A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua
Crack cocaine known as crack or rock, is a free base form of cocaine that can be smoked. Crack offers a intense high to smokers; the Manual of Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment calls it the most addictive form of cocaine. Crack first saw widespread use as a recreational drug in impoverished inner city neighborhoods in New York, Baltimore, Washington, D. C. Los Angeles, Miami in late 1984 and 1985. In purer forms, crack rocks appear as off-white nuggets with jagged edges, with a higher density than candle wax. Purer forms of crack resemble a hard brittle plastic, in crystalline form. A crack rock acts as a local anesthetic, numbing the mouth only where directly placed. Purer forms of crack will melt at the edges when near a flame. Crack cocaine as sold on the streets may be adulterated or "cut" with other substances mimicking the appearance of crack cocaine to increase bulk. Use of toxic adulterants such as levamisole has been documented. Sodium bicarbonate is a base used in preparation of crack, although other weak bases may substitute for it.
The net reaction when using sodium bicarbonate is Coc-H+Cl− + NaHCO3 → Coc + H2O + CO2 + NaClWith Ammonium bicarbonate: Coc-H+Cl− + NH4HCO3 → Coc + NH4Cl + CO2 + H2OWith Ammonium carbonate: 2 + 2CO3 → 2 Coc + 2 NH4Cl + CO2 + H2OCrack cocaine is purchased in rock form, although it is not uncommon for some users to "wash up" or "cook" powder cocaine into crack themselves. This process is done with baking soda, a spoon. Once mixed and heated, the bicarbonate reacts with the hydrochloride of the powder cocaine, forming free base cocaine and carbonic acid in a reversible acid-base reaction; the heating accelerates the degradation of carbonic acid into carbon water. Loss of CO2 prevents the reaction from reversing back to cocaine hydrochloride. Free base cocaine separates as floating on the top of the now leftover aqueous phase, it is at this point that the oil is picked up usually with a pin or long thin object. This pulls the oil up and spins it, allowing air to set and dry the oil, allows the maker to roll the oil into the rock-like shape.
Crack vaporizes near temperature 90 °C, much lower than the cocaine hydrochloride melting point of 190 °C. Whereas cocaine hydrochloride cannot be smoked, crack cocaine when smoked allows for quick absorption into the blood stream, reaches the brain in 8 seconds. Crack cocaine can be injected intravenously with the same effect as powder cocaine. However, whereas powder cocaine dissolves in water, crack must be dissolved in an acidic solution such as lemon juice or white vinegar, a process that reverses the original conversion of powder cocaine to crack. Crack cocaine is used as a recreational drug. Effects of crack cocaine include euphoria, supreme confidence, loss of appetite, alertness, increased energy, a craving for more cocaine, potential paranoia, its initial effect is to release a large amount of dopamine, a brain chemical inducing feelings of euphoria. The high lasts from 5–10 minutes, after which time dopamine levels in the brain plummet, leaving the user feeling depressed and low; when cocaine is dissolved and injected, the absorption into the bloodstream is at least as rapid as the absorption of the drug which occurs when crack cocaine is smoked, similar euphoria may be experienced.
Because crack is an illicit drug, users may consume impure or fake drug, which may pose additional health risks. The short-term physiological effects of cocaine include constricted blood vessels, dilated pupils, increased temperature, heart rate, blood pressure; some users of cocaine report feelings of restlessness and anxiety. In rare instances, sudden death can occur on the first use of cocaine or unexpectedly thereafter. Cocaine-related deaths are a result of cardiac arrest or seizures followed by respiratory arrest. Like other forms of cocaine, smoking crack can increase heart rate and blood pressure, leading to long-term cardiovascular problems; some research suggests that smoking crack or freebase cocaine has additional health risks compared to other methods of taking cocaine. Many of these issues relate to the release of methylecgonidine and its effect on the heart and liver. Toxic adulterants: Many substances may have been added in order to expand the weight and volume of a batch, while still appearing to be pure crack.
