Bikaner is a city in the northwest of the state of Rajasthan, India. It is located 330 kilometres northwest of Jaipur. Bikaner city is the administrative headquarters of Bikaner division; the capital of the princely state of Bikaner, the city was founded by Rao Bika in 1488 and from its small origins it has developed into the fourth largest city in Rajasthan. The Ganges Canal, completed in 1928, the Indira Gandhi Canal, completed in 1987, facilitated its development; the city celebrates its foundation day on Akshaya Tritiya by flying kites and eating special Rajasthani food that includes Bajre Ka Khichda and Imli ka Paani among other snacks. The celebration lasts for two days, known as Badi Akha Teej. People can be seen flying kites during these two days right from the early morning at 5-6am till late sunset. Prior to the mid 15th century, the region, now Bikaner was a barren wilderness called Jangladesh. Rao Bika established the city of Bikaner in 1488, he was the first son of Maharaja Rao Jodha of the Rathore clan, the founder of Jodhpur and conquered the arid country in the north of Rajasthan.
As the first son of Jodha he wanted to have his own kingdom, not inheriting Jodhpur from his father or the title of Maharaja. He therefore decided to build his own kingdom in what is now the state of Bikaner in the area of Jangladesh. Though it was in the Thar Desert, Bikaner was considered an oasis on the trade route between Central Asia and the Gujarat coast as it had adequate spring water. Bika's name was attached to the state of Bikaner that he established. Bika built a fort in 1478, now in ruins, a hundred years a new fort was built about 1.5 km from the city centre, known as the Junagarh Fort. Around a century after Rao Bika founded Bikaner, the state's fortunes flourished under the sixth Raja, Rai Singhji, who ruled from 1571 to 1611. During the Mughal Empire's rule in the country, Raja Rai Singh accepted the suzerainty of the Mughals and held a high rank as an army general at the court of the Emperor Akbar and his son the Emperor Jahangir. Rai Singh's successful military exploits, which involved winning half of Mewar kingdom for the Empire, won him accolades and rewards from the Mughal emperors.
He was given the jagirs of Burhanpur. With the large revenue earned from these jagirs, he built the Chintamani durg on a plain which has an average elevation of 760 feet, he was an expert in arts and architecture, the knowledge he acquired during his visits abroad is amply reflected in the numerous monuments he built at the Junagarh fort. Maharaja Karan Singh, who ruled from 1631 to 1639, under the suzerainty of the Mughals, built the Karan Mahal palace. Rulers added more floors and decorations to this Mahal. Anup Singh ji, who ruled from 1669 to 1698, made substantial additions to the fort complex, with new palaces and the Zenana quarter, a royal dwelling for women and children, he called it the Anup Mahal. Maharaja Gaj Singh, who ruled from 1746 to 1787 refurbished the Chandra Mahal. During the 18th century, there was internecine war between the rulers of Bikaner and Jodhpur and amongst other thakurs, put down by British troops. Following Maharaja Gaj Singh, Maharaja Surat Singh ruled from 1787 to 1828 and lavishly decorated the audience hall with glass and lively paintwork.
Under a treaty of paramountcy signed in 1818, during Maharaja Surat Singh's reign, Bikaner came under the suzerainty of the British, after which the Maharajas of Bikaner invested in refurbishing Junagarh fort. Dungar Singh, who reigned from 1872 to 1887, built the Badal Mahal, the'weather palace', so named in view of a painting of clouds and falling rain, a rare event in arid Bikaner. General Maharaja Ganga Singh, who ruled from 1887 to 1943, was the best-known of the Rajasthan princes and was a favourite of the British Viceroys of India, he was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India, served as a member of the Imperial War Cabinet, represented India at the Imperial Conferences during the First World War and the British Empire at the Versailles Peace Conference. His contribution to the building activity in Junagarh involved separate halls for public and private audiences in the Ganga Mahal and a durbar hall for formal functions, he built the Ganga Niwas Palace, which has towers at the entrance patio.
