richard Bock's Pacific label. Harry Edison - Sweets at the Haig Gerry Mulligan - Gerry Mulligan Quartet with Lee Konitz Gerry Mulligan - Lee Konitz and the Gerry Mulligan Quartet Chet Baker and Stan Getz - West Coast Live List of jazz clubs West Coast jazz Collier, James Lincoln. Jazz: The American Theme Song. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-1953-5722-6. Gavin, James. Deep in a Dream: The Long Night of Chet Baker. Chicago Review Press. ISBN 978-1-5697-6903-4. Gioia, Ted. West Coast Jazz: Modern Jazz in California 1945-1960. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-5202-1729-4. Goldberg, Joe. Jazz Masters of the Fifties. Da Capo Press. ISBN 978-0-3068-0197-6. Starr, Kevin. Material Dreams: Southern California Through the 1920s. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-1950-7260-0. Length 496 pages
Sheldon Manne, professionally known as Shelly Manne, was an American jazz drummer. Most associated with West Coast jazz, he was known for his versatility and played in a number of other styles, including Dixieland, bebop, avant-garde jazz and fusion, as well as contributing to the musical background of hundreds of Hollywood films and television programs. Manne's father and uncles were drummers. In his youth he admired many of the leading swing drummers of the day Jo Jones and Dave Tough. Billy Gladstone, a colleague of Manne's father and the most admired percussionist on the New York theatrical scene, offered the teenage Shelly tips and encouragement. From that time, Manne developed his style in the clubs of 52nd Street in New York in the late 1930s and 1940s, his first professional job with a known big band was with the Bobby Byrne Orchestra in 1940. In those years, as he became known, he recorded with jazz stars like Coleman Hawkins, Charlie Shavers, Don Byas, he worked with a number of musicians associated with Duke Ellington, like Johnny Hodges, Harry Carney, Lawrence Brown, Rex Stewart.
In 1943, Manne married. The marriage would last 41 years, until the end of Manne's life; when the bebop movement began to change jazz in the 1940s, Manne loved it and adapted to the style performing with Dizzy Gillespie and Charlie Parker. Around this time he worked with rising stars like Flip Phillips, Charlie Ventura, Lennie Tristano, Lee Konitz. Manne rose to stardom when he became part of the working bands of Woody Herman and Stan Kenton in the late 1940s and early 1950s, winning awards and developing a following at a time when jazz was the most popular music in the United States. Joining the hard-swinging Herman outfit allowed Manne to play the bebop he loved; the controversial Kenton band, on the other hand, with its "progressive jazz", presented obstacles, many of the complex, overwrought arrangements made it harder to swing. But Manne appreciated the musical freedom that Kenton gave him and saw it as an opportunity to experiment along with what was still a innovative band, he rose to the challenge, finding new colors and rhythms, developing his ability to provide support in a variety of musical situations.
In the early 1950s, Manne left New York and settled permanently on a ranch in an outlying part of Los Angeles, where he and his wife raised horses. From this point on, he played an important role in the West Coast school of jazz, performing on the Los Angeles jazz scene with Shorty Rogers, Hampton Hawes, Red Mitchell, Art Pepper, Russ Freeman, Frank Rosolino, Chet Baker, Leroy Vinnegar, Pete Jolly, Howard McGhee, Bob Gordon, Conte Candoli, Sonny Criss, numerous others. Many of his recordings around this time were for Lester Koenig's Contemporary Records, where for a period Manne had a contract as an "exclusive" artist. Manne led a number of small groups that recorded under his leadership. One consisting of Manne on drums, trumpeter Joe Gordon, saxophonist Richie Kamuca, bassist Monty Budwig, pianist Victor Feldman performed for three days in 1959 at the Black Hawk club in San Francisco, their music was recorded on the spot, four LPs were issued. Regarded as an innovative example of a "live" jazz recording, the Black Hawk sessions were reissued on CD in augmented form years later.
