A railway town, or railroad town, is a settlement that originated or was developed because of a railway station or junction at its site. During the construction of the First Transcontinental Railroad in the 1860s, temporary, "Hell on wheels" towns, made of canvas tents, accompanied the Union Pacific Railroad as construction headed west. Most faded away but some became permanent settlements. In the 1870s successive boomtowns sprung up in Kansas, each prospering for a year or two as a railhead, withering when the rail line extended further west and created a new endpoint for the Chisholm Trail. Becoming rail hubs made Los Angeles grow from small towns to large cities. Sayre and Atlanta, Georgia were among the American company towns created by railroads in places where no settlement existed. In western Canada, railway towns became associated with brothels and prostitution, concerned railway companies started a series of YMCAs in the late nineteenth century in response. In some cases, a railroad town would be started by the railroad using a separate town or land company when another town existed nearby.
The population of the existing town would shift to the railroad town. This would create a boon for the town company and its railroad founder, which would sell off lots near the station at a substantial profit before the railroad arrived at the new townsite; such is the case with Colorado. In the spring of 1880, William Bell of the Denver & Rio Grande Railroad scoured the La Plata County area in the vicinity of Animas City, located on the Animas River; when negotiations to acquire land through the local homesteaders fell through, Bell acquired property downstream to the south under more favorable conditions in the name of the Durango Land and Coal Company. By the end of the year, a Durango newspaper reported all of "Animas City is coming to Durango as fast as accommodations can be secured." The population, at the time estimated between 2,500 and 3,000 people, crammed into the little "box town," where the only permanent structures were saloons, dance halls and stores. When the railroad arrived in August 1881, the train stopped in a jubilant Durango, not Animas City.
The railroad pushed on up the Animas River, reaching Silverton in July 1882, passing through Animas City without a stop. Animas City subsisted as a de facto suburb of the Durango area before annexation by Durango in 1948; the Durango and Silverton Narrow Gauge Railroad, a heritage railroad and successor to the Rio Grande in La Plata County, still passes by the townsite. In Denmark and Norway, a related concept is the stationsby or "station town". Stationsbyer are rural towns that grew up around railways, but they were based on agricultural co-operatives and artisan communities rather than on railway industries. In Victorian Britain, the spread of railways affected the fate of many small towns. Peterborough and Swindon became successful due to their status as railway towns; some new towns grew up around railway works. Middlesbrough was the first new town to be developed due to the railways, growing from a hamlet of 40 into an industrial port after the Stockton and Darlington Railway was extended in 1830.
Wolverton was fields before 1838 and had a population of 1,500 by 1844. Other examples of early railway towns include Ashford and Neasden. Crewe grew after the Grand Junction Railway Company moved there in 1843; the railway town of'New Swindon' displaced the neighbouring pre-existing town after the Great Western Railway moved there: a market town of 2,000 in 1840 became a railway town of 50,000 in 1905. Railways became major employers, with 6,000 people employed by them in Crewe in 1877, 14,000 in Swindon in 1905; the growth of railway towns was in the mould of the'paternalistic employer' providing housing, hospitals and civic buildings for their workers, similar to Cadbury's Bournville. Workforces were loyal and obedient: industrial action in railway towns was rare because the workforce depended on the company. Railwaymen dominated local politics in railway towns Francis Webb's'Independent Railway Company Party' in Crewe and George Leeman in York; the chief mechanical engineer of GWR, Daniel Gooch, was MP for Swindon for twenty years.
Crewe was a'company town' for its first few decades as workers moved in their thousands from other parts of the country. Most social amenities and organisations were sponsored by the railway, but moves such as the establishment of a town council in 1877 reduced company influence, the railway company began to consider spending on town amenities as a municipal concern. Workers organised their own institutions such as clubs, trade unions, co-operatives to gain independence from company control, they became the basis for political opposition in railway towns. Changchun in China was built by the Japanese occupying Manchuria, as a'model town' as part of Japan's imperialist modernisation; the first railway town at Changchun was begun by the Russians in 1898, but it excluded Chinese residents. A second major railway town was designed and built from 1905 by the South Manchuria Railway, inspired by Russian railway towns such as Dalian, it was based on a rectangular system that contrasted with the circular walled town of old Changchun, grid patterns became the standard for Chinese railway towns.