This palace was designed by the third of the new palaces built in Bikaner. He named the building Lalgarh Palace in honour of his father and moved his main residence there from Junagarh Fort in 1902; the hall where he held his Golden Jubilee as Bikaner's ruler is now a museum. Ganga Singh's son, Lieutenant-General Sir Sadul Singh, the Yuvaraja of Bikaner, succeeded his father as Maharaja in 1943, but acceded his state to the Union of India in 1949. Maharaja Sadul Singh died in 1950, being succeeded in the title by Karni Singh; the Royal Family still lives in a suite in Lalgarh Palace, which they have converted into a heritage hotel. Bikaner is situated in the middle of the Thar desert and has a hot semi-arid climate with little rainfall and extreme temperatures. In summer temperatures can exceed 48°C, during the winter they may dip below freezing; the climate in Bikaner is characterised by significant variations in temperature. In the summer season it is hot when the temperatures lie in the range of 28–53.5 °C.
In the winter, it is cold with temperatures lying in the range of −4–23.2 °C (24.8–73
Agra is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is 378 kilometres west of the state capital, Lucknow, 206 kilometres south of the national capital New Delhi, 58 kilometres south of Mathura and 125 kilometres north of Gwalior. Agra is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh, the 24th most populous in India. Agra is a major tourist destination because of its many Mughal-era buildings, most notably the Tāj Mahal, Agra Fort and Fatehpūr Sikrī, all of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Agra is included on the Golden Triangle tourist circuit, along with Jaipur. Agra falls within the Braj cultural region; the region around the modern city was first mentioned in the epic Mahābhārata, where it was called Agrevaṇa. However, the 11th-century Persian poet Mas'ūd Sa'd Salmān writes of a desperate assault on the fortress of Agra held by the Shāhī King Jayapala, by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni, it was mentioned for the first time in 1080 AD. Sultan Sikandar Lodī was the first to move his capital from Delhi to Agra in 1506.
He governed the country from here and Agra assumed the importance of the second capital. He died in 1517 and his son, Ibrāhīm Lodī, remained in power there for nine more years and several palaces, wells and a mosque were built by him in the fort during his period being defeated at the Battle of Panipat in 1526. Between 1540 and 1556, beginning with Sher Shah Suri ruled the area, it was the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1556 to 1648. Agra features a semiarid climate; the city features mild winters and dry summers and a monsoon season. However the monsoons, though substantial in Agra, are not quite as heavy as the monsoon in other parts of India; this is a primary factor in Agra featuring a semiarid climate as opposed to a humid subtropical climate. As of 2011 India census, Agra city has a population of 1,585,704, while the population of Agra cantonment is 53,053; the urban agglomeration of Agra has a population of 1,760,285. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Agra city has an average literacy rate of 73%, below the national average of 74%.
Literacy rate of males is higher than that of women. The sex ratio in the city was 875 females per thousand males while child sex ratio stood at 857. Agra district literacy rate is 62.56%. According to the 2011 census, Agra district has a population of 4,380,793 equal to the nation of Moldova or the US state of Kentucky; this gives it a ranking of 41st in India. The district has a population density of 1,084 inhabitants per square kilometre. 52.5% of Agra's population is in the 15–59 years age category. Around 11% of the population is under 6 years of age. Hindus are 88.8 %. Hinduism and Jainism are the major religions in Agra city with 80.7%, 15.4% viz. 1.0% of the population adhering to them. The Catholic minority is served by its own Metropolitan Archdiocese of Agra. There was an early reference to an “Agrevana” in the ancient Sanskrit epic Mahabharata, Ptolemy is said to have called the site “Agra.” and yet Sultan Sikandar Lodī, the Muslim ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, founded Agra in the year 1504.
After the Sultan's death, the city passed on to his son, Sultan Ibrāhīm Lodī. He ruled his Sultanate from Agra until he fell fighting to Mughal Badshah Bābar in the First battle of Panipat fought in 1526; the golden age of the city began with the Mughals. It was known as Akbarabād and remained the capital of the Mughal Empire under the Badshahs Akbar, Jahāngīr and Shāh Jahān. Akbar made it the eponymous seat of one of his original twelve subahs, bordering Delhi, Allahabad and Ajmer subahs. Shāh Jahān shifted his capital to Shāhjahānabād in the year 1648. Since Akbarabād was one of the most important cities in India under the Mughals, it witnessed a lot of building activity. Babar, the founder of the Mughal dynasty, laid out the first formal Persian garden on the banks of river Yamuna; the garden is called the Garden of Relaxation. His grandson Akbar the Great raised the towering ramparts of the Great Red Fort, besides making Agra a centre for learning, arts and religion. Akbar built a new city on the outskirts of Akbarabād called Fatehpūr Sikrī.