Manne is associated with the once criticized West Coast school of jazz. He has been considered "the quintessential" drummer in what was seen as a West Coast movement, though Manne himself did not care to be so pigeonholed. In the 1950s, much of what he did could be seen as in the West Coast style: performing in arranged compositions in what was a cool style, as in his 1953 album named The West Coast Sound, for which he commissioned several original compositions; some of West Coast jazz was experimental, avant-garde music several years before the more mainstream avant-garde playing of Cecil Taylor and Ornette Coleman. Critics would condemn much of this music as overly cerebral. Another side of West Coast jazz that came under critical fire was music in a lighter style, intended for popular consumption. Manne made contributions here too. Best known is the series of albums he recorded with pianist André Previn and with members of his groups, based on music from popular Broadway shows and television programs.
The recordings for the Contemporary label, with each album devoted to a single musical, are in a light appealing style aimed at popular taste. This did not always go over well with aficionados of "serious" jazz, which may be one reason why Manne has been overlooked in accounts of major jazz drummers of the 20th century. Much of the music produced on the West Coast in those years, as Robert Gordon concedes, was in fact imitative and "lacked the fire and intensity associated with the best jazz performances", but Gordon points out that there is a level of musical sophistication, as well as an intensity and "swing", in the music recorded by Manne with Previn and Vinnegar, missing in the many lackluster albums of this type produced by others in that period. West Coast jazz, represented only a small part of Manne's playing. In Los Angeles, returning to New York and elsewhere, Manne recorded with musicians of all
Gerald Joseph Mulligan was an American jazz saxophonist, clarinetist and arranger. Though Mulligan is known as one of the leading jazz baritone saxophonists – playing the instrument with a light and airy tone in the era of cool jazz – he was a significant arranger, working with Claude Thornhill, Miles Davis, Stan Kenton, others. Mulligan's pianoless quartet of the early 1950s with trumpeter Chet Baker is still regarded as one of the best cool jazz groups. Mulligan was a skilled pianist and played several other reed instruments. Several of his compositions, such as "Walkin' Shoes" and "Five Brothers", have become jazz standards. Gerry Mulligan was born in Queens Village, New York, the son of George and Louise Mulligan, his father was a Wilmington, native of Irish descent. Gerry was the youngest of four sons with George and Don preceding him. George Mulligan's career as an engineer necessitated frequent moves through numerous cities; when Gerry was less than a year old, the family moved to Marion, where his father accepted a job with the Marion Power Shovel Company.
With the demands of a large home and four young boys to raise, Mulligan's mother hired an African-American nanny named Lily Rose, who became fond of the youngest Mulligan. As he became older, Mulligan began spending time at Rose's house and was amused by Rose's player piano, which Mulligan recalled as having rolls by numerous players, including Fats Waller. Black musicians sometimes came through town, because many motels would not take them, they had to stay at homes within the black community; the young Mulligan met such musicians staying at Rose's home. The family's moves continued with stops in southern New Jersey, Chicago and Kalamazoo, where Mulligan lived for three years and attended Catholic school; when the school moved into a new building and established music courses, Mulligan decided to play clarinet in the school's nascent orchestra. Mulligan made an attempt at arranging with the Richard Rodgers song "Lover", but the arrangement was seized prior to its first reading by an overzealous nun, taken aback by the title on the arrangement.
When Gerry Mulligan was 14, his family moved to Detroit and to Reading, Pennsylvania. While in Reading, Mulligan began studying clarinet with dance-band musician Sammy Correnti, who encouraged Mulligan's interest in arranging. Mulligan began playing saxophone professionally in dance bands in Philadelphia, an hour and a half or so away; the Mulligan family next moved to Philadelphia, where Gerry attended the West Philadelphia Catholic High School for Boys and organized a school big band, for which he wrote arrangements. When Mulligan was sixteen, he approached Johnny Warrington at local radio station WCAU about writing arrangements for the station's house band. Warrington began buying Mulligan's arrangements. Mulligan dropped out of high school during his senior year to pursue work with a touring band, he contacted bandleader Tommy Tucker. While Tucker did not need an additional reedman, he was looking for an arranger and Mulligan was hired at $100 a week to do two or three arrangements a week.