The SMR developed dozens of railway towns in north-east China from 1906-1936, such
New Zealand State Highway 1
State Highway 1 is the longest and most significant road in the New Zealand road network, running the length of both main islands. It appears on road maps as SH 1 and on road signs as a white number 1 on a red shield, but it has the official designations SH 1N in the North Island, SH 1S in the South Island. SH 1 is 2,033 kilometres long, 952 km in the South Island. For the majority of its length it is a two-lane single carriageway, with at-grade intersections and property accesses, in both rural and urban areas; these sections have some passing lanes. Around 220 km of SH 1 is of motorway or expressway standard as of October 2017: 191 km in the North Island and 28 km in the South Island. Current road construction will see an extra 102 km in the North Island and 6 km in the South Island upgraded to motorway or expressway standard by 2022. SH 1 starts at Cape Reinga, at the northwestern tip of the Aupouri Peninsula, since April 2010 has been sealed for its entire length. From Waitiki Landing south of Cape Reinga, SH 1 travels down the central-eastern side of the peninsula to Kaitaia, New Zealand's northernmost town, before turning south-east across the Northland Peninsula on to Kawakawa in the Bay of Islands, south to the city of Whangarei, the largest urban area in Northland.
SH 1 skirts the south-western Whangarei Harbour, nearing the coast at Ruakaka, before proceeding down to wind through the Brynderwyn Hills before approaching the upper reaches of the Kaipara Harbour. The highway crosses into the Auckland Region, passes through Wellsford and Warkworth, again heading for the east coast. Near Puhoi, on the Hibiscus Coast, SH 1 widens to a four-lane motorway known as the Auckland Northern Motorway; the first 7.5 km of the motorway is an automated toll road. At Orewa, the motorway becomes toll-free, crossing farmland to the North Shore of Auckland; the road crosses through suburbs to the Waitematā Harbour, which it follows before crossing it by the Auckland Harbour Bridge. The motorway comes off the bridge into Auckland's city centre, forms its western boundary as SH 1 proceeds to the Central Motorway Junction. At this junction, SH 1 becomes the Auckland Southern Motorway, after sweeping around the southern end of central Auckland, proceeds in a south-easterly direction.
The motorway continues in a broadly southeast direction across the Auckland isthmus through Manukau and Papakura to the top of the Bombay Hills, just short of the Auckland/Waikato boundary. At Bombay, SH 1 becomes a four-lane dual-carriageway expressway; the expressway takes the highway down the Bombay Hills to Mercer, where SH 1 meets the Waikato River, which it broadly follows for the next 220 km. The Waikato Expressway temporarily ends at Longswamp and becomes a three-laned dual carriageway, resuming at Te Kauwhata before reverting to single carriageway just south of Ohinewai. SH 1 runs as a single carriageway through Huntly to Taupiri; the expressway ends in north-western Hamilton. The highway bypasses the city centre to the west, before crossing to the east side and proceeding south-east out of the city; the expressway resumes at Tamahere, bypassing Cambridge to the north before reverting to a single carriageway east of the town. The highway continues eastward to the town of Tirau, where it turns south to pass through Putaruru and Tokoroa and the surrounding exotic pine plantation forest area.
At Wairakei, SH 1 takes an eastern route to bypass Taupo and meet the Lake Taupo shoreline south of the town near the airport. SH 1 follows the eastern shore of the lake for 50 km to Turangi, at the southern end of the lake. Turning southwards again, SH 1 leaves Turangi and ascends onto the North Island Volcanic Plateau, passing through the fringes of the Tongariro National Park and into the Rangipo Desert, passing the volcanoes of Ruapehu and Tongariro; the road between Rangipo and Waiouru is known as the Desert Road. SH 1 enters the Manawatu-Wanganui Region, descends through an army training area to the end of the Desert Road at Waiouru. From Waiouru, the highway follows tributaries of the Rangitikei River through Taihape to meet the main river at Utiku, it follows the western bank of the Rangitikei through Ohingaiti and Hunterville to Bulls. At Bulls, SH 1 turns southeast to cross the river, turning southwest again 5 km down the road at Sanson. SH 1 crosses the Manawatu Plain, it passes before reaching the end of the plain at Levin.