This city was built in the form of a Mughal military camp in stone. His son Jahāngīr had a love of flora and fauna and laid many gardens inside the Red Fort or Lāl Qil'a. Shāh Jahān, known for his keen interest in architecture, gave Akbarabād its most prized monument, the Tāj Mahal. Built in loving memory of his wife Mumtāz Mahal, the mausoleum was completed in 1653. Shāh Jahān shifted the capital to Delhi during his reign, but his son Aurangzeb moved the capital back to Akbarabād, usurping his father and imprisoning him in the Fort there. Akbarabād remained the capital of India during the rule of Aurangzeb until he shifted it to Aurangabad in the Deccan in 1653. After the decline of the Mughal Empire, the city came under the influence of Marathas and was called Agra, before falling into the hands of the British Raj in 1803. In 1835 when the Presidency of Agra was established by the British, the city became the seat of government, just two years it was witness to the Agra famine of 1837–38. During the Indian rebellion of 1857 British rule across India was threatened, news of the rebellion had reached Agra on 11 May and on 30
Dholpur is a city in eastern-most parts of the Rajasthan state of India. It is the administrative headquarters of Dholpur District and was seat of the Dholpur princely state, Dholpur State or Dhaulpur State was a kingdom of eastern Rajputana, founded in AD 1806 by a Hindu Jat Maharana Kirat Singh of Dhaulpur, Ruler before Independence. Dhaulpur became a separate district in 1982 comprising Dholpur, Saramathura and Baseri Tehsils. Dholpur district is a part of Bharatpur Division/Commissionerate, it is bordered by Bharatpur district of Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh to the north, Madhya Pradesh to the south, Karauli district to the west and Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh to the east. The geographical coordinates for Dholpur are 26° 42' 0" North, 77° 54' 0" East. Total area of Dholpur district is 3,034 sq. km Dholpur or Dhawalpuri was established in 700 AD by Raja Dholan Dev Tomar and most the name of city was changed to Dholpur after him. He resided 10 km south west of Dholpur at a place called Bilpur near chambal where a fort still exists.
His descendant Raja Dhawal Deo built the new town of Dholpur in 1050 AD. Their descendants are still living in the area and till independence were rulers of many small chieftainships in Morena and Gwalior, he was ruler of country between Banganga. The Dholeshwar Mahadev Temple built by this Raja was washed away in Chambal floods of 1868 AD; the Tomars lost sovereignty to Jadu's of Karauli. After the battle of Panipat, Babar became the first Mughal ruler of Hindustan, his rule was not a bed of roses in the early years of his reign. Dhaulpur was taken by Sikandar Lodhi in 1501, who handed it to a Muslim governor in 1504. After the death of Ibrahim Lodi, many states declared themselves independent. Talai Khan became the ruler of Gwalior. Mohammed Jaifoon declared himself the ruler of Dholpur. In 1527, Dhaulpur fort fell to Babur and continued to be ruled by the Mughals until 1707. After the death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, Raja Kalyan Singh Bhadauria obtained possession of Dhaulpur, his family retained it until 1761.
After that, Dholpur was taken successively by the Jat ruler Maharaja Suraj Mal of Bharatpur. It was restored by the British to the Scindias under the Treaty of Sarji Anjangaon and was soon reoccupied by the British. In 1805, Dhaulpur came under the Jat ruler, Maharana Kirat Singh of Gohad, a princely state, a vassal of the British during the Raj. According to the Babur Nama, Babur had a baori built in Dholpur on his last trip to Gwalior, to add to the charghar he had had built there. After Mughals Rana vansh of Jats become ruler of Dhaulpur, during British Raj, it was part of the Rajputana Agency, till the Independence of India; the former mansion of the ruler of the erstwhile Dholpur State, Kesarbagh palace, now houses the Dholpur Military School, while its official residence in New Delhi, Dholpur House, is used by the Union Public Service Commission. To liberate the country, many people sacrificed their lives; the important event in the history of Dholpur was on 11 April 1947 when the workers of the society gathered at Tasimo village gathering place.