Toxic substances are used, with a range of corresponding short and long-term health risks. Adulturants used with crack and cocaine include milk powder, sugars such as glucose, caffeine, benzocaine, amphetamine and strychnine. Smoking problems: Any route of administration poses its own set of health risks. Crack users tend to smoke the drug because that has a higher bioavailability than other routes used for drugs of abuse such as insufflation. Crack has a melting point of around 90 °C, the smoke does not remain potent for long. Therefore, crack pipes are very short, to minimize the time between evaporating and ingestion. Having a hot pipe pressed against the lips causes cracked and blistered lips, colloquially known as "crack lip"; the use of "convenience store crack pipes" – glass tubes which ori
60 Minutes is an American news magazine and television program, broadcast on the CBS television network. Debuting in 1968, the program was created by Don Hewitt, who chose to set it apart from other news programs by using a unique style of reporter-centered investigation. In 2002, 60 Minutes was ranked at No. 6 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time and in 2013, it was ranked #24 on TV Guide's 60 Best Series of All Time. The New York Times has called it "one of the most esteemed news magazines on American television". Season 50 debuted on September 24, 2017, it has been renewed for a record 51st. The program employed a magazine format, similar to that of the Canadian program W5, which had premiered two years earlier, it pioneered many of the most important investigative journalism procedures and techniques, including re-editing interviews, hidden cameras, "gotcha journalism" visits to the home or office of an investigative subject. Similar programs sprang up in Australia and Canada during the 1970s, as well as on local television news.
60 Minutes aired as a bi-weekly show hosted by Harry Reasoner and Mike Wallace, debuting on September 24, 1968, alternating weeks with other CBS News productions on Tuesday evenings at 10:00 p.m. Eastern Time; the first edition, described by Reasoner in the opening as a "kind of a magazine for television," featured the following segments: A look inside the headquarters suites of presidential candidates Richard Nixon and Hubert Humphrey during their respective parties' national conventions that summer. Wallace said that the show aimed to "reflect reality"; the first "magazine-cover" chroma key was a photo of two helmeted policemen. Wallace and Reasoner sat in chairs on opposite sides of the set; the logo was in Helvetica type with the word "Minutes" spelled in all lower-case letters. Further, to extend the magazine motif, the producers added a "Vol. xx, No. xx" to the title display on the chroma key. The trademark stopwatch, did not appear on the inaugural broadcast. Alpo dog food was the sole sponsor of the first program.
Don Hewitt, a producer of the CBS Evening News with Walter Cronkite, sought out Wallace as a stylistic contrast to Reasoner. According to one historian of the show, the idea of the format was to make the hosts the reporters, to always feature stories that were of national importance but focused upon individuals involved with, or in conflict with, those issues, to limit the reports' airtime to around 13 minutes. However, the initial season was troubled by lack of network confidence, as the program did not garner ratings much higher than that of other CBS News documentaries; as a rule, during that era, news programming during prime time lost money. 60 Minutes struggled under that stigma during its first three years. Changes to 60 Minutes came early in the program's history; when Reasoner left CBS to co-anchor ABC's evening newscast, Morley Safer joined the team in 1970, he took over Reasoner's duties of reporting less aggressive stories. However, when Richard Nixon began targeting press access and reporting Safer the CBS News bureau chief in Saigon and London, began to do "hard" investigative reports, during the 1970–71 season alone 60 Minutes reported on cluster bombs, the South Vietnamese Army, draft dodgers, the Middle East, Northern Ireland.
By 1971, the Federal Communications Commission introduced the Prime Time Access Rule, which freed local network affiliates in the top 50 markets to take a half-hour of prime time from the networks on Mondays through Saturdays and one full hour on Sundays. Because nearly all affiliates found production costs for the FCC's intended goal of increased public affairs programming high and the ratings low, making it unprofitable, the FCC created an exception for network-authored news and public affairs shows. After a six-month hiatus in late 1971, CBS found a prime place for 60 Minutes in a portion of that displaced time, 6:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m. on Sundays in January 1972. This proved somewhat less than satisfactory, because in order to accommodate CBS' telecasts of late afternoon National Football League football games, 60 Minutes went on hiatus during the fall from 1972 to 1975; this took place because football telecasts were protected contractually from interruptions in the wake of the infamous "Heidi Bowl" inciden
Tortola is the largest and most populated of the British Virgin Islands, a group of islands that form part of the archipelago of the Virgin Islands. It has a surface area of 55.7 square kilometres with a total population of 23,908, with 9,400 residents in Road Town. Mount Sage is its highest point at 530 metres above sea level. Although the British Virgin Islands are under the British flag, it uses the US dollar as its official currency due to its proximity to and frequent trade with the US Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico; the island is home to many offshore companies. Financial services are a major part of the country's economy. On 6 September 2017, the British Virgin Islands were extensively damaged by Hurricane Irma; the most severe destruction was on Tortola. News reports over the next day or two described the situation as "devastation". Local tradition recounts that Christopher Columbus named the island Tórtola, meaning "turtle dove" in Spanish. In fact, Columbus named the island Santa Ana. Dutch colonists called it Ter Tholen, after a coastal island, part of the Netherlands.