At the conclusion of Mulligan's three-month contract, Tucker told Mulligan that he should move on to another band, a little less "tame". Mulligan went back to Philadelphia and began writing for Elliot Lawrence, a pianist and composer who had taken over for Warrington as the band leader at WCAU. Mulligan moved to New York City in January 1946 and joined the arranging staff on Gene Krupa's bebop-tinged band. Arrangements of Mulligan's work with Krupa include "Birdhouse", "Disc Jockey Jump" and an arrangement of "How High the Moon", quoting Charlie Parker's "Ornithology" as a countermelody. Mulligan next began arranging for the Claude Thornhill Orchestra sitting in as a member of the reed section. Thornhill's arranging staff included Gil Evans, whom Mulligan had met while working with the Krupa band. Mulligan began living with Evans, at the time that Evans' apartment on West 55th Street became a regular hangout for a number of jazz musicians working on creating a new jazz idiom. In September 1948, Miles Davis formed a nine-piece band that featured arrangements by Mulligan and John Lewis.
The band consisted of Davis on trumpet, Mulligan on baritone saxophone, trombonist Mike Zwerin, alto saxophonist Lee Konitz, Junior Collins on French horn, tubist Bill Barber, pianist John Lewis, bassist Al McKibbon and drummer Max Roach. The band only played a handful of live performances. However, over the next couple of years, Davis reformed the nonet on three occasions to record twelve pieces for release as singles; these were compiled on a Capitol Records long-playing record, titled Birth of the Cool. Mulligan wrote and arranged three of the tunes recorded, arranged a further three, he was one of only four musicians who played on all the recordings. Despite the chilly reception by audiences of 1949, the Davis nonet has been judged by history as one of the most influential groups in jazz history, creating a sound that, despite its East Coast origins, became known as West Coast Jazz. During his period of occasional work with the Davis nonet between 1949 and 1951, Mulligan regularly performed with a
Presidio of San Francisco
The Presidio of San Francisco is a park and former U. S. Army military fort on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula in San Francisco, is part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, it had been a fortified location since September 17, 1776, when New Spain established the presidio to gain a foothold in Alta California and the San Francisco Bay. It passed to Mexico, which in turn passed it to the United States in 1848; as part of a 1989 military reduction program under the Base Realignment and Closure process, Congress voted to end the Presidio's status as an active military installation of the U. S. Army. On October 1, 1994, it was transferred to the National Park Service, ending 219 years of military use and beginning its next phase of mixed commercial and public use. In 1996, the United States Congress created the Presidio Trust to oversee and manage the interior 80% of the park's lands, with the National Park Service managing the coastal 20%. In a first-of-its-kind structure, Congress mandated that the Presidio Trust make the Presidio financially self-sufficient by 2013.
The Presidio achieved the goal in 2005, eight years ahead of the scheduled deadline. The park is characterized by many wooded areas and scenic vistas overlooking the Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco Bay, the Pacific Ocean, it was recognized as a California Historical Landmark in 1933 and as a National Historic Landmark in 1962. The visitor centers are operated by the National Park Service: Presidio Visitor Center: offers changing exhibits about the Presidio, information about sights and activities in the park, a bookstore; the Presidio Transit Center is located adjacent to this visitor center and is served by the PresidiGo Shuttle and Muni bus routes. Battery Chamberlin: seacoast defense museum and artillery display at Baker Beach built in 1904. Fort Point: 1861 brick and granite fortification located under the Golden Gate Bridge; the visitor center, open on Friday and Sunday, offers video orientations, guided tours, self-guiding materials, a bookstore. Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary Visitor Center: This center offers hands-on marine-life exhibits, is located in a historic Coast Guard Station at the west end of Crissy Field.