From Levin, SH 1 follows the narrowing western coastal plain southwards. The highway crosses before passing through Otaki. At Peka Peka, SH 1 widens to a four-lane dual carriageway known as the Kapiti Expressway; the highway bypasses the Kapiti conurbation of Waikanae and Raumati, narrowing again to a two-lane single carriageway south of Mackays Crossing and passing through Paekakariki. Between Paekakariki and Pukerua Bay, SH 1 and the North Island Main Trunk rail line travel along a narrow strip of land between the hills and the sea; the Centennial Highway, as it is known, is a narrow two-lane road, accident prone until a centreline wire rope crash barrier was installed. Travelling through Pukerua Bay, the road becomes dual carriageway once more to Plimmerton, narrowing to single carriageway through the northern suburbs of Porirua to Paremata. At Paremata, SH 1 resumes as dual carriageway along the edge of the Porirua Harbour to Porirua city centre. At Porirua, the highwa
The Press is a daily newspaper published in Christchurch, New Zealand. It is owned by Fairfax Media. First published in 1861, the paper format for the weekday editions changed from broadsheet to compact in 2018, with only the Saturday edition retaining the larger format. James FitzGerald came to Lyttelton on the Charlotte Jane in December 1850, was from January 1851 the first editor of the Lyttelton Times, Canterbury's first newspaper. From 1853, he withdrew from the Lyttelton Times. After several years in England, he returned to Canterbury concerned about the proposed capital works programme of the provincial government, with his chief concern the proposed rail tunnel connecting Christchurch and Lyttelton, which he thought of as fiscally irresponsible, but supported by his old newspaper, the Lyttelton Times; the newspaper's editor, Crosbie Ward, made an imputation of unknown content, this spurred FitzGerald to set up The Press as a rival newspaper. FitzGerald had dinner with John Charles Watts-Russell, who put up £500 on the condition that FitzGerald would be in charge of the new newspaper.
Next, he enlisted the support of the Rev. John Raven, who organised many of the practical aspects, like organising a printer and a printing press. Other members of the early committee that organised The Press were H. P. Lance, Henry Tancred, Richard J. S. Harman; the Press was first published on 25 May 1861 from a small cottage, making it the oldest surviving newspaper in the South Island of New Zealand. The cottage belonged to Raven on land known as Raven's paddock on the west side of Montreal Street, between Worcester and Gloucester Streets, opposite the present-day Christchurch Art Gallery; the first edition was sold for sixpence. The paper continued as a weekly; the public saw FitzGerald as the proprietor of The Press, but the newspaper saw reason to publicly state that "it is not a fact that Mr FitzGerald has either pecuniary or official connexion" with it. In February 1862, an attempt was made to formalise the ownership of the paper. A deed of association for "The Proprietors of The Press" was drafted, it lists the five members of the previous committee, plus five new members: Alfred Richard Creyke, John Hall, Joseph Brittan, Isaac Cookson, James Somerville Turnbull.
The deed was not executed, but four-month FitzGerald, who had no funds, was the sole owner "through the liberality of the proprietors", as he called it later. On 13 June 1863, the first part of Samuel Butler's Erewhon appeared in The Press in an article signed with the pseudonym Cellarius and headed "Darwin among the Machines."In 1905, The Press purchased a block of the Cathedral Square site for £4,000. The Board purchased the right of way and what was going to be the original Theatre Royal site from the Theatre Royal Syndicate for £5000; the Gothic part of the Press building was built starting in 1907 and the Press staff shifted into it in February 1909 from their Cashel Street premises. In the 1930s, The Press began to seek solutions to the slow delivery times of the newspaper to the West Coast. Roads at the time were difficult, the New Zealand Railways Department was unwilling to reschedule any of its ordinary passenger trains to operate at the early morning times desired by The Press as patronage would have been uneconomic, freight trains did not provide a desirable measure of swiftness.
Accordingly, The Press was willing to subsidise the construction and operation of two small Leyland diesel railbuses to carry the newspapers by rail at a desirable time. These little railbuses began service on 3 August 1936 and left Christchurch at 2:20 am, travelling down the Midland Line to reach Greymouth at 6:40 am and continue along the Ross Branch as far as Hokitika, arriving just before 8:00 am; this provided quicker delivery of the newspaper than was possible. However, these railbuses were intended to only be a temporary measure and they were replaced by the much larger Vulcan railcars as soon as they arrived in New Zealand in the early 1940s. In February 2011, The Press main building in central Christchurch was badly damaged in the 2011 Christchurch earthquake. All production was operated from their printing plant near Christchurch Airport until June 2012, when the central Christchurch building was rebuilt and upgraded, it was one of the first buildings in the Christchurch CBD to be operational.