There was a ban on hoisting the flag, but the neem tree had a tricolor wave and the meeting was going on. At the same time, the Samajwadi police station Shamsher Singh, the Deputy Superintendent of Police, Gurudatt Singh, the Thanedar Aliazam reached the meeting with the police at the meeting and when they came forward to bring the flag of the Tricolor, Thakur Chhattar Singh, present in the assembly, stood in front of the soldiers and Tricolor said in the condition of not releasing the flag. In that same, the police shot Thakur Chhattar Singh. Pancham Singh Kushwaha came forward and the police shot him too; as soon as the two martyrs fell on the ground, the people present in the gathering surrounded the neem tree that had become a tricolor and said that the shoot shot is ready for us to die for Bharat Maata. And the shouting of the name of Bharat Maata, the police retreated, seeing the situation deteriorating. Due to this martyrdom of freedom fighters, Tasimo village was recorded not only in Rajasthan but in the entire history of India, known in history as'Tasimo Goli Kand'.
Pandit Roshanlal, 83, who witnessed the incident, points out that the marks of bullets run by the police at the behest of the monarchy have not blurred on their hands. The same witness, 86-year-old Jamunadas Mittal, said that for the shame of the Tricolor, two of his sons They are curious on martyrdom; as of the 2011 census, Dhaulpur municipality had a population of 126,142 and the urban agglomeration had a population of 133,229. The municipality had a sex ratio of 862 females per 1,000 males and 13.6% of the population were under six years old. Effective literacy was 76.56%. The notable Dholpur Military School is housed in Kesarbagh Palace, a magnificent mansion of the former ruler of the erstwhile Dholpur State, it is 10.5 kilometres away on Dholpur-Bari Road. Dholpur is reputed to be the location of the highest recorded temperature in India, at 50 °C on 3 June 2017; the hottest months are June, which mark the oppressive summer season. Temperatures in summers are higher than 40 °C. Coldest months are December and January where temperatures sometimes reach near-zero and subzero levels.
The lowest recorded temperature is -4.3 °C on 29 January 2017. Dholpur–Sarmathura Railway Official website
The Taj Mahal is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra. It was commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan, to house the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal, it houses the tomb of Shah Jahan, the builder. The tomb is the centerpiece of a 17-hectare complex, which includes a mosque and a guest house, is set in formal gardens bounded on three sides by a crenellated wall. Construction of the mausoleum was completed in 1643 but work continued on other phases of the project for another 10 years; the Taj Mahal complex is believed to have been completed in its entirety in 1653 at a cost estimated at the time to be around 32 million rupees, which in 2015 would be 52.8 billion rupees. The construction project employed some 20,000 artisans under the guidance of a board of architects led by the court architect to the emperor, Ustad Ahmad Lahauri; the Taj Mahal was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983 for being "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage".
It is regarded by many as the best example of Mughal architecture and a symbol of India's rich history. The Taj Mahal attracts 7–8 million visitors a year and in 2007, it was declared a winner of the New7Wonders of the World initiative; the Taj Mahal was commissioned by Shah Jahan in 1631, to be built in the memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal, a Persian princess who died giving birth to their 14th child, Gauhara Begum. Construction started in 1632, the mausoleum was completed in 1643, while the surrounding buildings and garden were finished five years later; the imperial court documenting Shah Jahan's grief after the death of Mumtaz Mahal illustrates the love story held as the inspiration for the Taj Mahal. The Taj Mahal incorporates and expands on design traditions of Persian and earlier Mughal architecture. Specific inspiration came from successful Timurid and Mughal buildings including the Gur-e Amir, Humayun's Tomb, Itmad-Ud-Daulah's Tomb, Shah Jahan's own Jama Masjid in Delhi. While earlier Mughal buildings were constructed of red sandstone, Shah Jahan promoted the use of white marble inlaid with semi-precious stones.
Buildings under his patronage reached new levels of refinement. The tomb is the central focus of the entire complex of the Taj Mahal, it is a large, white marble structure standing on a square plinth and consists of a symmetrical building with an iwan topped by a large dome and finial. Like most Mughal tombs, the basic elements are Persian in origin; the base structure is a large multi-chambered cube with chamfered corners forming an unequal eight-sided structure, 55 metres on each of the four long sides. Each side of the iwan is framed with a huge pishtaq or vaulted archway with two shaped arched balconies stacked on either side; this motif of stacked pishtaqs is replicated on the chamfered corner areas, making the design symmetrical on all sides of the building. Four minarets frame one at each corner of the plinth facing the chamfered corners; the main chamber houses the false sarcophagi of Shah Jahan. The most spectacular feature is the marble dome; the dome is nearly 35 metres high, close in measurement to the length of the base, accentuated by the cylindrical "drum" it sits on, 7 metres high.