The building was used by the Coast Guard from 1890 to 1990. Golden Gate Bridge Pavilion: opened May 2012 for the 75th anniversary of the Golden Gate Bridge, the Pavilion is the first visitor center in the history of the Golden Gate Bridge, it is located just east of the southern end of the bridge. Hidden Presidio Outdoor Track: begins at Julius Kahn Playground and encircles the valley just below it.75 miles of dirt trails, wooden stairs, various altitudes. To view track course see Crissy Field Center is an urban environmental education center with programs for schools, public workshops, after-school programs, summer camps, more; the Center is operated by the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy and overlooks a restored tidal marsh. The facilities include interactive environmental exhibits, a media lab, resource library, arts workshop, science lab, gathering room, teaching kitchen, café and bookstore; the landscape of Crissy Field was designed by George Hargreaves. The project restored a functioning and sustaining tidal wetland as a habitat for flora and fauna, which were not in evidence on the site.
It restored a historic grass airfield that functioned as a culturally significant military airfield between 1919 and 1936. The park at Crissy Field expanded and widened the recreational opportunities of the existing 1 1⁄2-mile San Francisco shore to a broader number of Presidio residents and visitors. A major planned component of the Presidio's park attractions is the Tunnel Tops project, which would construct a 14-acre park on top of the tunneled portions of Doyle Drive; the park would contain several meadows and walking trails, along with viewpoints for major landmarks such as the Golden Gate Bridge. Negotiations between Caltrans, the San Francisco County Transportation Authority, the Presidio Trust to finalize the land transfer for the park lasted from 2015 to 2018; the budget for the park is $100 million, funded with public funds from the Presidio Trust along with private contributions. Construction for the park is planned to start in October 2018 and the park is slated to be open for public use in 2021.
1776: Spanish Captain Juan Bautista de Anza led 193 soldiers and children on a trek from present day Tubac, Arizona, to San Francisco Bay. September 17, 1776: The Presidio began as a Spanish garrison to defend Spain's claim to San Francisco Bay and to support Mission Dolores. 1794: Castillo de San Joaquin, an artillery emplacement was built above present-day Fort Point, San Francisco, complete with iron or bronze cannon. Six cannons may be seen in the Presidio today. 1776–1821: The Presidio was a simple fort made of adobe and wood. It was damaged by earthquakes or heavy rains. In 1783, its company was only 33 men. Presidio soldiers' duties were to support Mission Dolores by controlling Indian workers in the Mission, farming and hunting in order to supply themselves and their families. Support from Spanish authorities in Mexico was limited. 1821: Mexico became independent of Spain. The Presidio received less support from Mexico. Residents of Alta California, which include the Presidio, debated separating from Mexico.
1827, January: Minor earthquake in San Francisco, some buildings were damaged extensively. 1835
John Birks "Dizzy" Gillespie was an American jazz trumpeter, bandleader and singer. Gillespie was a trumpet virtuoso and improviser, building on the virtuoso style of Roy Eldridge but adding layers of harmonic and rhythmic complexity unheard in jazz, his combination of musicianship and wit made him a leading popularizer of the new music called bebop. His beret and horn-rimmed spectacles, his scat singing, his bent horn, pouched cheeks, his light-hearted personality provided some of bebop's most prominent symbols. In the 1940s Gillespie, with Charlie Parker, became a major figure in the development of bebop and modern jazz, he taught and influenced many other musicians, including trumpeters Miles Davis, Jon Faddis, Fats Navarro, Clifford Brown, Arturo Sandoval, Lee Morgan, Chuck Mangione, balladeer Johnny Hartman. Scott Yanow wrote, "Dizzy Gillespie's contributions to jazz were huge. One of the greatest jazz trumpeters of all time, Gillespie was such a complex player that his contemporaries ended up being similar to those of Miles Davis and Fats Navarro instead, it was not until Jon Faddis's emergence in the 1970s that Dizzy's style was recreated Arguably Gillespie is remembered, by both critics and fans alike, as one of the greatest jazz trumpeters of all time".