When the British took over, the name evolved to Tortola. On his second voyage for the Spanish Crown to the Caribbean or West Indies, Christopher Columbus spotted what are now called the British and US Virgin Islands, he named the archipelago after the 11,000 virgins of the 5th-century Christian martyr St. Ursula; the Spanish made a few attempts to settle the islands, but pirates such as Blackbeard and Captain Kidd were the first permanent residents. In the late 16th century, the English, who had settled the area contesting claims by the Dutch, established a permanent plantation colony on Tortola and the surrounding islands. Settlers developed the islands for the sugarcane industry, with large plantations dependent on the slave labor of Africans bought from local chiefs and transported across the Atlantic; the majority of early settlers came in the late eighteenth century: Loyalists from the Thirteen Colonies after the American Revolutionary War were given land grants here by the Crown to encourage development.
They brought their slaves with them. The sugar industry dominated Tortola economic history for more than a century. In the early 19th century, after Britain abolished the international slave trade, the Royal Navy patrolled the Caribbean to intercept illegal slave ships; the colony settled liberated Africans from these ships on Tortola, in the then-unsettled Kingstown area. St. Phillip's Church was built in the early 19th century in this community as one of the earliest free black churches in the Americas. After the abolition of slavery in the British colonies in 1834, planters found it difficult to make a profit in the sugar industry based on paying and managing free labor. At this time and some South American countries still had slave labor in the sugar industry. In addition, there were changes in the sugar industry, with sugar beets cultivated in England and the United States offering a competing product. During the downturn as sugar agriculture became less profitable, a large proportion of the white landowning population left the British Virgin Islands.
In 1867, an earthquake and tsunami hit the island. In the late 1970s, the British businessman Ken Bates attempted to lease a large part of the island on a 199-year lease, but this action was blocked. Noel Lloyd, a local activist, led a protest movement forcing the local government to drop the plan. Today, a park on Tortola features a statue in his honour. On 7 September 2017, Tortola was extensively damaged by Hurricane Irma. News reports over the next day or two described the situation as "devastation". A report by Sky News summarized the aftermath of the storm as: "The scale of the damage on the island of Tortola is shocking. You have to see it to appreciate just how massive this storm was; the East End area of Tortola looks like a war zone. More troops were expected to arrive a day or two but the ship HMS Ocean, carrying more extensive assistance, was not expected to reach the Virgin Islands for another two weeks; the Premier of the Virgin Islands, Orlando Smith, called for a comprehensive aid package to rebuild the British Virgin Islands.
On 10 September, the UK's prime minister Theresa May pledged £32 million to the Caribbean for a hurricane relief fund. Specifics were not provided to the news media as to the amount that would be allocated to each island. British Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson visited Tortola on 13 September 2017 to confirm the United Kingdom's commitment to helping restore British islands, he said. Tortola is a mountainous island 19 km long and 5 km wide, with an area of 55.7 km2. Formed by volcanic activity, its highest peak is Mount Sage at 530 metres. Tortola lies near an earthquake fault, minor earthquakes are common; the House of Assembly in the BVI consists of fourteen house representatives. Whilst still under the British rule, the Queen appoints a Governor; the current Governor is Augustus Jaspert, the Head of Cabinet in the BVI. The House of Assembly is run by the Speake
Lincoln University (Pennsylvania)
Lincoln University is public black university in Oxford, Pennsylvania. Founded as a private university in 1854, it has been a public institution since 1972 and was the United States' first degree-granting HBCU, its main campus is located on 422 acres near the town of Oxford in southern Chester County, Pennsylvania. The university has a second location in Philadelphia. Lincoln University provides undergraduate and graduate coursework to 2,000 students; the University is a member-school of the Thurgood Marshall College Fund. While a majority of Lincoln University students are African Americans, the university has a long history of accepting students of other races and nationalities. Women have received degrees since 1953 and made up 60% of undergraduate enrollment in 2015. In 1854 Rev. John Miller Dickey, a Presbyterian minister, his wife, Sarah Emlen Cresson, a Quaker, founded Ashmun Institute named Lincoln University, in Hinsonville, they named it after a religious leader and social reformer. They founded the school for the education of African Americans, who had few opportunities for higher education.