Because of its shape, the dome is called an onion dome or amrud. The top is decorated with a lotus design which serves to accentuate its height; the shape of the dome is emphasised by four smaller domed chattris placed at its corners, which replicate the onion shape of the main dome. The dome is asymmetrical, their columned bases provide light to the interior. Tall decorative spires extend from edges of base walls, provide visual emphasis to the height of the dome; the lotus motif is repeated on guldastas. The dome and chattris are topped by a gilded finial which mixes traditional Persian and Hindustani decorative elements; the main finial was made of gold but was replaced by a copy made of gilded bronze in the early 19th century. This feature provides a clear example of integration of traditional Persian and Hindu decorative elements; the finial is topped by a typical Islamic motif whose horns point heavenward. The minarets, which are each more than 40 metres tall, display the designer's penchant for symmetry.
They were designed as working minarets— a traditional element of mosques, used by the muezzin to call the Islamic faithful to prayer. Each minaret is divided into three equal parts by two working balconies that ring the tower. At the top of the tower is a final balcony surmounted by a chattri that mirrors the design of those on the tomb; the chattris all share the same decorative elements of a lotus design topped by a gilded finial. The minarets were constructed outside of the plinth so that in the event of collapse, a typical occurrence with many tall constructions of the period, the material from the towers would tend to fall away from the tomb; the exterior decorations of the Taj Mahal are among the finest in Mughal architecture. As the surface area changes, the decorations are refined proportionally; the decorative elements were created by applying paint, stone inlays or carvings. In line with the Islamic proh
Haldighati is a mountain pass between Khamnore and Bagicha village situated at Aravalli Range of Rajasthan in western India which connects Rajsamand and Pali districts. The pass is located at a distance of 40 kilometres from Udaipur; the name'Haldighati' is believed to have originated from the turmeric-coloured yellow soil of the area.. The mountain pass is a significant historical location, it is the site of the Battle of Haldighati, which took place in 1576 between the Kingdom of Mewar and the Mughal Army led by king Mansingh. Maharana Pratap led the armed forces of Mewar against the Mughals who fought under the command of Mughal emperor Akbar's general Man Singh I of Amer. Maharana Pratap's horse Chetak played a pivotal role in the Battle of Haldighati. Chetak was fatally wounded in this battle and died on 21 June 1576. Maharana Pratap erected a small monument for his horse at the place; the cenotaph still exists at Haldighati. The Government of India commissioned the construction of Maharana Pratap National Memorial in the year 1997, in June 2009 the monument was dedicated.
The memorial features a bronze statue of the Maharana astride Chetak. Haldighati is known for its charity rose product and the mud art of Molela. Much emphasis is being laid for promoting a private cottage industry by the Department of Tourism. Excerpts from the great poem "Haldighati", along with historical notes
Govardhana Hill called Mount Govardhana, Giri Raj and Royal Hill, is a sacred Hindu site in the Mathura district of Uttar Pradesh, India on an 8 km long hill located in the area of Govardhan and Radha Kund, about 21 kilometres from Vrindavan. Known as Govardhan or Giriraj it is the sacred center of Braj and is identified as a natural form of the Lord Krishna himself; the name'Govardhana' has two primary translations. In the literal meaning,'Go' translates to'cows', and'vardhana' translates to'nourishment'. Another meaning of'Go' is'the senses' and'vardhana' can mean'to increase' - thus the name is translated by devotees of Krishna as'that which increases the senses' in their attraction to Krishna. In this connection, it is believed that the personality of Govardhan blesses the devotee by increasing his devotion. Thus, by residing in the foothills of Govardhan Hill, all the senses and the respective duties of a soul attain divinity and are more inclined to perform service to Krishna. Govardhan Hill, stretching from Radha Kund to south of Govardhan, is a long ridge that, at its highest, stands a mere 100 feet above the surrounding land, belying artistic depictions of it as a steep hill.