The youngest of nine children of James and Lottie Gillespie, Dizzy Gillespie was born in Cheraw, South Carolina. His father was a local bandleader, so instruments were made available to the children. Gillespie started to play the piano at the age of four. Gillespie's father died, he taught himself. From the night he heard his idol, Roy Eldridge, on the radio, he dreamed of becoming a jazz musician, he won a music scholarship to the Laurinburg Institute in North Carolina which he attended for two years before accompanying his family when they moved to Philadelphia. Gillespie's first professional job was with the Frank Fairfax Orchestra in 1935, after which he joined the respective orchestras of Edgar Hayes and Teddy Hill, replacing Frankie Newton as second trumpet in May 1937. Teddy Hill's band was where Gillespie made his first recording, "King Porter Stomp". In August 1937 while gigging with Hayes in Washington D. C. Gillespie met a young dancer named Lorraine Willis who worked a Baltimore–Philadelphia–New York City circuit which included the Apollo Theater.
Willis was not friendly but Gillespie was attracted anyway. The two married on May 9, 1940, they remained married until his death in 1993. Gillespie stayed with Teddy Hill's band for a year left and free-lanced with other bands. In 1939, he joined Cab Calloway's orchestra, with which he recorded one of his earliest compositions, "Pickin' the Cabbage", in 1940. After a notorious altercation between the two men, Calloway fired Gillespie in late 1941; the incident is recounted by Gillespie and Calloway's band members Milt Hinton and Jonah Jones in Jean Bach's 1997 film, The Spitball Story. Calloway his adventuresome approach to soloing. According to Jones, Calloway referred to it as "Chinese music". During rehearsal, someone in the band threw a spitball. In a foul mood, Calloway blamed Gillespie, who refused to take the blame. Gillespie stabbed Calloway in the leg with a knife. Calloway had minor cuts on the wrist. After the two men were separated, Calloway fired Gillespie. A few days Gillespie tried to apologize to Calloway, but he was dismissed.
During his time in Calloway's band, Gillespie started writing big band music for Woody Herman and Jimmy Dorsey. He freelanced with a few bands, most notably Ella Fitzgerald's orchestra, composed of members of the Chick Webb's band. Gillespie did not serve in World War II. At his Selective Service interview, he told the local board, "in this stage of my life here in the United States whose foot has been in my ass?" He was classified 4-F. In 1943, he joined the Earl Hines band. Composer Gunther Schuller said... In 1943 I heard the great Earl Hines band which had Bird in all those other great musicians, they were playing all the flatted fifth chords and all the modern harmonies and substitutions and Gillespie runs in the trumpet section work. Two years I read that that was'bop' and the beginning of modern jazz... but the band never made recordings. Gillespie said of the Hines band, "eople talk about the Hines band being'the incubator of bop' and the leading exponents of that music ended up in the Hines band.
But people have the erroneous impression that the music was new. It was not; the music evolved from. It was the same basic music; the difference was in how you got from here to here to here... each age has got its own shit."Gillespie joined the big band of Hines' long-time collaborator Billy Eckstine, it was as a member of Eckstine's band that he was reunited with Charlie Parker, a fellow member. In 1945, Gillespie left Eckstine's band. A "small combo" comprised no more than five musicians, playing the trumpet, piano and drums. Bebop was known as the first modern jazz style. However, it was not viewed as positively as swing music was. Bebop was seen as an outgrowth of swing, not a revolution. Swing introduced a diversity of new musicians in the bebop era like Charlie Parker, Thelonious Monk, Bud Powell, Kenny Clarke, Oscar Pettiford, Gillespie. Through these musicians, a new vocabulary of musical phrases was created. With Parker, Gillespie jammed at famous jazz clubs like Minton's Playhouse and Monroe's Uptown House.