John Miller Dickey was the first president of the college. He encouraged some of his first students: James Ralston Amos, his brother Thomas Henry Amos, Armistead Hutchinson Miller, to support the establishment of Liberia as a colony for African Americans.. Each of the men became ordained ministers. In 1866, a year after the assassination of President Abraham Lincoln, Ashmun Institute was renamed Lincoln University; the college attracted talented students from numerous states during the long decades of legal segregation in the South. As may be seen on the list of notable alumni, many went on to achievements in careers in academia, public service, the arts and many other fields. In 1945 Dr. Horace Mann Bond, an alumnus of Lincoln, was selected as the first African-American president of the university. During his 12-year tenure, he continued to do social science research, helped support the important civil rights case of Brown v. Board of Education, decided in 1954 by the US Supreme Court, he established an important relationship with the collector Albert C.
Barnes, who ensured Lincoln University had a role in the management of his art collection, the Barnes Foundation. From 1854 to 1954, Lincoln University graduates accounted for 20 percent of black physicians and over 10 percent of black lawyers in the United States. In 1972 Lincoln University formally associated with the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania as a state-related institution. In 2013, the University refined its name and brand as Lincoln University to emphasize its distinction as the nation's first HBCU, as well as to distinguish itself from other universities of the same name in Missouri and New Zealand, as well as Lincoln Memorial in Tennessee. In November 2014, University president Robert R. Jennings resigned under pressure from faculty and alumni after comments relating to issues of sexual assault. Jennings was the subject of a couple of no-confidence votes by faculty and the alumni association in October 2014. On May 11, 2017, the Lincoln University board of trustees announced the appointment of Dr. Brenda A. Allen and vice chancellor for academic affairs at Winston-Salem State University as Lincoln's new president.
A 1981 alumna of Lincoln, Allen's inauguration was announced for October, 2017. According to U. S. News & World Report, Lincoln University ranks number 20th out of 81 in the 2013 magazine's first ranking of undergraduate education at HBCUs, it is ranked as a Tier One school on the list. Lincoln University shares its No. 20th ranking with Alabama A&M University. In 2012 the US News & World Best Colleges Report rated Lincoln as a Tier Two University overall. Lincoln University's International and Study Abroad Program had student participation in Service Learning Projects in the countries of Ecuador, Spain, Costa Rica, France, Zambia, Ghana, Russia, Thailand, the Czech Republic and South Africa The Lincoln-Barnes Visual Arts program is a collaboration between Lincoln University and the Barnes Foundation, it established a Visual Arts program that leads to a Bachelor of Fine Arts, most a Pan-Africana Studies major has been added to the list undergraduate majors available at the institution. Lincoln University offers 23 undergraduate minors.
Lincoln University main campus is 422 acres with 56 buildings totaling over one million gross square feet. There are fifteen residence halls; the dormitories range from small dorms such as Alumni Hall, built in 1870. A $40.5 million, four-story, 150,000-square-foot Science and General Classroom High Technology Building was completed in December 2008. A $26.1 million 60,000-square-foot International Cultural Center began construction on April 10, 2008, was completed in 2010. The $28 million Health and Wellness Center is a 105,000 square feet facility that opened in September 2012; the facility contains basketball courts, locker rooms, track, rock climbing wall, health clinic and healthy eating café. An on-campus football stadium with concession stands, a separate locker room, storage facilities opened in August 2012. A separate practice field with Field Turf II is located near the Health and Wellness Center, where six new lighted tennis courts are located. New baseball and softball fields are adjacent to the foo
Historically black colleges and universities
Black colleges and universities are institutions of higher education in the United States that were established before the Civil Rights Act of 1964 with the intention of serving the African-American community. This was because the overwhelming majority of predominantly white institutions of higher-learning disqualified African Americans from enrollment during segregation. From the time of slavery in the 19th century through to the second half of the 20th century, majority schools in the Southern United States prohibited all African Americans from attending, while historic schools in other parts of the country employed quotas to limit admissions of blacks. There are 101 HBCUs including public and private institutions; this figure is down from the 121 institutions. Of these remaining HBCU institutions in the United States, 27 offer doctoral programs, 52 schools offer master's programs, 83 colleges offer bachelor's degree programs and 38 schools offer associate degrees. Most HBCUs were established in the Southern United States after the American Civil War with the assistance of northern United States religious missionary organizations.