At the southern end of the hill is the village of Punchari, while at the crest stand the villages of Aanyor and Jatipura. Govardhan Hill is considered a sacred site because it is the setting for many legends relating to the life of Lord Krishna, the deity believed to be embodied in the earth of the hill. Krishna and his brother Balaram are said to have spent many happy hours roaming among its shady groves, pools and lush cow-pastures. An Eden-like sanctuary, the area's waterfalls, garden-grove, water tank, flora are depicted in scenes of Krishna's adventures and raas with Radha; the buildings and other structures on the Hill date from the sixteenth century. As of 2013, there is no known archaeological evidence of any remains of greater age. A few of the sites include: The sandstone lake of Kusum Sarovar. Giriraj Temple Shri Chaitanya Temple, built of red sandstone and adorned with paintings of Krishna and Radha Radha Kund Temple Mansi Ganga Lake Danghati Temple There are legends of Krishna’s saving the hill from a flood, "dalliances with gopis ’’ and interactions with demons and gods.
Artwork has been created of the Hill represented as a bull and a peacock, Krishna in a cave, the Hill as a mountain of food Annakut, depicted in the floods brought on by Indra, with the Yamuna River. Govardhan Puja is celebrated on the day after Diwali, it is the day upon which Lord Krishna defeated the deity of thunder and rain. As per the story, Krishna saw huge preparations for the annual offering to Indra and questions his father Nanda about it, he debated with the villagers about what their'dharma' was. They were farmers, they should do their duty and concentrate on farming and protection of their cattle, he continued to say that all human beings should do their'dharma', to the best of their ability and not pray or conduct sacrifices for natural phenomenon. The villagers were convinced by Krishna, did not proceed with the special puja. Indra was angered, flooded the village. Krishna lifted Mt Govardhan and held it up as protection to his people and cattle from the rain. Indra accepted defeat and recognized Krishna as supreme.
This aspect of Krishna's life is glossed over - but it set up on the basis of the'karma' philosophy detailed in the Bhagavad Gita. According to ancient Vaishnava legends the Vedic Deva, Indra was feared by human beings because he would either give the people no rain or flood them if he was not satisfied with their worship; when Krishna found out, he opposed the performance of sacrificial worship for Indra. He emphasized the importance of karma and doing ones duty; this made Indra angry at the boy Krishna. Indra thus invoked many clouds to appear in the sky and schemed to flood the region with rains lasting for seven days and seven nights. Krishna in reply lifted Govardhan Hill, under which all the animals and people of the region took shelter, safe from the rains of Indra's fury. Indra accepted defeat, he left to his heavenly kingdom. It represents the downfall of Indra, a new beginning in Hindu philosophy, from a more sacrificial/ appeasement oriented worship, to a more spiritual plane of thought.
This evolution of thought in Hinduism was brought about by Krishna, therefore he has been the most important Hindu deity since - considered an'avatar' of the supreme. In 2018, the Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath declared Govardhan as a pilgrimage centre along with Mathura, Nandgaon and Gokul.. Yogi Adityanath Government hass planned to Rejuvenate Govardhan Parvat With Dvapara Yuga Flora like kadamb, tamal and tilkan Hare Krishna Vrindavan Govardhana sila Govardhan Puja Rajasekhara Dasa. Govardhana Hill: India's Most Sacred Mountain. Vedanta Vision Publications. ISBN 978-1-310-32111-5. Media related to Govardhan Hill at Wikimedia Commons Srila Prabhupada explains Govardhana Puja http://www.icompositions.com/music/song.php?sid=199187 Ballad of Govardhana Ballad of Govardhana Hill The Story of Govardhan krishna story lifting govardhan parvat Pictures of Govardhan Hill Exclusive video of Parikrama of Govardhan Hill
Rajput painting called Rajasthani painting and flourished in the royal courts of Rajputana in India. Each Rajputana kingdom with certain common features. Rajput paintings depict a number of events of epics like the Ramayana. Miniatures in manuscripts or single sheets to be kept in albums were the preferred medium of Rajput painting, but many paintings were done on the walls of palaces, inner chambers of the forts, havelis the havelis of Shekhawati, the forts and palaces built by Shekhawat Rajputs; the colours were extracted from certain minerals, plant sources, conch shells, were derived by processing precious stones. Gold and silver were used; the preparation of desired colours was a lengthy process, sometimes taking 2 weeks. Brushes used were fine. While there exist a plethora of themes in Rajput paintings, a common motif found throughout Rajput works is the purposeful manipulation of space. In particular, the inclusion of fuller spaces is meant to emphasize the lack of boundaries and inseparability of characters and landscapes.