Parker's system held methods of adding ch
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i
United States Army
The United States Army is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces. It is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States, is designated as the Army of the United States in the United States Constitution; as the oldest and most senior branch of the U. S. military in order of precedence, the modern U. S. Army has its roots in the Continental Army, formed to fight the American Revolutionary War —before the United States of America was established as a country. After the Revolutionary War, the Congress of the Confederation created the United States Army on 3 June 1784 to replace the disbanded Continental Army; the United States Army considers itself descended from the Continental Army, dates its institutional inception from the origin of that armed force in 1775. As a uniformed military service, the U. S. Army is part of the Department of the Army, one of the three military departments of the Department of Defense; the U. S. Army is headed by a civilian senior appointed civil servant, the Secretary of the Army and by a chief military officer, the Chief of Staff of the Army, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
It is the largest military branch, in the fiscal year 2017, the projected end strength for the Regular Army was 476,000 soldiers. S. Army was 1,018,000 soldiers; as a branch of the armed forces, the mission of the U. S. Army is "to fight and win our Nation's wars, by providing prompt, land dominance, across the full range of military operations and the spectrum of conflict, in support of combatant commanders"; the branch participates in conflicts worldwide and is the major ground-based offensive and defensive force of the United States. The United States Army serves as the land-based branch of the U. S. Armed Forces. Section 3062 of Title 10, U. S. Code defines the purpose of the army as: Preserving the peace and security and providing for the defense of the United States, the Commonwealths and possessions and any areas occupied by the United States Supporting the national policies Implementing the national objectives Overcoming any nations responsible for aggressive acts that imperil the peace and security of the United StatesIn 2018, the Army Strategy 2018 articulated an eight-point addendum to the Army Vision for 2028.
While the Army Mission remains constant, the Army Strategy builds upon the Army's Brigade Modernization by adding focus to Corps and Division-level echelons. Modernization, reform for high-intensity conflict, Joint multi-domain operations are added to the strategy, to be completed by 2028; the Continental Army was created on 14 June 1775 by the Second Continental Congress as a unified army for the colonies to fight Great Britain, with George Washington appointed as its commander. The army was led by men who had served in the British Army or colonial militias and who brought much of British military heritage with them; as the Revolutionary War progressed, French aid and military thinking helped shape the new army. A number of European soldiers came on their own to help, such as Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben, who taught Prussian Army tactics and organizational skills; the army fought numerous pitched battles and in the South in 1780–1781, at times using the Fabian strategy and hit-and-run tactics, under the leadership of Major General Nathanael Greene, hit where the British were weakest to wear down their forces.
Washington led victories against the British at Trenton and Princeton, but lost a series of battles in the New York and New Jersey campaign in 1776 and the Philadelphia campaign in 1777. With a decisive victory at Yorktown and the help of the French, the Continental Army prevailed against the British. After the war, the Continental Army was given land certificates and disbanded in a reflection of the republican distrust of standing armies. State militias became the new nation's sole ground army, with the exception of a regiment to guard the Western Frontier and one battery of artillery guarding West Point's arsenal. However, because of continuing conflict with Native Americans, it was soon realized that it was necessary to field a trained standing army; the Regular Army was at first small and after General St. Clair's defeat at the Battle of the Wabash, the Regular Army was reorganized as the Legion of the United States, established in 1791 and renamed the United States Army in 1796; the War of 1812, the second and last war between the United States and Great Britain, had mixed results.
The U. S. Army did not conquer Canada but it did destroy Native American resistance to expansion in the Old Northwest and it validated its independence by stopping two major British invasions in 1814 and 1815. After taking control of Lake Erie in 1813, the U. S. Army seized parts of western Upper Canada, burned York and defeated Tecumseh, which caused his Western Confederacy to collapse. Following U. S. victories in the Canadian province of Upper Canada, British troops who had dubbed the U. S. Army "Regulars, by God!", were able to capture and burn Washington, defended by militia, in 1814. The regular army, however proved they were professional and capable of defeating the British army during the invasions of Plattsburgh and Baltimore, prompting British agreement on the rejected terms of a status quo ante bellum. Two weeks after a treaty was signed, Andrew Jackson defeated the British in the Battle of New Orleans and Siege of Fort St. Philip, became a national hero. U. S. troops and sailors captured HMS Cyane and Penguin in the final engagements of the war.
Per the treaty, both sides (the United S