However, Cheyney University of Pennsylvania and Lincoln University, were established for blacks before the American Civil War. In 1856 the African Methodist Episcopal Church of Ohio collaborated with the Methodist Episcopal Church, a predominantly white denomination, in sponsoring Wilberforce University, the third college in Ohio. Established in 1865, Shaw University was the first HBCU in the South to be established after the American Civil War; the year 1865 saw the foundation of Storer College at Harper's Ferry, WV. Storer has now been incorporated into Harper's Ferry National Park. In 1862, the federal government's Morrill Act provided for land grant colleges in each state; some educational institutions in the North or West were open to blacks. But 17 states in the South, required their systems to be segregated and excluded black students from their land grant colleges. In response, Congress passed the second Morrill Act of 1890 known as the Agricultural College Act of 1890, requiring states to establish a separate land grant college for blacks if blacks were being excluded from the existing land grant college.
Many of the HBCUs were founded by states to satisfy the Second Morrill Act. These land grant schools continue to receive annual federal funding for their research and outreach activities. In the 1920s and 1930s the black colleges developed a strong interest in athletics. Sports were expanding at state universities, but few black stars were recruited there. Race newspapers hailed athletic success as a demonstration of racial progress. Black schools hired coaches and featured stellar athletes, set up their own leagues. Many Jewish intellectuals fleeing Germany in the 1930s after the rise of Hitler to power in Nazi Germany immigrated to the United States and found work teaching in black colleges. HBCUs made great contributions to the war effort, including those of the Tuskegee Airmen, who trained and attended classes at Tuskegee University in Alabama. After the landmark Brown v. Board of Education decision of 1954, the legislature of Florida, with support from various counties, started a series of eleven junior colleges serving the African-American population.
The purpose was to show that equal education was working in Florida. Prior to this, there had been only one junior college in Florida serving African Americans, Booker T. Washington Junior College, in Pensacola; the new ones, with their year of founding, are: Gibbs Junior College Roosevelt Junior College Volusia County Junior College Hampton Junior College Rosenwald Junior College Suwannee River Junior College Carver Junior College Collier-Blocker Junior College Lincoln Junior College Johnson Junior College Jackson Junior College The new junior colleges began as extensions of black high schools, using the same facilities and the same faculty. Some, over the next few years, did build their own buildings. After passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 mandating an end to school segregation, the colleges were all abruptly closed. Only a fraction of the students and faculty were able to transfer to the all-white junior colleges, where they found, at best, an indifferent reception; the Higher Education Act of 1965 established a program for direct federal grants to HBCUs, including federal matching of private endowment contributions.
The Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended, defines a "part B institution" as: "...any black college or university, established before 1964, whose principal mission was, is, the education of black Americans, and, accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency or association determined by the Secretary to be a reliable authority as to the quality of training offered or is, according to such an agency or association, making reasonable progress toward accreditation." Part B of the 1965 Act provides for direct federal aid to Part B institutions. Some colleges with a predominantly black student body are not classified as a HBCU because they were founded after the implementation of the Sweatt v. Painter and Brown v. Board of Education rulings by the U. S. Supreme Court and the Higher Education Act of 1965. In 1980, Jimmy Carter signed an executive order to distribute adequate resources and funds to strengthen the nation's public and private HB
Temple University is a state-related research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was founded in 1884 by the Baptist minister Russell Conwell. In 1882, Conwell came to Pennsylvania to lead the Grace Baptist Church while he began tutoring working-class citizens late at night to accommodate their work schedules; these students dubbed "night owls", were taught in the basement of Conwell's Baptist Temple, hence the origin of the university's name and mascot. By 1907, the institution was incorporated as a university; as of 2017, more than 40,000 undergraduate and professional students were enrolled in more than 500 academic degree programs offered at sites across the globe, including eight campuses across Pennsylvania and Tokyo. Temple is among the world's largest providers of professional education, preparing the largest body of professional practitioners in Pennsylvania. Temple University was founded in 1884 by Russell Conwell, a Yale-educated Boston lawyer and ordained Baptist minister, who had served in the Union Army during the American Civil War.