The newspaper publishes Monday to Saturday. The community newspapers—Mid Canterbury Herald, The Christchurch Mail, Northern Outlook and Central Canterbury News—are published by The Press and are free. Today, the newspaper is a member of the four main daily newspapers, circulating over 80,000 papers per day through the South Island; the Press won the Best New Zealand Newspaper award and picked up Best Daily Newspaper with a circulation over 25,000 at the 2006 Qantas Media Awards and won the same award again in 2007. It is the first time since 1991, it won several other awards including best-in-field awards for its "Zest" and "Drive" sections. In 2011, The Press won Best Design at the Canon Media Awards, Best Breaking News Coverage for thepress.co.nz for the coverage on 22 February earthquake in Christchurch. The Press claimed Newspaper of the Year at the PANPA awards for the 25,000 – 90,000 circulation category. Along with other Fairfax Media publications, The Press changed the format of its weekday editions from broadsheet to com
The South Island officially named Te Waipounamu, is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand in surface area. It is bordered to the north by Cook Strait, to the west by the Tasman Sea, to the south and east by the Pacific Ocean; the South Island covers 150,437 square kilometres. It has a temperate climate, it has a 32 percent larger landmass than the North Island, as a result is nicknamed the "mainland" of New Zealand by South Island residents, but only 23 percent of New Zealand's 4.9 million inhabitants live there. In the early stages of European settlement of the country, the South Island had the majority of the European population and wealth due to the 1860s gold rushes; the North Island population overtook the South in the early 20th century, with 56 percent of the population living in the North in 1911, the drift north of people and businesses continued throughout the century. In the 19th century, some maps named the South Island as Middle Island or New Munster, the name South Island or New Leinster was used for today's Stewart Island/Rakiura.
In 1907 the Minister for Lands gave instructions to the Land and Survey Department that the name Middle Island was not to be used in future. "South Island will be adhered to in all cases". Although the island had been known as the South Island for many years, in 2009 the New Zealand Geographic Board found that, along with the North Island, the South Island had no official name. After a public consultation, the board named the island South Island or Te Waipounamu in October 2013. Said to mean "the Water of Greenstone", this name evolved from Te Wāhi Pounamu "the Place Of Greenstone"; the island is known as Te Waka a Māui which means "Māui's Canoe". In some Māori legends, the South Island existed first, as the boat of Maui, while the North Island was the fish that he caught. In prose, the two main islands of New Zealand are called the North Island and the South Island, with the definite article, it is normal to use the preposition in rather than on, for example "Christchurch is in the South Island", "my mother lives in the South Island".
Maps, headings and adjectival expressions use South Island without "the". Charcoal drawings can be found on limestone rock shelters in the centre of the South Island, with over 500 sites stretching from Kaikoura to North Otago; the drawings are estimated to be between 500 and 800 years old, portray animals and fantastic creatures stylised reptiles. Some of the birds pictured are long extinct, including Haast's eagles, they were drawn by early Māori, but by the time Europeans arrived, local Māori did not know the origins of the drawings. Early inhabitants of the South Island were the Waitaha, they were absorbed via marriage and conquest by the Kāti Māmoe in the 16th century. Kāti Māmoe were in turn absorbed via marriage and conquest by the Kāi Tahu who migrated south in the 17th century. While today there is no distinct Kāti Māmoe organisation, many Kāi Tahu have Kāti Māmoe links in their whakapapa and in the far south of the island. Around the same time a group of Māori migrated to Rekohu, where, in adapting to the local climate and the availability of resources, they evolved into a separate people known as the Moriori with its own distinct language — related to the parent culture and language in mainland New Zealand.