In this way, the individuality of physical characters is rejected, allowing both the depicted backgrounds and human figures to be expressive. Outside of a purely artistic standpoint, Rajput paintings were politically charged and commented on social values of the time. Mewar's rulers wanted these painting to establish their legacy. Therefore, paintings were indicative of a ruler's legacy or their changes made to better society. Both of these factors distinguish Rajput paintings from Mughal works. While, from a chronological standpoint, both of these cultures clashed with one another, Rajput paintings only superficially adopted Mughal fashion and cultural standards. Elements, such as distinct portraiture, utilized by popular Mughal artists are not found in Rajput works. Rajput techniques are not predominantly seen in Mughal paintings. "At the opening of the eighteenth century, Rajput painting remains recognizably different in intent from traditional Mughal attitudes". In the late 16th Century, Rajput art schools began to develop distinctive styles, combining indigenous as well as foreign influences such as Persian, Mughal and European.
Rajasthani painting consists of four principal schools that have within them several artistic styles and substyles that can be traced to the various princely states that patronised these artists. The four principal schools are: The Mewar school that contains the Chavand, Devgarh and Sawar styles of painting The Marwar school comprising the Kishangarh, Jodhpur, Nagaur and Ghanerao styles The Hadoti school with the Kota and Jhalawar styles and The Dhundar school of Amber, Jaipur and Uniara styles of painting; the Kangra and Kullu schools of art are part of Rajput painting. Nainsukh is a famous artist of Pahari painting, working for Rajput princes who ruled that far north. Economic prosperity of commercial community and revival of “Vaisnavism” and the growth of Bhakti Cult were the major factors that contributed to the development of Rajasthani paintings. In the beginning this style was influenced by religious followers like Ramanuja, Tulsidas, Sri Chaitanya and Ramanand. All of Rajputana was affected by the attack of the Mughals but Mewar did not come under their control till the last.
This was the reason that Rajasthani school flourished first in Mewar, Jodhpur, Kota- Kalam, Kishangarh and other places of Rajasthan. Mewar painting Kangra painting Tanjore painting Bikaner style of painting Dalchand, an 18th-century Rajput artist The City Palace Museum, Udaipur: paintings of Mewar court life. By Andrew Topsfield, Pankaj Shah, Government Museum, Udaipur. Mapin, 1990. ISBN094414229X. Splendour of Rajasthani painting, by Jai Singh Neeraj. Abhinav Publications, 1991. ISBN 81-7017-267-5. Art and artists of Rajasthan: a study on the art & artists of Mewar with reference to western Indian school of painting, by Radhakrishna Vashistha. Abhinav Publications, 1995. ISBN 81-7017-284-5. A study of Bundi school of painting, by Jiwan Sodhi. Abhinav Publications, 1999. ISBN 81-7017-347-7 Court painting at Udaipur: art under the patronage of the Maharanas of Mewar, by Andrew Topsfield, Museum Rietberg. Artibus Asiae Publishers, 2001. ISBN 3-907077-03-2. Rajput Painting, by Ananda K. Coomaraswamy, Publisher B. R.
Publishing Corporation, 2003. ISBN 81-7646-376-0; the artists of Nathadwara: the practice of painting in Rajasthan, by Tryna Lyons. Indiana University Press, 2004. ISBN 0-253-34417-4. Beach, M.. 1700–1800: The Dominance of Rajput Painting. In Mughal and Rajput Painting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Doi:10.1017/CHOL9780521400275.008 Ghosh, P.. The Intelligence of Tradition in Rajput Court Painting. Art Bulletin, 94, 650-652. Dalrymple, William.. The beautiful, magical world of Rajput art.] New York Review of Books, November 26, 2016. Kossak, Steven.. Indian court painting, 16th-19th century. Metropolitan Museum of Art. ISBN 0870997831 Indian medieval painting schools - Rajput painting Indian Court Painting, 16th-19th Century from the Metropolitan Museum of ArtCategory:Indian painting