Conwell came to Pennsylvania in 1882 to lead the Grace Baptist Church while he began tutoring working class citizens late at night to accommodate their work schedules. These students dubbed "night owls," were taught in the basement of Conwell's Baptist Temple, hence the origin of the university's name and mascot; the Grace Baptist Church grew popular within the North Philadelphia area. A temporary board of trustees was created to handle the growing formalities associated with the church's programs; when the board conducted its first meeting they named Russell H. Conwell president of "The Temple College." Within the following months, Grace Baptist Church appointed a new board of trustees, printed official admissions files, issued stock to raise funds for new teaching facilities. Regardless of whether they had the resources to support the school, Conwell's desire was “to give education to those who were unable to get it through the usual channels”. Philadelphia granted a charter in 1888 to establish “The Temple College of Philadelphia”, but the city refused to grant authority to award academic degrees.
By 1888, the enrollment of the college was nearly 600. It was in 1907 that Temple College revised its institutional status and incorporated as a university. Legal recognition as a university enhanced Temple in noticeable ways including its reputation and graduate programs, overall enrollment, financial support. Over time, Temple expanded: Samaritan Hospital was founded, a Medical School was added, Temple merged with the Philadelphia Dental College. After the merger, Temple reincorporated as Temple University on December 12, 1907. On April 2, 1965, Lester B. Pearson, Prime Minister of Canada and recipient of the Nobel peace prize was awarded the Temple University World Peace Prize. During his acceptance speech Pearson criticized American bombing of Vietnam: There are many factors which I am not in a position to weigh, but there does appear to be at least a possibility that a suspension of such air strikes against North Vietnam, at the right time, might provide the Hanoi authorities with an opportunity, if they wish to take it, to inject some flexibility into their policy without appearing to do so as the direct result of military pressure.
The speech infuriated President Lyndon B. Johnson who, the next day at Camp David, took Pearson out onto the terrace and began "laying into in no uncertain fashion". Pearson apologized for the speech. Since 1965, Temple has been a Pennsylvania state-related university, meaning the university receives state funds, subject to state appropriations, but is independently operated. Temple University has six campuses and sites across Pennsylvania, plus international campuses in Rome and Tokyo; the main campus is in North Philadelphia, about 1.5 miles north of Center City. It occupies 118 acres. Events for students and the public include concerts, clubs and lectures; the campus has notable landmarks. O'Connor Plaza surrounds the Founder's Garden between Liacouras Walk; the bronze statue of an owl, the university's mascot, is a popular photo spot at the heart of main campus. The Founder's Garden near Liacouras Walk, is the burial place of Russell Conwell, founder and 38-year president of Temple. A former Yale student, Civil War captain, Boston lawyer, Philadelphia minister, Conwell used the income from his famous “Acres of Diamonds” speech to fund Temple as a place where working-class Philadelphians might receive higher education.
It has been estimated that Conwell, who died at 82, helped more than 90,000 men and women pursue higher education. A bust of Conwell marks his grave. Another green area on campus is the Johnny Ring Garden, it is located near the faculty staff dining'Diamond Club', celebrates Conwell and Johnny Ring. The Bell Tower sits at 110 ft. tall in the center of the Main Campus between Paley Library and Beury Hall. The surrounding plaza and grassy area, the largest "green space" on the urban campus, are called "the beach"; the area is a meeting place and hangout location for students and their protests, speeches, political campaigning, charity drives. It hosts various official events such as Spring Fling. Health Sciences Campus is in North Philadelphia, spanning Broad Street from Allegheny Avenue to Venango street; the campus is home to a teaching hospital.