One notable feature of the Moriori culture, an emphasis on pacifism, proved disadvantageous when Māori warriors arrived in the 1830s aboard a chartered European ship. In the early 18th century, Kāi Tahu, a Māori tribe who originated on the east coast of the North Island, began migrating to the northern part of the South Island. There they and Kāti Māmoe fought Ngāi Rangitāne in the Wairau Valley. Ngāti Māmoe ceded the east coast regions north of the Clarence River to Kāi Tahu. Kāi Tahu continued conquering Kaikoura. By the 1730s, Kāi Tahu had settled including Banks Peninsula. From there they spread further south and into the West Coast. In 1827-1828 Ngāti Toa under the leadership of Te Rauparaha attacked Kāi Tahu at Kaikoura. Ngāti Toa visited Kaiapoi, ostensibly to trade; when they attacked their hosts, the well-prepared Kāi Tahu killed all the leading Ngāti Toa chiefs except Te Rauparaha. Te Rauparaha returned to his Kapiti Island stronghold. In November 1830 Te Rauparaha persuaded Captain John Stewart of the brig Elizabeth to carry him and his warriors in secret to Akaroa, where by subterfuge they captured the leading Kāi Tahu chief, Te Maiharanui, his wife and daughter.
After destroying Te Maiharanui's village they killed them. John Stewart, though arrested and sent to trial in Sydney as an accomplice to murder escaped conviction. In the summer of 1831–32 Te Rauparaha attacked the Kaiapoi pā. Kaiapoi was engaged in a three-month siege by Te Rauparaha, during which his men sapped the pā, they attacked Kāi Tahu on Banks Peninsula and took the pā at Onawe. In 1832-33 Kāi Tahu retaliated under the leadership of Tūhawaiki and others, attacking Ngāti Toa at Lake Grassmere. Kāi Tahu prevailed, killed many Ngāti Toa, although Te Rauparaha again escaped. Fighting continued with Kāi Tahu maintaining the upper hand. Ngāti Toa never again made a major incursion into Kāi Tahu territory. By 1839 Kāi Tahu and Ngāti Toa established peace and Te Rauparaha released the Kāi Tahu captives he held. Formal marriages between the leading families in the two tribes sealed the peace; the first Europeans known to reach the South Island were the crew o
John McKenzie (New Zealand politician)
Sir John McKenzie was a New Zealand politician. He served as Minister of Agriculture in the Liberal Government of John Ballance. McKenzie was born in Ardross and while young saw the hardships caused by the Highland Clearances, he arrived in Otago in 1860. He farmed near Palmerston, he first ran for election to the Otago Provincial Council in 1868, but was not elected until 1871. From 1881 to 1900 he served in the New Zealand Parliament, he served as Minister of Agriculture from 1891 to 1900 in the Liberal Government. He oversaw many land reforms, favouring small family farmers and the opening up of land for closer settlement. On 17 May 1901, he was appointed to the New Zealand Legislative Council, he was knighted as a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George in June 1901, on the occasion of the visit of TRH the Duke and Duchess of Cornwall and York to New Zealand, died of bladder cancer only six weeks on 6 August 1901. There is a memorial cairn to McKenzie on top of Puketapu, a prominent hill close to Palmerston in Otago.
This cairn, erected in the 1920s, replaced an earlier cairn on another nearby hill, erected in 1902, but fell into disrepair. Scholefield, Guy. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949. Wellington: Govt. Printer. Sir John McKenzie: Champion of the Small Farmer "McKenzie, Sir John." Encyclopædia Britannica
Parnassus, New Zealand
Parnassus is a town located in the Canterbury region's Hurunui District on the east coast of New Zealand's South Island. It is located on the north bank of the Waiau River and the 2001 New Zealand census gave its resident population as 900, a decline of 6.8% or 66 people since the 1996 census. It takes its name from a local sheep run owned by Edward Lee, he saw a likeness between a local hill and the Greek Mount Parnassus, mythical home of the god Apollo and the Muses. State Highway 1 passes through the town on its route from Cheviot to Kaikoura, the Main North Line railway from Christchurch to Picton runs through the town. At one stage, the Waiau Branch was intended to be the main line north and a branch line diverged from the Waiau route in Waipara to service coastal communities; this line was known as the Parnassus Branch at that stage. However, the decision was made to use the Parnassus route as the main line, relegating the route from Waipara through the Weka Pass to Waiau to the status of branch line.
The Main North Line continues to serve Parnassus today. The epicentre of the 1901 Cheviot earthquake was at Parnassus. Media related to Parnassus, New Zealand at Wikimedia Commons 2001 census data and community profile
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000